Diagnostic delay of associated interstitial lung disease increases mortality in rheumatoid arthritis.
ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease whose main extra-articular organ affected is the lung, sometimes in the form of diffuse interstitial lung disease (ILD) and conditions the prognosis. A multicenter, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of consecutive patients diagnosed with RA-ILD. Demographic, analytical, respiratory functional and evolution characteristics were analyzed to evaluate the predictors of progression and mortality. 106 patients were included. The multivariate analysis showed that the diagnostic delay was an independent predictor of mortality (HR 1.11, CI 1.01-1.23, p = 0.035). Also, age (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.09-1.62, p = 0.0045), DLCO (%) (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.73-0.98, p = 0.0246), and final SatO2 (%) in the 6MWT (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99, p = 0.0465) were independent predictor variables of mortality, as well as GAP index (HR 4.65, 95% CI 1.59-13.54, p = 0.0051) and CPI index (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.22, p = 0.0092). The withdrawal of MTX or LFN after ILD diagnosis was associated with disease progression in the COX analysis (HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.14-4.18, p = 0.019). This is the first study that highlights the diagnostic delay in RA-ILD is associated with an increased mortality just like happens in IPF.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To describe a prospective cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis associated with interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) and identify risk factors associated with disease progression and mortality in this cohort.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational study of patients with RA-ILD receiving disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) between 2015 and 2020. The patients were assessed using high-resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function tests at baseline and at 60 months. The main endpoint was "Progression to ILD at the end of follow-up" in terms of the following outcomes: (1) improvement (i.e., improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC) ?10% or diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) ?15% and absence of radiological progression); (2) nonprogression (stabilization or improvement in FVC ?10% or diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) <15% and absence of radiological progression); (3) progression (worsening of FVC >10% or DLCO >15% and radiological progression); or (4) death. We recorded demographic and clinical characteristics, lung function, and the incidence of adverse events. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the worsening of ILD.<h4>Results</h4>After 60 months, lung disease had stabilized in 66 patients (56.9%), improved in 9 (7.8%), and worsened in 23 (19.8%). Eighteen patients (15.5%) died, with a mean survival of 71.8 (1.9) months after diagnosis of ILD. The Cox multivariate analysis revealed the independent predictors of worsening of RA-ILD to be usual interstitial pneumonia (hazard ratio (HR), 2.6 (95%CI, 1.0-6.7)), FVC <80% (HR, 3.8 (95%CI, 1.5-6.7)), anticitrullinated protein antibody titers (HR, 2.8 (95%CI, 1.1-6.8)), smoking (HR, 2.5 (95%CI, 1.1-6.2)), and treatment with abatacept, tocilizumab, or rituximab (HR, 0.4 (95%CI, 0.2-0.8)). During follow-up, 79 patients (68%) experienced an adverse event, mostly infection (61%). Infection was fatal in 10/18 patients (55.5%) during follow-up.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Lung function is stable in most patients with RA-ILD receiving treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), although one-third worsened or died. Identifying factors associated with worsening in RA-ILD is important for clinical management.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To estimate lifetime risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) with respect to the strongest known risk factor for pulmonary fibrosis, a <i>MUC5B</i> promoter variant.<h4>Methods</h4>FinnGen is a collection of epidemiological cohorts and hospital biobank samples, integrating genetic data with up to 50 years of follow-up within nationwide registries in Finland. Patients with RA and ILD were identified from the Finnish national hospital discharge, medication reimbursement and cause-of-death registries. We estimated lifetime risks of ILD by age 80 with respect to the common variant rs35705950, a <i>MUC5B</i> promoter variant.