Serotyping of adenoviruses on conjunctival scrapings by PCR and sequence analysis.
ABSTRACT: To detect and identify adenovirus (Ad), we investigated hypervariable regions (HVRs) of Ad by using a combination of PCR and direct sequencing (PCR-sequence) method. Primers for nested PCR to amplify the conserved region in the hexon protein containing HVRs were designed based on hexon gene sequences derived from GenBank. These two primer sets amplified a DNA fragment of 7 HVRs from 16 prototypes of Ad, which were divided into five subgenera, including seven serotypes that are the predominant causative agents of acute conjunctivitis in Japan, and from 31 recent conjunctival scraping specimens from patients with adenoviral conjunctivitis. HVR DNA sequences were determined by means of universal sequence primers. Analysis of the predicted amino acid homology of HVRs among Ad prototypes suggested three regions, HVR4, -5, and -7, to be candidates for the neutralization epitopes. The clinical serotype of specimens was determined by the PCR-sequence method with reference to these three HVRs. The serotype determined according to this method was identical to that obtained by culture isolation and the neutralization test (NT) in all scraping samples, whereas the results of this method did not match PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in five samples. It took only three days to detect Ad and to identify the serotype, in contrast to culture isolation-NT, which took at least 2 weeks. These findings indicate that our newly developed PCR-sequence method is applicable for the detection and serotyping of human Ads.
Project description:Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are the major causes of a variety of acute illnesses. Virus isolation and neutralization tests are usually done to identify the causative virus, but these tests are labor-intensive and time-consuming, and standardized antisera are in limited supply. This study investigated a rapid and reliable method of virus identification based on PCR and phylogenetic analysis. The phylogenetic tree constructed by neighbor joining on the basis of the newly determined partial hexon sequences from 33 prototypes of HAdV-D and -E, along with 11 available prototypes of HAdV-A to -C and -F from GenBank, allowed HAdVs to be grouped into six distinct clusters. These clusters correspond closely to the six newly designated species, HAdV-A to -F. The partial hexon sequences of 57 isolates from patients with acute conjunctivitis obtained over 20 years plus those of 44 prototype strains were analyzed. Each isolate formed a monophyletic cluster along with its respective prototype strain, allowing serotype identification. Partial-hexon-based classification appears to be an effective tool for studying the molecular epidemiology of HAdVs.
Project description:The first full-length hexon protein DNA and deduced amino acid sequences of a subgenus D adenovirus (AV) were determined from candidate AV48 (85-0844). Comprehensive comparison of this sequence with hexon protein sequences from human subgenera A, B, C, D, F, bovine AV3, and mouse AV1 revealed seven discrete hypervariable regions (HVRs) among the 250 variable residues in loops 1 and 2. These regions differed in length between serotypes, from 2 to 38 residues, and contained > 00% of hexon serotype-specific residues among human serotypes. Alignment with the published crystal structure of AV2 established the location and structure of the type-specific regions. Five HVRs were shown to be part of linear loops on the exposed surfaces of the protein, analogous to the serotype-specific loops or "puffs" in picornavirus capsid proteins. The HVRs were supported by a common framework of conserved residues, of which 68 to 75% were hydrophobic. Unique sequences were limited to the seven HVRs, so that one or more of these regions contain the type-specific neutralization epitopes. A neutralizing AV48 hexon-specific antiserum recognized linear peptides that corresponded to six HVRs by enzyme immunoassay. Affinity-purification removal of all peptide-reactive antibodies did not significantly decrease the neutralization titer. Eluted peptide-reactive antibodies did not neutralize. Human antisera that neutralized AV48 did not recognize linear peptides. Purified trimeric native hexon inhibited neutralization, but monomeric heat-denatured hexon did not. We conclude that the AV48 neutralization epitope(s) is complex and conformational.
Project description:The immunogenicity of recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vectors has been shown to be suppressed by neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) directed primarily against hexon hypervariable regions (HVRs). Preexisting immunity can be circumvented by replacing HVRs of rAd5 hexon with those derived from alternate adenovirus serotypes. However, chimeric modification of rAd5 hexon HVRs tends to cause low packaging efficiency or low proliferation of rAd5 vectors, but the related mechanism remains unclear. In this study, several Ad5-based vectors with precise replacement of HVRs with those derived from Ad37 and Ad43 were generated. We first observed that a HVR-exchanged rAd5 vector displayed a higher efficacy of the recombinant virus rescue and growth improvement compared with the rAd5 vector, although most hexon-chimeric rAd5 vectors constructed by us and other groups have proven to be nonviable or growth defective. We therefore evaluated the structural stability of the chimeric hexons and their interactions with the L4-100K chaperone. We showed that the viability of hexon-chimeric Ad5 vectors was not attributed to the structural stability of the chimeric hexon, but rather to the hexon maturation which was assisted by L4-100K. Our results suggested that the intricate interaction between hexon and L4-100K would determine the virus rescue and proliferation efficiency of hexon-chimeric rAd5 vectors.
