Investigation of Self-Emulsifying Drug-Delivery System Interaction with a Biomimetic Membrane under Conditions Relevant to the Small Intestine.
ABSTRACT: Self-emulsifying drug-delivery systems (SEDDS) have been extensively shown to increase oral absorption of solvation-limited compounds. However, there has been little clinical and commercial use of these formulations, in large part because the demonstrated advantages of SEDDS have been outweighed by our inability to precisely predict drug absorption from SEDDS using current in vitro assays. To overcome this limitation and increase the biological relevancy of in vitro assays, an absorption function can be incorporated using biomimetic membranes. However, the effects that SEDDS have on the integrity of a biomimetic membrane are not known. In this study, a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy were employed as complementary methods to in vitro lipolysis-permeation assays to characterize the interaction of various actively digested SEDDS with a liquescent artificial membrane comprising lecithin in dodecane (LiDo). Observations from surface analysis showed that interactions between the digesting SEDDS and LiDo membrane coincided with inflection points in the digestion profiles. Importantly, no indications of membrane damage could be observed, which was supported by flux profiles of the lipophilic model drug felodipine (FEL) and impermeable marker Lucifer yellow on the basal side of the membrane. There was a correlation between the digestion kinetics of the SEDDS and the flux of FEL, but no clear correlation between solubilization and absorption profiles. Membrane interactions were dependent on the composition of lipids within each SEDDS, with the more digestible lipids leading to more pronounced interactions, but in all cases, the integrity of the membrane was maintained. These insights demonstrate that LiDo membranes are compatible with in vitro lipolysis assays for improving predictions of drug absorption from lipid-based formulations.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the performance of artificial membranes in in vitro lipolysis-permeation assays useful for absorption studies of drugs loaded in lipid-based formulations (LBFs). METHODS:Polycarbonate as well as PVDF filters were treated with hexadecane, or lecithin in n-dodecane solution (LiDo) to form artificial membranes. They were thereafter used as absorption membranes separating two compartments mimicking the luminal and serosal side of the intestine in vitro. Membranes were subjected to dispersions of an LBF that had been digested by porcine pancreatin and spiked with the membrane integrity marker Lucifer Yellow (LY). Three fenofibrate-loaded LBFs were used to explore the in vivo relevance of the assay. RESULTS:Of the explored artificial membranes, only LiDo applied to PVDF was compatible with lipolysis by porcine pancreatin. Formulation ranking based on mass transfer in the LiDo model exposed was the same as drug release in single-compartment lipolysis. Ranking based on observed apparent permeability coefficients of fenofibrate with different LBFs were the same as those obtained in a cell-based model. CONCLUSIONS:The LiDo membrane was able to withstand lipolysis for a sufficient assay period. However, the assay with porcine pancreatin as digestive agent did not predict the in vivo ranking of the assayed formulations better than existing methods. Comparison with a Caco-2 based assay method nonetheless indicates that the in vitro in vivo relationship of this cell-free model could be improved with alternative digestive agents.
Project description:Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) have been broadly used to promote the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the in vivo oral bioavailability of vitamin E isoforms, ?-tocotrienol (?-T3) and ?-tocotrienol (?-T3) administered as SEDDS, as compared to commercially available UNIQUE E® Tocotrienols capsules. Results from studies in rats showed that low dose treatment with ?-T3 (90%) and ?-T3 (10%) formulated SEDDS showed bioavailability of 31.5% and 332%, respectively. However, bioavailability showed a progressive decrease with increased treatment dose that displayed nonlinear absorption kinetics. Additional in vitro studies examining cellular uptake studies in Caco 2 cells revealed that the SEDDS formulation increased passive permeability of ?-T3 and ?-T3 by threefold as compared to the commercial capsule formulation. These studies also showed that free surfactants decreased ?-T3 and ?-T3 absorption. Specifically, combined treatment cremophor EL or labrasol with tocotrienols caused a 60-85% reduction in the cellular uptake of ?-T3 and ?-T3 and these effects appear to result from surfactant-induced inhibition of the ?-T3 and ?-T3 transport protein Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). In summary, results showed that SEDDS formulation significantly increases the absorption and bioavailability ?-T3 and ?-T3. However, this effect is self-limiting because treatment with increasing doses of SEDDS appears to be associated with a corresponding increase in free surfactants levels that directly and negatively impact tocotrienol transport protein function and results in nonlinear absorption kinetics and a progressive decrease in ?-T3 and ?-T3 absorption and bioavailability.