<h4>Results</h4>Out of 293 972 individuals, 1965 (0.7%) developed ILD by age 80. Among all individuals in the dataset, <i>MUC5B</i> increased the risk of ILD with a HR of 2.44 (95% CI: 2.22 to 2.68). Out of 6869 patients diagnosed with RA, 247 (3.6%) developed ILD. In patients with RA, <i>MUC5B</i> was a strong risk factor of ILD with a HR similar to the full dataset (HR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.75 to 2.95). In patients with RA, lifetime risks of ILD were 16.8% (95% CI: 13.1% to 20.2%) for <i>MUC5B</i> carriers and 6.1% (95% CI: 5.0% to 7.2%) for <i>MUC5B</i> non-carriers. The difference between risks started to emerge at age 65, with a higher risk among men.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings provide estimates of lifetime risk of RA-ILD based on <i>MUC5B</i> mutation carrier status, demonstrating the potential of genomics for risk stratification of RA-ILD.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity and risk of RA-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). METHODS:We investigated disease activity and risk of RA-ILD using the Brigham RA Sequential Study (BRASS, 2003-2016). All patients were diagnosed as having RA according to accepted criteria. Disease Activity Scores in 28 joints (DAS28) and covariate data were measured prospectively at annual study visits. Diagnosis of RA-ILD was determined by review of images from clinically indicated chest computed tomography scans. We analyzed patients without RA-ILD at baseline. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for RA-ILD, using annually updated DAS28 data, with adjustment for known RA-ILD risk factors (age, sex, smoking status, RA duration, and serologic status). We performed alternative analyses that did not censor at the time of missing DAS28 data and included adjustment for use of methotrexate, use of glucocorticoids, presence of bone erosions, and presence of rheumatoid nodules. RESULTS:Among 1,419 participants, the mean ± SD age was 55.8 ± 14.2 years, and 68.6% were seropositive for either cyclic citrullinated peptide or rheumatoid factor. We identified 85 incident cases of RA-ILD during a mean ± SD follow-up duration of 8.9 ± 4.2 years per patient. The moderate/high disease activity group had a multivariable HR of 2.22 (95% CI 1.28-3.82) for RA-ILD compared to the remission/low disease activity group. Risk of RA-ILD increased across disease activity categories: multivariable HR 1.00 (reference) for remission, 1.41 (95% CI 0.61-3.28) for low disease activity, 2.08 (95% CI 1.06-4.05) for moderate disease activity, and 3.48 (95% CI 1.64-7.38) for high disease activity (P for trend = 0.001). For each unit increase in the DAS28, the risk of RA-ILD increased by 35% (95% CI 14-60%). Results were similar in analyses that included follow-up for missing DAS28 data and with adjustment for use of methotrexate, use of glucocorticoids, presence of bone erosions, or presence of rheumatoid nodules. CONCLUSION:Active articular RA was associated with an increased risk of developing RA-ILD. These results suggest that decreasing systemic inflammation may alter the natural history of RA-ILD development.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is a common connective tissue disease-related ILD (CTD-ILD) associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although rheumatoid factor (RF) seropositivity is a risk factor for developing RA-ILD, the relationship between RF seropositivity, mediastinal lymph node (MLN) features, and disease progression is unknown. We aimed to determine if high-titer RF seropositivity predicted MLN features, lung function impairment, and mortality in RA-ILD. In this retrospective cohort study, we identified patients in the University of Chicago ILD registry with RA-ILD. We compared demographic characteristics, serologic data, MLN size, count and location, and pulmonary function over 36 months among patients who had high-titer RF seropositivity (≥ 60 IU/ml) and those who did not. Survival analysis was performed using Cox regression modeling. Amongst 294 patients with CTD-ILD, available chest computed tomography (CT) imaging and serologic data, we identified 70 patients with RA-ILD. Compared to RA-ILD patients with low-titer RF, RA-ILD patients with high-titer RF had lower baseline forced vital capacity (71% vs. 63%; P = 0.045), elevated anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide titer (122 vs. 201; P = 0.001), CT honeycombing (50% vs. 80%; P = 0.008), and higher number of MLN ≥ 10 mm (36% vs. 76%; P = 0.005). Lung function decline over 36 months did not differ between groups. Primary outcomes of death or lung transplant occurred more frequently in the high-titer RF group (HR 2.8; 95% CI 1.1-6.8; P = 0.028). High-titer RF seropositivity was associated with MLN enlargement, CT honeycombing, and decreased transplant-free survival. RF titer may be a useful prognostic marker for stratifying patients by pulmonary disease activity and mortality risk.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To investigate the risk factors and prognosis associated with acute exacerbation (AE) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD).<h4>Design</h4>A retrospective case-control study.<h4>Setting</h4>A single academic hospital.