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of coagulation factor X (FX) in adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5-mediated liver transduction in vivo. FX binds to the adenovirus hexon hypervariable regions (HVRs). Here, we perform a systematic analysis of FX binding to Ad5 HVRs 5 and 7, identifying domains and amino acids critical for this interaction. We constructed a model of the Ad5-FX interaction using crystallographic and cryo-electron microscopic data to identify contact points. Exchanging Ad5 HVR5 or HVR7 from Ad5 to Ad26 (which does not bind FX) diminished FX binding as analyzed by surface plasmon resonance, gene delivery in vitro, and liver transduction in vivo. Exchanging Ad5-HVR5 for Ad26-HVR5 produced deficient virus maturation. Importantly, defined mutagenesis of just 2 amino acids in Ad5-HVR5 circumvented this and was sufficient to block liver gene transfer. In addition, mutation of 4 amino acids in Ad5-HVR7 or a single mutation at position 451 also blocked FX-mediated effects in vitro and in vivo. We therefore define the regions and amino acids on the Ad5 hexon that bind with high affinity to FX thereby better defining adenovirus infectivity pathways. These vectors may be useful for gene therapy applications where evasion of liver transduction is a prerequisite.
Project description:AIMS:To characterise a novel strain (M86) of adenovirus (Ad) involved in epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). METHODS/RESULTS:The virus strain was neutralised by antisera to both Ad35 and Ad11. Restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic DNA showed 98% and 88% homology with Ad11 and Ad35, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of the hypervariable regions of (HVRs) of the hexon gene showed a higher homology with Ad35 (94.4%) than with Ad11 (83.7%). However, it was 100% homologous to Ad35 in HVRs 1, 2, 3, and 6 and to Ad11 in HVRs 4 and 6. In the fibre knob, the isolate was more homologous to Ad11 (99.4%) than to Ad35 (29.1%). CONCLUSION:This novel strain of adenovirus showed similarities with both Ad11 and Ad35. The isolation of a novel strain like Ad35+11 is important because of its association with EKC.
Project description:Adenovirus serotype (Ad5) is the most studied Ad. Ad1, 2, and 6 are also members of species C Ad and are presumed to have biologies similar to Ad5. In this work, we have compared the ability of Ad1, 2, 5, and 6 to infect liver and muscle after intravenous and intramuscular injection. We found that Ad6 was surprisingly the most potent at liver gene delivery and that Ad1 and Ad2 were markedly weaker than Ad5 and 6. To understand these differences, we sequenced the Ad6 genome. This revealed that the Ad6 fiber protein is surprisingly three shaft repeats shorter than the others which may explain differences in virus infectivity in vitro, but not in the liver. Comparison of hexon hypervariable regions (HVRs) suggests that the higher transduction by Ad5 and 6 as compared to Ad1 and 2 may be related to differences in charge and length.
Project description:Human adenovirus of strains subgenus F (AdV F) are the most common strains detected in acute gastroenteritis cases in developing countries. Subgenus F is represented by AdV serotype 40 (AdV-40) and AdV-41. Most of the reports have described the predominance of AdV-41 in acute gastroenteritis cases. To gain insight into the epidemiology and genetic variation of AdV-41 strains, we analyzed 1,053 stool specimens from children with diarrhea. Among them, 42 (4.0%) and 56 (5.3%) were positive for enteric adenovirus 40/41 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and PCR, respectively. For 1,305 asymptomatic children, 9 (0.7%) and 22 (1.7%) samples were positive for enteric adenovirus 40/40 by ELISA and PCR, respectively. The age distribution revealed a higher frequency (90%) in children <24 months of age. AdV F infection was observed at a low frequency throughout the year, with an increased incidence occurring during February and March. Sequence analysis of one to three hypervariable regions (HVRs) of the hexon genes of 16 representative AdV-41 strains in this study confirmed circulation of a unique strain with genomic type cluster 1 (GTC1)/GTC2. However, sequence analysis of the fiber genes of these strains confirmed 15 amino acid deletions from the 15th repeat motif of the shaft region. The existence of two GTCs reflects the accumulation of amino acid mutations in the HVR of the hexon gene. The novel AdV-41 strain might follow the same infection pattern as AdV-40. There is no significant variation in the sequences of hexon and fiber genes among strains from symptomatic and asymptomatic children. Our data confirm the circulation of an AdV-41 strain with a novel pattern in Kolkata, India, among children below 5 years of age.
