MYB mediates downregulation of the colorectal cancer metastasis suppressor heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L-like during epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
ABSTRACT: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L-like (HNRNPLL), a suppressor of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis, is transcriptionally downregulated when CRC cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here we show that decrease of MYB mediates the downregulation of HNRNPLL during EMT. The promoter activity was attributed to a region from -273 to -10 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site identified by 5'-RACE analysis, and the region contained potential binding sites for MYB and SP1. Luciferase reporter gene assays and knockdown or knockout experiments for genes encoding the MYB family proteins, MYB, MYBL1, and MYBL2, revealed that MYB was responsible for approximately half of the promoter activity. On the other hand, treatment with mithramycin A, an inhibitor for SP1 and SP3, suppressed the promoter activity and their additive contribution was confirmed by knockout experiments. The expression level of MYB was reduced on EMT while that of SP1 and SP3 was unchanged, suggesting that the downregulation of HNRNPLL during EMT was mediated by the decrease of MYB expression while SP1 and SP3 determine the basal transcription level of HNRNPLL. Histopathological analysis confirmed the accumulation of MYB-downregulated cancer cells at the invasion front of clinical CRC tissues. These results provide an insight into the molecular mechanism underlying CRC progression.
Project description:Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug, and epidemiology studies for pancreatic and other cancers indicate that metformin exhibits both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Several metformin-induced responses and genes are similar to those observed after knockdown of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 by RNA interference, and we hypothesized that the mechanism of action of metformin in pancreatic cancer cells was due, in part, to downregulation of Sp transcription factors. Treatment of Panc1, L3.6pL and Panc28 pancreatic cancer cells with metformin downregulated Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and several pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes including bcl-2, survivin, cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, and fatty acid synthase. Metformin induced proteasome-dependent degradation of Sps in L3.6pL and Panc28 cells, whereas in Panc1 cells metformin decreased microRNA-27a and induced the Sp repressor, ZBTB10, and disruption of miR-27a:ZBTB10 by metformin was phosphatase dependent. Metformin also inhibited pancreatic tumor growth and downregulated Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in tumors in an orthotopic model where L3.6pL cells were injected directly into the pancreas. The results demonstrate for the first time that the anticancer activities of metformin are also due, in part, to downregulation of Sp transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes.
Project description:Androgen-insensitive DU145 and PC3 human prostate cancer cells express high levels of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4, and treatment of cells with methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18?-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate (CDODA-Me) inhibited cell growth and downregulated Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 expression. CDODA-Me (15 mg/kg/d) was a potent inhibitor of tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model (PC3 cells) and also decreased expression of Sp transcription factors in tumors. CDODA-Me-mediated downregulation of Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 was due to induction of the transcriptional repressor ZBTB4, which competitively binds and displaces Sp transcription factors from GC-rich sites in Sp1-, Sp3-, Sp4-, and Sp-regulated gene promoters. ZBTB4 levels are relatively low in DU145 and PC3 cells due to suppression by miR paralogs that are members of the miR-17-92 (miR-20a/17-5p) and miR-106b-25 (miR-106b/93) clusters. Examination of publically available prostate cancer patient array data showed an inverse relationship between ZBTB4 and miRs-20a/17-5p/106b/93 expression, and increased ZBTB4 in patients with prostate cancer was a prognostic factor for increased survival. CDODA-Me induces ZBTB4 in prostate cancer cells through disruption of miR-ZBTB4 interactions, and this results in downregulation of pro-oncogenic Sp transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes.