<h4>Participants</h4>51 consecutive patients diagnosed with RA-ILD between 1995 and 2012. All patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of the American College of Rheumatology for RA. ILD was diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation, pulmonary function tests, high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings and lung biopsy findings.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Overall survival and cumulative AE incidence were analysed using Kaplan-Meier method. Cox hazards analysis was used to determine significant variables associated with AE occurrence and survival status.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 11 patients (22%) developed AE, with an overall 1-year incidence of 2.8%. Univariate analysis revealed that older age at ILD diagnosis (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.21; p=0.01), usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern on HRCT (HR 1.95; 95% CI 1.07 to 3.63; p=0.03) and methotrexate usage (HR 3.04; 95% CI 1.62 to 6.02; p=0.001) were associated with AE. Of 11 patients who developed AE during observation period, 7 (64%) died of initial AE. In survival, AE was a prognostic factor for poor outcome (HR 2.47; 95% CI 1.39 to 4.56; p=0.003).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In patients with RA-ILD, older age at ILD diagnosis, UIP pattern on HRCT and methotrexate usage are associated with the development of AE. Furthermore, AE has a serious impact on their survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To identify and quantify associations between baseline characteristics on hospital admission and mortality in patients with COVID-19 at a tertiary hospital in Spain. METHODS AND FINDINGS:This retrospective case series included 238 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 at Hospital Universitario Clínico San Cecilio (Granada, Spain) who were discharged or who died. Electronic medical records were reviewed to obtain information on sex, age, personal antecedents, clinical features, findings on physical examination, and laboratory results for each patient. Associations between mortality and baseline characteristics were estimated as hazard ratios (HR) calculated with Cox regression models. Series mortality was 25.6%. Among patients with dependence for basic activities of daily living, 78.7% died, and among patients residing in retirement homes, 80.8% died. The variables most clearly associated with a greater hazard of death were age (3% HR increase per 1-year increase in age; 95%CI 1-6), diabetes mellitus (HR 2.42, 95%CI 1.43-4.09), SatO2/FiO2 ratio (43% HR reduction per 1-point increase; 95%CI 23-57), SOFA score (19% HR increase per 1-point increase, 95%CI 5-34) and CURB-65 score (76% HR increase per 1-point increase, 95%CI 23-143). CONCLUSIONS:The patients residing in retirement homes showed great vulnerability. The main baseline factors that were independently associated with mortality in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were older age, diabetes mellitus, low SatO2/FiO2 ratio, and high SOFA and CURB-65 scores.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>We aimed to determine the real-world prevalence and investigate risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related lung disease on chest computed tomography (CT) imaging. We also investigated the impact of RA-related lung disease on mortality.<h4>Methods</h4>We studied chest CT imaging abnormalities among RA patients. We determined the presence and type of abnormalities using the chest CT imaging radiologic report. RA-related lung disease was defined as interstitial lung disease (ILD), bronchiectasis, or pleural disease. We examined whether demographics and RA characteristics were associated with RA-related lung disease using logistic regression. RA-related lung disease and mortality was described using survival curves and Cox regression.<h4>Results</h4>We analyzed 190 patients who had chest CT imaging performed for clinical indications. Mean age was 64.2 years (SD 11.8), 80.0% were female, and 75.3% were seropositive. RA-related lung disease was detected in 54 patients (28.4%); 30 (15.8%) had ILD, 27 (14.2%) had bronchiectasis, and 18 (9.5%) had pleural disease. RA-related lung disease was reported in both seropositive and seronegative RA (28.7% vs. 27.7%, p = 1.00). Male sex (OR 2.62, 95%CI 1.17-5.88) and current methotrexate use (OR 2.73, 95%CI 1.27-5.61 vs. not current) were associated with RA-related lung disease. Twenty-four (44.4%) patients with RA-related lung disease died during mean 7.0 years of follow-up. RA-related lung disease had HR of 5.35 (95%CI 0.72-39.9) for mortality compared to normal chest CT.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this real-world study, RA-related lung disease was commonly detected on chest CT imaging regardless of RA serostatus. RA-related lung disease had high mortality, emphasizing the importance in close monitoring of these patients.
