Shape anisotropy-governed locomotion of surface microrollers on vessel-like microtopographies against physiological flows.
ABSTRACT: Surface microrollers are promising microrobotic systems for controlled navigation in the circulatory system thanks to their fast speeds and decreased flow velocities at the vessel walls. While surface propulsion on the vessel walls helps minimize the effect of strong fluidic forces, three-dimensional (3D) surface microtopography, comparable to the size scale of a microrobot, due to cellular morphology and organization emerges as a major challenge. Here, we show that microroller shape anisotropy determines the surface locomotion capability of microrollers on vessel-like 3D surface microtopographies against physiological flow conditions. The isotropic (single, 8.5 µm diameter spherical particle) and anisotropic (doublet, two 4 µm diameter spherical particle chain) magnetic microrollers generated similar translational velocities on flat surfaces, whereas the isotropic microrollers failed to translate on most of the 3D-printed vessel-like microtopographies. The computational fluid dynamics analyses revealed larger flow fields generated around isotropic microrollers causing larger resistive forces near the microtopographies, in comparison to anisotropic microrollers, and impairing their translation. The superior surface-rolling capability of the anisotropic doublet microrollers on microtopographical surfaces against the fluid flow was further validated in a vessel-on-a-chip system mimicking microvasculature. The findings reported here establish the design principles of surface microrollers for robust locomotion on vessel walls against physiological flows.
Project description:Diameters of microvessels undergo continuous structural adaptation in response to hemodynamic and metabolic stimuli. To ensure adequate flow distribution, metabolic responses are needed to increase diameters of vessels feeding poorly perfused regions. Possible modes of metabolic control include release of signaling substances from vessel walls, from the supplied tissue and from red blood cells (RBC). Here, a theoretical model was used to compare the abilities of these metabolic control modes to provide adequate tissue oxygenation, and to generate blood flow velocities in agreement with experimental observations. Structural adaptation of vessel diameters was simulated for an observed mesenteric network structure in the rat with 576 vessel segments. For each mode of metabolic control, resulting distributions of oxygen and deviations between simulated and experimentally observed flow velocities were analyzed. It was found that wall-derived and tissue-derived growth signals released in response to low oxygen levels could ensure adequate oxygen supply, but RBC-derived signals caused inefficient oxygenation. Closest agreement between predicted and observed flow velocities was obtained with wall-derived growth signals proportional to vessel length. Adaptation in response to oxygen-independent release of a metabolic signal substance from vessel walls or the supplied tissue was also shown to be effective for ensuring tissue oxygenation due to a dilution effect if growth signal substances are released into the blood. The present results suggest that metabolic signals responsible for structural adaptation of microvessel diameters are derived from vessel walls or from perivascular tissue.
Project description:We present the first three-dimensional (3D) anisotropic teleseismic <i>P</i>-wave tomography model of the upper mantle covering the entire Central Mediterranean. Compared to isotropic tomography, it is found that including the magnitude, azimuth, and, importantly, dip of seismic anisotropy in our inversions simplifies isotropic heterogeneity by reducing the magnitude of slow anomalies while yielding anisotropy patterns that are consistent with regional tectonics. The isotropic component of our preferred tomography model is dominated by numerous fast anomalies associated with retreating, stagnant, and detached slab segments. In contrast, relatively slower mantle structure is related to slab windows and the opening of back-arc basins. To better understand the complexities in slab geometry and their relationship to surface geological phenomenon, we present a 3D reconstruction of the main Central Mediterranean slabs down to 700 km based on our anisotropic model. <i>P</i>-wave seismic anisotropy is widespread in the Central Mediterranean upper mantle and is strongest at 200-300 km depth. The anisotropy patterns are interpreted as the result of asthenospheric material flowing primarily horizontally around the main slabs in response to pressure exerted by their mid-to-late Cenezoic horizontal motion, while sub-vertical anisotropy possibly reflects asthenospheric entrainment by descending lithosphere. Our results highlight the importance of anisotropic <i>P</i>-wave imaging for better constraining regional upper mantle geodynamics.