Project description:Treatment of ErbB2-overexpressing BT474 and MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells with 1 to 10 ?mol/L betulinic acid inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, downregulated specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4, and decreased expression of ErbB2. Individual or combined knockdown of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 by RNA interference also decreased expression of ErbB2 and this response was because of repression of YY1, an Sp-regulated gene. Betulinic acid-dependent repression of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4, and Sp-regulated genes was due, in part, to induction of the Sp repressor ZBTB10 and downregulation of microRNA-27a (miR-27a), which constitutively inhibits ZBTB10 expression, and we show for the first time that the effects of betulinic acid on the miR-27a:ZBTB10-Sp transcription factor axis were cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and CB2 receptor-dependent, thus identifying a new cellular target for this anticancer agent.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play pivotal roles in cancer initiation and progression. However, the roles and molecular mechanisms of miRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression remain unclear. Here, we show that downregulation of miR-1224-5p in CRC is negatively correlated with SP1 expression and metastasis in patients and xenografted mouse models. Gain- and loss-of-function assays reveal that miR-1224-5p suppresses the migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CRC cells <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> by directly targeting SP1. Moreover, SP1 promotes the phosphorylation of p65, which results in EMT progress in CRC cells. Clinical analysis reveals that miR-1224-5p and SP1 expression are remarkably associated with advanced clinical features and unfavorable prognosis of patients with CRC. Further study confirms that hypoxia accounts for the depletion of miR-1224-5p in CRC. The enhancement of hypoxia during epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of CRC cells is abolished by miR-1224-5p. Our findings provide the first evidence that miR-1224-5p is a potential therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker for patients with CRC.
Project description:Generally, knowledge of the mechanism regulating gene expression in primary spermatocytes is incomplete. We have used the lactate dehydrogenase gene (Ldhc) as a model to explore these mechanisms during spermatogenesis. Its 100-bp core promoter contained two essential elements common to many genes, a GC box and a CRE site. Here we report results that support a model in which transcription factor MYBL1 acts as a coactivator directing tissue-specific expression via the CRE cis element. We hypothesize that this is a common mechanism involving activation of multiple genes in the primary spermatocyte. MYBL1 is expressed predominantly as a tissue-specific transcription factor in spermatocytes and breast epithelial cells. Our finding that LDHC expression is lost in 21-day testes of MYBL1 mutant mice supports our hypothesis. In the GC1-spg germ cell line exogenous MYBL1 induces activity 4- to 8-fold, although extracts from these cells do not show MYBL1 binding activity for the Myb consensus sequences in the Ldhc promoter by EMSA. Rather, MYBL1 stimulates expression from a synthetic promoter containing only CRE elements, suggesting MYBL1 activates the promoter by interacting with protein that binds to a CRE element. Mutation of three Myb sites does not affect Ldhc promoter activity significantly (P > 0.05). CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a coactivator that interacts with CRE-binding protein CREB. We show that the transactivation domain (TAD) in MYBL1 interacts with the KIX domain in CBP, and the TAD domain and DNA binding domain in MYBL1 each interact with the CREB N-terminal domain. MYBL1 also stimulated expression from testis-specific genes Pgk2 (phosphoglycerate kinase 2) and Pdha2 (pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha 2) promoters, each of which contains CRE promoter elements and is expressed in primary spermatocytes. We propose that MYBL1 directs germ cell-specific activation via the CRE site of certain genes that are activated specifically in the primary spermatocyte, although other, more indirect effects of MYBL1 remain a possible explanation for our results.
Project description:Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH, EPHX1) is a critical biotransformation enzyme, catalyzing the metabolism of many xenobiotics. Human mEH is transcribed using alternative promoters. The upstream E1 promoter is active in liver while the far upstream E1b promoter drives the expression of mEH in all tissues, including liver. Although several liver-specific transcription factors have been identified in the regulation of E1 transcription, little is known regarding the mechanisms of E1b transcriptional regulation. Genome-wide mapping of DNase I hypersensitive sites revealed an open chromatin region between nucleotide -300 upstream and +400 downstream of E1b. This area coincides with a previously described promoter region responsible for maintaining high basal promoter activity. In silico analysis of this location revealed several Sp1/Sp3 binding sites. Site-directed mutagenesis of these motifs suppressed the transactivation activity of the E1b proximal promoter, indicating their importance as contributors to E1b promoter regulation. Further, E1b promoter activities were increased significantly following Sp1 and Sp3 overexpression, while Mithramycin A, a selective Sp1 inhibitor, reduced the promoter activities. EMSA studies demonstrated that Sp1 bound to two putative Sp1/Sp3 binding sites. ChIP analysis confirmed that both endogenous Sp1 and Sp3 were bound to the proximal promoter region of E1b. Knockdown of Sp1 expression using siRNA did not alter the endogenous E1b transcriptional level, while knockdown of Sp3 greatly decreased E1b expression in different human cell lines. Taken together, these results support the concept that Sp1 and Sp3 are functionally involved as transcriptional integrators regulating the basal expression of the derived mEH E1b variant transcript.
