BackgroundIf analytical antiretroviral-treatment (ART) interruption (ATI) might significantly impact quantitative or qualitative peripheral-total HIV-DNA is still debated.
MethodsSix chronically HIV-1 infected patients enrolled in APACHE-study were analysed for peripheral-total HIV-DNA and residual viremia, major-resistance-mutations (MRMs) and C2-V3-C3 evolution at pre-ATI (T1), during ATI (T2) and at achievement of virological success after ART-resumption (post-ATI, T3). These data were obtained at three comparable time-points in five chronically HIV-1 infected patients on suppressive ART for ≥1 year, enrolled in MODAt-study.
ResultsAt T1, APACHE and MODAt individuals had similar peripheral-total HIV-DNA and residual viremia (p = 0.792 and 0.662, respectively), and no significant changes for these parameters were observed between T1 and T3 in both groups. At T1, 4/6 APACHE and 2/5 MODAt carried HIV-DNA MRMs. MRMs disappeared at T3 in 3/4 APACHE. All disappearing MRMs were characterized by T1 intra-patient prevalence <80%, and mainly occurred in APOBEC3-related sites. All MRMs persisted over-time in the 2 MODAt. C2-V3-C3 genetic-distance significantly changed from T1 to T3 in APACHE individuals (+0.36[0.11-0.41], p = 0.04), while no significant changes were found in MODAt. Accordingly, maximum likelihood trees (bootstrap > 70%) and genealogical sorting indices (GSI > 0.50 with p-value < 0.05) showed that T1 C2-V3-C3 DNA sequences were distinct from T2 and T3 viruses in 4/6 APACHE. Virus populations at all three time-points were highly interspersed in MODAt.
ConclusionsThis pilot study indicates that short ATI does not alter peripheral-total HIV-DNA burden and residual viremia, but in some cases could cause a genetic diversification of peripheral viral reservoir in term of both MRMs rearrangement and viral evolution.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC8310290 | BioStudies |