Project description:We present an ARPES study of the surface states of Ru2Sn3, a new type of a strong 3D topological insulator (TI). In contrast to currently known 3D TIs, which display two-dimensional Dirac cones with linear isotropic dispersions crossing through one point in the surface Brillouin Zone (SBZ), the surface states on Ru2Sn3 are highly anisotropic, displaying an almost flat dispersion along certain high-symmetry directions. This results in quasi-one dimensional (1D) Dirac electronic states throughout the SBZ that we argue are inherited from features in the bulk electronic structure of Ru2Sn3 where the bulk conduction bands are highly anisotropic. Unlike previous experimentally characterized TIs, the topological surface states of Ru2Sn3 are the result of a d-p band inversion rather than an s-p band inversion. The observed surface states are the topological equivalent to a single 2D Dirac cone at the surface Brillouin zone.
Project description:The specific objective of the present work study is to propose an anisotropic slip boundary condition for three-dimensional (3D) simulations with adjustable streamwise and spanwise slip length by the discrete unified gas kinetic scheme (DUGKS). The present boundary condition is proposed based on the assumption of nonlinear velocity profiles near the wall instead of linear velocity profiles in a unidirectional steady flow. Moreover, a 3D corner boundary condition is introduced to the DUGKS to reduce the singularities. Numerical tests validate the effectiveness of the present method, which is more accurate than the bounce-back and specular reflection slip boundary condition in the lattice Boltzmann method. It is of significance to study the lid-driven cavity flow due to its applications and its capability in exhibiting important phenomena. Then, the present work explores, for the first time, the effects of anisotropic slip on the two-sided orthogonal oscillating micro-lid-driven cavity flow by adopting the present method. This work will generate fresh insight into the effects of anisotropic slip on the 3D flow in a two-sided orthogonal oscillating micro-lid-driven cavity. Some findings are obtained: The oscillating velocity of the wall has a weaker influence on the normal velocity component than on the tangential velocity component. In most cases, large slip length has a more significant influence on velocity profiles than small slip length. Compared with pure slip in both top and bottom walls, anisotropic slip on the top wall has a greater influence on flow, increasing the 3D mixing of flow. In short, the influence of slip on the flow field depends not only on slip length but also on the relative direction of the wall motion and the slip velocity. The findings can help in better understanding the anisotropic slip effect on the unsteady microflow and the design of microdevices.
Project description:We investigate collective modes in three dimensional (3D) gapless multi-Weyl semimetals with anisotropic energy band dispersions (i.e., with a positive integer J). For comparison, we also consider the gapless semimetals with the isotropic band dispersions (i.e. E?~?kJ). We calculate analytically long-wavelength plasma frequencies incorporating interband transitions and chiral properties of carriers. For both the isotropic and anisotropic cases, we find that interband transitions and chirality lead to the depolarization shift of plasma frequencies. For the isotropic parabolic band dispersion the long-wavelength plasmons do not decay via Landau damping, while for the higher-order band dispersions the long-wavelength plasmons experience damping below a critical density. For systems with the anisotropic dispersion the density dependence of the long-wavelength plasma frequency along the direction of non-linear dispersion behaves like that of the isotropic linear band model, while along the direction of linear dispersion it behaves like that of the isotropic non-linear model. Plasmons along both directions remain undamped over a broad range of densities due to the chirality induced depolarization shift. Our results provide a comprehensive picture of how band dispersion and chirality affect plasmon behaviors in 3D gapless chiral systems with the arbitrary band dispersion.
Project description:Cavitation, the nucleation of vapour in liquids, is ubiquitous in fluid dynamics, and is often implicated in a myriad of industrial and biomedical applications. Although extensively studied in isotropic liquids, corresponding investigations in anisotropic liquids are largely lacking. Here, by combining liquid crystal microfluidic experiments, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments, we report flow-induced cavitation in an anisotropic fluid. The cavitation domain nucleates due to sudden pressure drop upon flow past a cylindrical obstacle within a microchannel. For an anisotropic fluid, the inception and growth of the cavitation domain ensued in the Stokes regime, while no cavitation was observed in isotropic liquids flowing under similar hydrodynamic parameters. Using simulations we identify a critical value of the Reynolds number for cavitation inception that scales inversely with the order parameter of the fluid. Strikingly, the critical Reynolds number for anisotropic fluids can be 50% lower than that of isotropic fluids.