Project description:Efforts in discovering new and effective neurotherapeutics are made daily, although most fail to reach clinical trials. The main reason is their poor bioavailability, related to poor aqueous solubility, limited permeability through biological membranes, and the hepatic first-pass metabolism. Nevertheless, crossing the blood-brain barrier is the major drawback associated with brain drug delivery. To overcome it, intranasal administration has become more attractive, in some cases even surpassing the oral route. The unique anatomical features of the nasal cavity allow partial direct drug delivery to the brain, circumventing the blood-brain barrier. Systemic absorption through the nasal cavity also avoids the hepatic first-pass metabolism, increasing the systemic bioavailability of highly metabolized entities. Nevertheless, most neurotherapeutics present physicochemical characteristics that require them to be formulated in lipidic nanosystems as self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS). These are isotropic mixtures of oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants that, after aqueous dilution, generate micro or nanoemulsions loading high concentrations of lipophilic drugs. SEDDS should overcome drug precipitation in absorption sites, increase their permeation through absorptive membranes, and enhance the stability of labile drugs against enzymatic activity. Thus, combining the advantages of SEDDS and those of the intranasal route for brain delivery, an increase in drugs' brain targeting and bioavailability could be expected. This review deeply characterizes SEDDS as a lipidic nanosystem, gathering important information regarding the mechanisms associated with the intranasal delivery of drugs loaded in SEDDS. In the end, in vivo results after SEDDS intranasal or oral administration are discussed, globally revealing their efficacy in comparison with common solutions or suspensions.
Project description:Lipid-based formulations (LBFs) are a delivery strategy to enhance intestinal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. LBF performance is typically evaluated by in vitro lipolysis studies, but these do not accurately predict the in vivo performance. One possible reason is the absence of an absorptive membrane driving sink conditions in the serosal compartment. To explore the impact of absorption under sink conditions on the performance evaluation, we developed a lipolysis-permeation setup that allows simultaneous investigation of intestinal digestion of an LBF and drug absorption. The setup consists of two chambers, an upper one for digestion (luminal), and a lower, receiving one (serosal), separated by a Caco-2 monolayer. Digestions were performed with immobilized lipase, instead of the pancreatic extract typically used during lipolysis, since the latter has proven incompatible with Caco-2 cells. Danazol-loaded LBFs were used to develop the setup, and fenofibrate-loaded LBFs were used to establish an in vitro in vivo correlation. As in regular lipolysis studies, our setup allows for the evaluation of (i) the extent of digestion and (ii) drug distribution in different phases present during lipolysis of drug-loaded LBFs (i.e., oil, aqueous, and solid phase). In addition, our setup can determine drug permeation across Caco-2 monolayers and hence, the absorptive flux of the compound. The presence of the absorptive monolayer and sink conditions tended to reduce aqueous drug concentrations and supersaturation in the digestion chamber. The drug transfer across the Caco-2 membrane accurately reflected in vivo drug exposure upon administration of three different LBFs loaded with fenofibrate, where the traditional lipolysis setup failed to predict in vivo performance. As the new setup reflects the dynamic processes occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, it is a valuable tool that can be used in the development of LBFs prior to in vivo studies.
Project description:Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid compound of <i>Cannabis sativa</i>, shows limited oral bioavailability due to its lipophilicity and extensive first-pass metabolism. CBD is also known for its high intra- and inter-subject absorption variability in humans. To overcome these limitations a novel self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) based on VESIsorb<sup>®</sup> formulation technology incorporating CBD, as Hemp-Extract, was developed (SEDDS-CBD). The study objective was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of SEDDS-CBD in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design in 16 healthy volunteers under fasted conditions. As reference formulation, the same Hemp-Extract diluted with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT-CBD) was used. CBD dose was standardized to 25 mg. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed from individual concentration-time curves. Single oral administration of SEDDS-CBD led to a 4.4-fold higher C<sub>max</sub> and a 2.85-/1.70-fold higher AUC<sub>0-8h</sub>/AUC<sub>0-24h</sub> compared to the reference formulation. T<sub>max</sub> was substantially shorter for SEDDS-CBD (1.0 h) compared to MCT-CBD (3.0 h). Subgroup analysis demonstrated a higher bioavailability in women compared to men. This difference was seen for MCT-CBD while SEDDS-CBD mitigated this gender effect. Overall, SEDDS-CBD showed a significant improvement for all determined pharmacokinetic parameters: increased CBD plasma values (C<sub>max</sub>), favorably enhanced bioavailability (AUC) and fast absorption (T<sub>max</sub>). No safety concerns were noted following either administration.
Project description:Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) can improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (s-SEDDS) offer several advantages including improved drug stability, ease of administration, and production. Most compounds employed in developing s-SEDDS are solid in nature, with a high amount of surfactants added. The aim of this study was to develop an s-SEDDS using a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) as the model liquid active substance via a simple adsorption method. The solid formulation was developed using magnesium aluminosilicate as the carrier with 70% TRF and 30% surfactants (poloxamer and Labrasol<sup>®</sup>). The formulation showed good self-emulsification efficiency with stable emulsion formed, excellent powder flowability, and small emulsion droplet size of 210-277 nm. The s-SEDDS with combined surfactants (poloxamer and Labrasol<sup>®</sup>) showed a faster absorption rate compared to preparations with only a single surfactant and enhanced oral bioavailability (3.4-3.8 times higher) compared to the non-self-emulsifying oily preparation when administered at a fasted state in rats. In conclusion, an s-SEDDS containing a high amount of TRF was successfully developed. It may serve as a useful alternative to a liquid product with enhanced oral bioavailability and the added advantage of being a solid dosage form.