Project description:AIMS:To characterise a novel strain of adenovirus (Ad) type Ad8 (genome type Ad8I) involved in an epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) outbreak in Hiroshima city using serological testing and sequence analysis of the fibre and hexon gene. METHODS:A neutralisation test (NT) was performed in microtitre plates containing a confluent monolayer of A549 cells using 100 tissue culture infectious doses of virus and type specific antisera. The haemagglutination inhibition test was also carried out in microtitre plates with rat erythrocytes using four haemagglutination units of virus and twofold dilutions of serum. The fibre gene was sequenced by generating overlapping polymerase chain reaction products or by direct sequencing of genomic DNA. Primer selection was based on alignment of the fibre genes of human adenovirus serotypes Ad8, Ad19, Ad37, Ad9, and Ad15 available from Gene Bank. RESULTS:The virus strain was specifically neutralised by anti-Ad8 antibodies, although there was a major crossreaction with anti-Ad9 antibodies. Haemagglutination was equally inhibited by anti-Ad8 and anti-Ad9 antibodies. The predicted amino acid sequences of the hypervariable regions (HVRs) of the Ad8I hexon gene showed higher homology with Ad9 (83.3%) than with Ad8 (62.0%). However, the Ad8I fibre knob was more homologous to Ad8 (94.4%) than to Ad9 (91.6%). CONCLUSIONS:Ad8I is a unique strain of adenovirus because of its lower genomic homology with Ad8, major crossreactivity with Ad9 in NT, and mixed genetic organisation of HVRs of the hexon gene. These factors may have enabled the virus to circumvent acquired immunity, resulting in the outbreak.
Project description:Adenoviruses are common pathogens, mostly targeting ocular, gastrointestinal and respiratory cells, but in some cases infection disseminates, presenting in severe clinical outcomes. Upon dissemination and contact with blood, coagulation factor X (FX) interacts directly with the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) hexon. FX can act as a bridge to bind heparan sulphate proteoglycans, leading to substantial Ad5 hepatocyte uptake. FX "coating" also protects the virus from host IgM and complement-mediated neutralisation. However, the contribution of FX in determining Ad liver transduction whilst simultaneously shielding the virus from immune attack remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the FX protection mechanism is not conserved amongst Ad types, and identify the hexon hypervariable regions (HVR) of Ad5 as the capsid proteins targeted by this host defense pathway. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we manipulate Ad5 HVR interactions to interrogate the interplay between viral cell transduction and immune neutralisation. We show that FX and inhibitory serum components can co-compete and virus neutralisation is influenced by both the location and extent of modifications to the Ad5 HVRs. We engineered Ad5-derived HVRs into the rare, native non FX-binding Ad26 to create Ad26.HVR5C. This enabled the virus to interact with FX at high affinity, as quantified by surface plasmon resonance, FX-mediated cell binding and transduction assays. Concomitantly, Ad26.HVR5C was also sensitised to immune attack in the absence of FX, a direct consequence of the engineered HVRs from Ad5. In both immune competent and deficient animals, Ad26.HVR5C hepatic gene transfer was mediated by FX following intravenous delivery. This study gives mechanistic insight into the pivotal role of the Ad5 HVRs in conferring sensitivity to virus neutralisation by IgM and classical complement-mediated attack. Furthermore, through this gain-of-function approach we demonstrate the dual functionality of FX in protecting Ad26.HVR5C against innate immune factors whilst determining liver targeting.
Project description:Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) respiratory infections occurs worldwide in both children and adults, leading to severe morbidity and mortality, particularly in the paediatric age group and especially in neonates. During HAdV infection, neutralizing antibodies are formed against the epitopes located in the hyper variable regions (HVRs) of the hexon protein. These neutralizing antibodies provide protection against reinfection by viruses of the same type. Therefore it is reasonable to speculate that variations of HAdV-3 in the HVRs could impair the immunity acquired by previous infection with a different strain with variation in its HVRs. HAdV-3 has recently become the major agent of acute respiratory infection worldwide, being responsible for 15% to 87% of all adenoviral respiratory infections. However, despite the increased prevalence of HAdV-3 as respiratory pathogen, the diversity of hexon proteins in circulating strains remains unexplored. This study was designed to explore the variation in HVRs of hexon among globally distributed strains of HAdV-3 as well as to discover possible relationship among them, thus possibly shedding light on the cause for the increased prevalence of HAdV-3. In this study, for the first time we analysed the hexon proteins of all 248 available strains of HAdV-3 from the NCBI database and compared them with those of the HAdV-3 prototype (GB stain). We found that the HVRs of HAdV-3 strains circulating worldwide were highly heterogeneous and have been mutating continuously since -their original isolation. Based on their immense heterogeneity, the strains can be categorized into 25 hexon variants (3Hv-1 to 3Hv-25), 4 of which (3Hv-1 to 3Hv-4) comprises 80% of the strains. This heterogeneity may explain why HAdV-3 has become the most prevalent HAdVs type worldwide. The heterogeneity of hexon proteins also shows that the development of a vaccine against HAdV-3 might be challenging. The data on hexon variants provided here may be useful for the future epidemiological study of HAdV-3 infection.