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Genetic Testing in CYLD Cutaneous Syndrome: An Update


ABSTRACT: Abstract CYLD cutaneous syndrome (CCS) is an inclusive label for the inherited skin adnexal tumour syndromes Brooke–Spiegler Syndrome (BSS-OMIM 605041), familial cylindromatosis (FC – OMIM 132700) and multiple familial trichoepitheliomas (MFT-OMIM 601606). All three syndromes arise due to germline pathogenic variants in CYLD, a tumour suppressor gene (OMIM 605018). CCS is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern, and has variable expressivity, both of the three syndromic phenotypes, and of the severity of tumour burden. Age-related penetrance figures are not precisely reported. The first tumours typically appear during puberty and progressively accumulate through adulthood. Penetrance is typically high, with equal numbers of males and females affected. Genetic testing is important for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis, genetic counselling and family planning, including preimplantation diagnosis. Additionally, identified CCS patients may be eligible for future clinical trials of non-surgical pre-emptive interventions that aim to prevent tumour growth. In this update, we review the clinical presentations of germline and mosaic CCS. An overview of the germline pathogenic variant spectrum of patients with CCS reveals more than 100 single nucleotide variants and small insertions and deletions in coding exons, most frequently resulting in predicted truncation. In addition, a minority of patients have large deletions involving the CYLD gene, intronic pathogenic variants that affect splicing, or inversions. We discuss germline and somatic testing approaches. Somatic testing of tumour tissue, relevant in mosaic CCS, can reveal recurrently detected pathogenic variants when two or more tumours are tested. This can influence genetic testing of children, who may inherit this as a germline variant, and inform genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. Finally, we discuss testing technologies that are currently used, their benefits and limitations, and future directions for genetic testing in CCS.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC8566010 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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