BackgroundBladder cancer (BLCA) is the major tumor of the urinary system, and immune-related genes (IRGs) contribute significantly to its initiation and prognosis.
ResultsA total of 51 prognostic IRGs significantly associated with overall survival were identified. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that these genes were actively involved in tumor-related functions and pathways. Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, we detected 11 optimal IRGs (ADIPOQ, PPY, NAMPT, TAP1, AHNAK, OLR1, PDGFRA, IL34, MMP9, RAC3, and SH3BP2). We validated the prognostic value of this signature in two validation cohorts: GSE13507 (n = 165) and GSE32894 (n = 224). Furthermore, we performed a western blot and found that the expression of these IRGs matched their mRNA expression in TCGA. Moreover, correlations between risk score and immune-cell infiltration indicated that the prognostic signature reflected infiltration by several types of immune cells.
ConclusionWe identified and validated an 11-IRG-based risk signature that may be a reliable tool to evaluate the prognosis of BLCA patients and help to devise individualized immunotherapies.
MethodsBioinformatics analysis was performed using TCGA and ImmPort databases. Cox regression was used to identify prognostic signatures. Two external GEO cohorts and western blotting of samples were performed to validate the IRG signature.