Project description:To mechanistically study and model the effect of lipids, either from food or self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), on drug transport in the intestinal lumen.Simultaneous lipid digestion, dissolution/release, and drug partitioning were experimentally studied and modeled for two dosing scenarios: solid drug with a food-associated lipid (soybean oil) and drug solubilized in amodel SEDDS (soybean oil and Tween 80 at 1:1 ratio). Rate constants for digestion, permeability of emulsion droplets, and partition coefficients in micellar and oil phases were measured, and used to numerically solve the developed model.Strong influence of lipid digestion on drug release from SEDDS and solid drug dissolution into food-associated lipid emulsion was observed and predicted by the developed model. Ninety minutes after introduction of SEDDS, there was 9% and 70% drug release in the absence and presence of digestion, respectively. However, overall drug dissolution in the presence of food-associated lipids occurred over a longer period than without digestion.A systems-based mechanistic model incorporating simultaneous dynamic processes occurring upon dosing of drug with lipids enabled prediction of aqueous drug concentration profile. This model, once incorporated with a pharmacokinetic model considering processes of drug absorption and drug lymphatic transport in the presence of lipids, could be highly useful for quantitative prediction of impact of lipids on bioavailability of drugs.
Project description:The objective of the study was the development and in vitro characterization of a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for the nasal application of dimenhydrinate. Final composition of SEDDS was established based on drug solubility and stability studies. Dimenhydrinate was loaded into the SEDDS pre-concentrates to 7.5% (m/v). The droplet size of the final SEDDS formulations was in a range between 60 and 220 nm. Permeability, as well as tissue toxicity, of the formulations was investigated using bovine nasal mucosa. Enhancement in permeation up to 2.8-fold compared to pure dimenhydrinate was confirmed. Furthermore, toxicity studies did not reveal any serious tissue damages related to the SEDDS. Additionally, irritation potential of SEDDS was evaluated in ciliary beat frequency measurements. Incorporation of dimenhydrinate into SEDDS might therefore be considered as a promising approach within the field of nasal delivery of antiemetics by utilizing permeation enhancement strategy.
Project description:Poor bioavailability of Docetaxel (DCT) arising due to its low aqueous solubility and permeability limits its clinical utility. The aim of the present study was to develop DCT loaded self-emulsified drug delivery systems (D-SEDDS) and evaluate its potential ability to improve the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of DCT. D-SEDDS were characterized for their in vitro antitumor activity, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP), bioavailability, chylomicron flow blocking study and bio-distribution profile. The D-SEDDS were prepared using Capryol 90, Vitamin E TPGS, Gelucire 44/14 and Transcutol HP with a ratio of 32.7/29.4/8.3/29.6 using D-Optimal Mixture Design. The solubility of DCT was improved upto 50?mg/mL. The oral bioavailability of the D-SEDDS in rats (21.84?±?3.12%) was increased by 3.19 fold than orally administered Taxotere (6.85?±?1.82%). The enhanced bioavailability was probably due to increase in solubility and permeability. In SPIP, effective permeability of D-SEDDS was significantly higher than Taxotere. D-SEDDS showed 25 fold more in vitro cytotoxic activity compared to free DCT. Chylomicron flow blocking study and tissue distribution demonstrated the intestinal lymphatic transport of D-SEDDS and higher retention in tumor than Taxotere. The data suggests that D-SEDDS showed desired stability, enhanced oral bioavailability and in vitro antitumor efficacy.
Project description:The aim of this study was to design an in vitro lipolysis-permeation method to estimate drug absorption following the oral administration of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDSs). The method was evaluated by testing five oral formulations containing cinnarizine (four SNEDDSs and one aqueous suspension) from a previously published pharmacokinetic study in rats. In that study, the pharmacokinetic profiles of the five formulations did not correlate with the drug solubilization profiles obtained during in vitro intestinal lipolysis. Using the designed lipolysis-permeation method, in vitro lipolysis of the five formulations was followed by in vitro drug permeation in Franz diffusion cells equipped with PermeaPad<sup>®</sup> barriers. A linear in vivo-in vitro correlation was obtained when comparing the area under the in vitro drug permeation-time curve (AUC<sub>0-3h</sub>), to the AUC<sub>0-3h</sub> of the plasma concentration-time profile obtained from the in vivo study. Based on these results, the evaluated lipolysis-permeation method was found to be a promising tool for estimating the in vivo performance of SNEDDSs, but more studies are needed to evaluate the method further.