Project description:Histone deacetylases mediate critical cellular functions but relatively little is known about mechanisms controlling their expression, including expression of HDAC4, a class II HDAC implicated in the modulation of cellular differentiation and viability. Endogenous HDAC4 mRNA, protein levels and promoter activity were all readily repressed by mithramycin, suggesting regulation by GC-rich DNA sequences. We validated consensus binding sites for Sp1/Sp3 transcription factors in the HDAC4 promoter through truncation studies and targeted mutagenesis. Specific and functional binding by Sp1/Sp3 at these sites was confirmed with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electromobility shift assays (EMSA). Cotransfection of either Sp1 or Sp3 with a reporter driven by the HDAC4 promoter led to high activities in SL2 insect cells (which lack endogenous Sp1/Sp3). In human cells, restored expression of Sp1 and Sp3 up-regulated HDAC4 protein levels, whereas levels were decreased by RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of either protein. Finally, variable levels of Sp1 were in concordance with that of HDAC4 in a number of human tissues and cancer cell lines. These studies together characterize for the first time the activity of the HDAC4 promoter, through which Sp1 and Sp3 modulates expression of HDAC4 and which may contribute to tissue or cell-line-specific expression of HDAC4.
Project description:2,3-Dihydro-5-methyl-3-([morpholinyl]methyl)pyrollo(1,2,3-de)-1,4-benzoxazinyl]-[1-naphthaleny]methanone [WIN 55,212-2, (WIN)] is a synthetic cannabinoid that inhibits RKO, HT-29, and SW480 cell growth, induced apoptosis, and downregulated expression of survivin, cyclin D1, EGF receptor (EGFR), VEGF, and its receptor (VEGFR1). WIN also decreased expression of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4, and this is consistent with the observed downregulation of the aforementioned Sp-regulated genes. In addition, we also observed by RNA interference (RNAi) that the oncogenic cap protein eIF4E was an Sp-regulated gene also downregulated by WIN in colon cancer cells. WIN-mediated repression of Sp proteins was not affected by cannabinoid receptor antagonists or by knockdown of the receptor but was attenuated by the phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate or by knockdown of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). WIN-mediated repression of Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 was due to PP2A-dependent downregulation of microRNA-27a (miR-27a) and induction of miR-27a-regulated ZBTB10, which has previously been characterized as an "Sp repressor." The results show that the anticancer activity of WIN is due, in part, to PP2A-dependent disruption of miR-27a:ZBTB10 and ZBTB10-mediated repression of Sp transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes, including eIF4E.
Project description:The P2 promoter of the gene for growth hormone receptor is developmentally regulated and is differentially active in a number of tissues. Little is known about the identity of the transcription factors that participate to effect this pattern of transcription. Deletion analysis and transient transfection were used to localize a previously identified cis-acting element within the sheep P2 promoter to between positions -99 and -87. Gel mobility-shift assays with nuclear extracts from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) fibroblasts revealed that this sequence encompasses an atypical binding site for both Sp1 and two isoforms of Sp3. A gel mobility-shift scan of promoter sequences between -88 and +21 indicated the existence of three other binding sites for Sp1 and Sp3. One of these, designated site II and found by using a probe spanning -74 to -54, corresponds to a classical GC box consensus sequence. Site III (-63 to -41) and site IV (-27 to -5) harbour atypical Sp1/Sp3-binding sequences. Site-directed mutagenesis of site II or site IV decreased promoter activity by approx. 40%, whereas a promoter construct incorporating both mutations exhibited negligible (approx. 1%) activity. Co-transfection of expression plasmids encoding either Sp1 or Sp3 significantly transactivated reporter gene activity from a P2 promoter construct carrying all four Sp1/Sp3-binding sites (8-fold compared with 7.1-fold induction respectively). Sp1 is known to interact with a variety of other transcription factors to regulate the transcription of a number of differentially expressed genes. The identification of four binding sites for Sp1 and Sp3 within the P2 promoter of the gene for growth hormone receptor might point to other factors that interact to regulate the activity of this promoter in different tissues during foetal and post-natal development.