Project description:Osseous implantology's material requirements include a lack of potential for inducing allergic disorders and providing both functional and esthetic features for the patient's benefit. Despite being bioinert, Zirconia ceramics have become a candidate of interest to be used as an alternative to titanium dental and cochlear bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) implants, implying the need for endowing the surface with biologically instructive properties by changing basic parameters such as surface texture. Within this context, we propose anisotropic and isotropic patterns (linear microgroove arrays, and superimposed crossline microgroove arrays, respectively) textured in zirconia substrates, as bioinstructive interfaces to guide the cytoskeletal organization of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The designed textured micro-nano interfaces with either steep ridges and microgratings or curved edges, and nanoroughened walls obtained by direct femtosecond laser texturing are used to evaluate the hMSC response parameters and osteogenic differentiation to each topography. Our results show parallel micro line anisotropic surfaces are able to guide cell growth only for the steep surfaces, while the curved ones reduce the initial response and show the lowest osteogenic response. An improved osteogenic phenotype of hMSCs is obtained when grown onto isotropic grid/pillar-like patterns, showing an improved cell coverage and Ca/P ratio, with direct implications for BAHA prosthetic development, or other future applications in regenerating bone defects.
Project description:The goal of this study was to investigate the performance of 3D synchrotron differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging for the visualization of both macroscopic and microscopic aspects of atherosclerosis in the mouse vasculature ex vivo. The hearts and aortas of 2 atherosclerotic and 2 wild-type control mice were scanned with DPC imaging with an isotropic resolution of 15 μm. The coronary artery vessel walls were segmented in the DPC datasets to assess their thickness, and histological staining was performed at the level of atherosclerotic plaques. The DPC imaging allowed for the visualization of complex structures such as the coronary arteries and their branches, the thin fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaques as well as the chordae tendineae. The coronary vessel wall thickness ranged from 37.4 ± 5.6 μm in proximal coronary arteries to 13.6 ± 3.3 μm in distal branches. No consistent differences in coronary vessel wall thickness were detected between the wild-type and atherosclerotic hearts in this proof-of-concept study, although the standard deviation in the atherosclerotic mice was higher in most segments, consistent with the observation of occasional focal vessel wall thickening. Overall, DPC imaging of the cardiovascular system of the mice allowed for a simultaneous detailed 3D morphological assessment of both large structures and microscopic details.
Project description:The smart materials subclass of magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) composites is presented in this work, which aimed to investigate the influence of filler distribution on surface morphology. Iron particles with sizes ranging from 20 to 150 µm were incorporated into the elastomer matrix and a 30% volume fraction (V%) was chosen as the optimal quantity for the filler amount in the elastomer composite. The surface morphology of MRE composites was examined by 3D micro-computed tomography (µCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Isotropic and anisotropic distributions of the iron particles were estimated in the magnetorheological elastomer composites. The filler particle distribution at various heights of the MRE composites was examined. The isotropic distribution of filler particles was observed without any influence from the magnetic field during sample preparation. The anisotropic arrangement of iron fillers within the MRE composites was observed in the presence of a magnetic field during fabrication. It was shown that the linear arrangement of the iron particle chain induced magnetization within the composite. Simulation analysis was also performed to predict the particle distribution of magnetization in the MREs and make a comparison with the experimental observations.
Project description:The multiphoton fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (MP-FRAP) technique has been developed to measure the three-dimensional (3D) solute diffusion within biological systems. However, current 3D MP-FRAP models are based on isotropic diffusion and spatial domain analysis. The 3D anisotropic diffusion and frequency domain analysis for MP-FRAP measurements are rarely studied. In this study, a new technique is demonstrated for the quantitative and non-destructive determination of 3D anisotropic solute diffusion tensors within biological fibrosis tissues by multiphoton photobleaching and spatial Fourier analysis (SFA). Compared to the spatial domain analysis based MP-FRAP techniques, this SFA-based method has the capability for determining the 3D anisotropic diffusion tensors as well as the flexibility for satisfying initial and boundary conditions. First, a close-form solution of the 3D anisotropic diffusion equation is derived by solely using SFA. Next, this new method is validated by computer-simulated MP-FRAP experiments with pre-defined 3D anisotropic diffusion tensors as well as experimental diffusion measurements of FITC-Dextran (FD) molecules in aqueous glycerol solutions. Finally, this MP-FRAP technique is applied to the measurement of 3D anisotropic diffusion tensors of FD molecules within porcine tendon tissues. This study provides a new tool for complete determination of 3D anisotropic solute diffusion tensor in biological tissues.