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A model of active transcription hubs that unifies the roles of active promoters and enhancers.

ABSTRACT: An essential questions of gene regulation is how large number of enhancers and promoters organize into gene regulatory loops. Using transcription-factor binding enrichment as an indicator of enhancer strength, we identified a portion of H3K27ac peaks as potentially strong enhancers and found a universal pattern of promoter and enhancer distribution: At actively transcribed regions of length of ∼200-300 kb, the numbers of active promoters and enhancers are inversely related. Enhancer clusters are associated with isolated active promoters, regardless of the gene's cell-type specificity. As the number of nearby active promoters increases, the number of enhancers decreases. At regions where multiple active genes are closely located, there are few distant enhancers. With Hi-C analysis, we demonstrate that the interactions among the regulatory elements (active promoters and enhancers) occur predominantly in clusters and multiway among linearly close elements and the distance between adjacent elements shows a preference of ∼30 kb. We propose a simple rule of spatial organization of active promoters and enhancers: Gene transcriptions and regulations mainly occur at local active transcription hubs contributed dynamically by multiple elements from linearly close enhancers and/or active promoters. The hub model can be represented with a flower-shaped structure and implies an enhancer-like role of active promoters.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC8096258 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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