Project description:<h4>Object</h4>Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a specific form of chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia with various etiology. The severity and progression of ILD usually predict the poor outcomes of ILD. Otherwise, Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) is a potential immunological biomarker reflecting the severity and progression of ILD. This meta-analysis is to clarify the predictive value of elevated KL-6 levels in ILD.<h4>Method</h4>EBSCO, PubMed, and Cochrane were systematically searched for articles exploring the prognosis of ILD published between January 1980 and April 2021. The Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) were computed as the effect sizes for comparisons between groups. For the relationship between adverse outcome and elevated KL-6 concentration, Hazard Ratio (HR), and its 95%CI were used to estimate the risk factor of ILD.<h4>Result</h4>Our result showed that ILD patients in severe and progressive groups had higher KL-6 levels, and the KL-6 level of patients in the severe ILD was 703.41 (U/ml) than in mild ILD. The KL-6 level in progressive ILD group was 325.98 (U/ml) higher than that in the non-progressive ILD group. Secondly, the KL-6 level of patients in acute exacerbation (AE) of ILD was 545.44 (U/ml) higher than stable ILD. Lastly, the higher KL-6 level in ILD patients predicted poor outcomes. The KL-6 level in death of ILD was 383.53 (U/ml) higher than in survivors of ILD. The pooled HR (95%CI) about elevated KL-6 level predicting the mortality of ILD was 2.05 (1.50-2.78), and the HR (95%CI) for progression of ILD was 1.98 (1.07-3.67).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The elevated KL-6 level indicated more severe, more progressive, and predicted the higher mortality and poor outcomes of ILD.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To assess predictive factors for rheumatoid arthritis interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) in two early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) inception cohorts with a focus on methotrexate (MTX) exposure.<h4>Design</h4>Multicentre prospective early RA inception cohort studies; the early RA study (ERAS) and the early RA network (ERAN).<h4>Setting</h4>Secondary care, ERAS nine centres, ERAN 23 centres in England, Wales and Ireland.<h4>Participants</h4>Patients with new diagnosis of RA, n=2701. Standardised data including demographics, drug therapies and clinical outcomes including the presence of RA-ILD were collected at baseline, within 3-6 months, at 12 months and annually thereafter.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>Primary outcome was the association of MTX exposure on RA-ILD diagnosis. Secondary outcomes were the association of demographic, comorbid and RA-specific factors on RA-ILD diagnosis and the association of MTX exposure on time to RA-ILD diagnosis.<h4>Results</h4>Of 92 eligible ILD cases, 39 occurred in 1578 (2.5%) MTX exposed and 53 in 1114 (4.8%) non-MTX exposed cases. The primary analysis of RA-ILD cases only developing after any conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment (n=67) showed MTX exposure not to be associated with incident RA-ILD (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.49, p=0.578) and a non-significant trend for delayed ILD diagnosis (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.06, p=0.072). In an extended analysis including RA-ILD cases present at RA diagnosis (n=92), MTX exposure was associated with a significantly reduced risk of incident RA-ILD (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.79, p=0.004) and longer time to ILD diagnosis (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.75, p=0.004). Other independent baseline associations with incident RA-ILD were higher age of RA onset, ever smoking, male gender, rheumatoid nodules and longer time from first RA symptom to first outpatient visit.<h4>Conclusions</h4>MTX treatment was not associated with an increased risk of RA-ILD diagnosis. On the contrary, evidence suggested that MTX may delay the onset of ILD.
Project description:<h4>Question addressed by the study</h4>Methotrexate (MTX) is a key anchor drug for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) management. Fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of RA. Whether MTX exposure increases the risk of ILD in patients with RA is disputed. We aimed to evaluate the association of prior MTX use with development of RA-ILD.<h4>Methods</h4>Through a case-control study design with discovery and international replication samples, we examined the association of MTX exposure with ILD in 410 patients with chronic fibrotic ILD associated with RA (RA-ILD) and 673 patients with RA without ILD. Estimates were pooled over the different samples using meta-analysis techniques.<h4>Results</h4>Analysis of the discovery sample revealed an inverse relationship between MTX exposure and RA-ILD (adjusted OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.90; p=0.022), which was confirmed in the replication samples (pooled adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.19-0.79; p=0.009). The combined estimate using both the derivation and validation samples revealed an adjusted OR of 0.43 (95% CI 0.26-0.69; p=0.0006). MTX ever-users were less frequent among patients with RA-ILD compared to those without ILD, irrespective of chest high-resolution computed tomography pattern. In patients with RA-ILD, ILD detection was significantly delayed in MTX ever-users compared to never-users (11.4±10.4 years and 4.0±7.4 years, respectively; p<0.001).<h4>Answer to the question</h4>Our results suggest that MTX use is not associated with an increased risk of RA-ILD in patients with RA, and that ILD was detected later in MTX-treated patients.