Genetic Testing in CYLD Cutaneous Syndrome: An Update
ABSTRACT: Abstract CYLD cutaneous syndrome (CCS) is an inclusive label for the inherited skin adnexal tumour syndromes Brooke–Spiegler Syndrome (BSS-OMIM 605041), familial cylindromatosis (FC – OMIM 132700) and multiple familial trichoepitheliomas (MFT-OMIM 601606). All three syndromes arise due to germline pathogenic variants in CYLD, a tumour suppressor gene (OMIM 605018). CCS is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern, and has variable expressivity, both of the three syndromic phenotypes, and of the severity of tumour burden. Age-related penetrance figures are not precisely reported. The first tumours typically appear during puberty and progressively accumulate through adulthood. Penetrance is typically high, with equal numbers of males and females affected. Genetic testing is important for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis, genetic counselling and family planning, including preimplantation diagnosis. Additionally, identified CCS patients may be eligible for future clinical trials of non-surgical pre-emptive interventions that aim to prevent tumour growth. In this update, we review the clinical presentations of germline and mosaic CCS. An overview of the germline pathogenic variant spectrum of patients with CCS reveals more than 100 single nucleotide variants and small insertions and deletions in coding exons, most frequently resulting in predicted truncation. In addition, a minority of patients have large deletions involving the CYLD gene, intronic pathogenic variants that affect splicing, or inversions. We discuss germline and somatic testing approaches. Somatic testing of tumour tissue, relevant in mosaic CCS, can reveal recurrently detected pathogenic variants when two or more tumours are tested. This can influence genetic testing of children, who may inherit this as a germline variant, and inform genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. Finally, we discuss testing technologies that are currently used, their benefits and limitations, and future directions for genetic testing in CCS.
Project description:The clinical presentation of multiple, rare, skin appendage tumours called cylindromas has been attributed to germline mutations in the tumour suppressor gene CYLD (OMIM 605018). Brooke-Spiegler Syndrome (BSS), familial cylindromatosis (FC) and multiple familial trichoepitheliomas (MFT) (OMIM #605041, #132700, #601606 respectively) differ due to the types of other skin appendage tumour seen together with cylindroma, such as spiradenoma and trichoepithelioma. Previously thought to be separate entities, they are now viewed as allelic variants with overlapping phenotypes, supported by mutation analysis of CYLD . The conditions display autosomal dominant inheritance and affected individuals develop multiple benign skin tumours most commonly on the head and neck. CYLD testing can be performed using PCR and Sanger sequencing for patients with: 1. Multiple cylindromas, spiradenomas or trichoepitheliomas. 2. A single cylindroma, spiradenoma or trichoepithelioma and an affected first-degree relative with any of these tumours. 3. An asymptomatic family member at 50% risk with a known mutation in the family.
Project description:The identification of the genetic risk factors in patients with isolated cleft palate by whole genome sequencing analysis. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were discovered in genes associated with CP (TBX22, COL2A1, FBN1, PCGF2, and KMT2D) in five patients; hence, rare disease variants were identified in 17% of patients with non-syndromic isolated CP. Our results are relevant to routine genetic counselling practice and genetic testing recommendations.
Project description:Germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes are responsible for 5 to 10% of all diagnosed cancers, which are commonly known as hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes (HCPS). A total of 104 individuals at high risk of HCPS were selected by genetic counselling for genetic testing in the past 2 years. Most of them were subjects having a personal and family history of breast cancer (BC) selected according to current established criteria. Genes analysis involved in HCPS was assessed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) using a custom cancer panel with high- and moderate-risk susceptibility genes. Germline PVs were identified in 17 of 104 individuals (16.3%) analysed, while variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were identified in 21/104 (20.2%) cases. Concerning the germline PVs distribution among the 13 BC individuals with positive findings, 8/13 (61.5%) were in the <i>BRCA1/2</i> genes, whereas 5/13 (38.4%) were in other high- or moderate-risk genes including <i>PALB2</i>, <i>TP53</i>, <i>ATM</i> and <i>CHEK2</i>. NGS genetic testing showed that 6/13 (46.1%) of the PVs observed in BC patients were detected in triple-negative BC. Interestingly, the likelihood of carrying the PVs in the moderate-to-high-risk genes calculated by the cancer risk model BOADICEA was significantly higher in pathogenic variant carriers than in negative subjects. Collectively, this study shows that multigene panel testing can offer an effective diagnostic approach for patients at high risk of hereditary cancers.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine the frequency of germline and somatic pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer tested by next-generation sequencing (NGS), with the aim of defining the best strategy to be implemented in future routine testing.<h4>Design</h4>National retrospective audit.<h4>Setting</h4>The All Wales Medical Genomics Service (AWMGS).<h4>Population</h4>Patients with high-grade serous ovarian/fallopian tube/peritoneal cancer referred by oncologists to the AWMGS between February 2015 and February 2021 for germline and/or tumour testing of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes by NGS.<h4>Methods</h4>Analysis of NGS data from germline and/or tumour testing.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants.<h4>Results</h4>The overall observed germline/somatic pathogenic variant detection rate was 11.6% in the 844 patients included in this study, with a 9.2% (73/791) germline pathogenic variant detection rate. Parallel tumour and germline testing was carried out for 169 patients and the overall pathogenic variant detection rate for this cohort was 14.8%, with 6.5% (11/169) shown to have a somatic pathogenic variant. Two BRCA1 dosage variants were found during germline screens, representing 2.0% (2/98) of patients with a pathogenic variant that would have been missed through tumour testing alone.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Parallel germline and tumour BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing maximises the detection of pathogenic variants in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer.<h4>Tweetable abstract</h4>Parallel germline and tumour testing maximises BRCA pathogenic variant detection in ovarian cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:CYLD cutaneous syndrome (CCS; syn. Brooke-Spiegler syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease characterized by multiple adnexal skin tumors including cylindromas, spiradenomas, and trichoepitheliomas. More than 100 germline mutations of the cylindromatosis (CYLD) gene have been reported in CCS and most of them are frameshift mutations or small alterations. METHODS:We identified a large, three-generation Chinese family with CCS, which consisted of 18 living family members, including six affected individuals. To explore the molecular biology of this family, we carried out targeted next-generation sequencing and Affymetrix CytoScan HD SNP array to analyze the mutation in the CYLD gene. RESULTS:A novel large deletion mutation, NC_000016.9:g.(50826498_50827517)_(50963389-50967346)del was found in the proband of this family. This deletion results in the loss of a nearly 140 kb fragment of the CYLD gene, spanning exons 17 ~ 20, which represent the coding regions of the ubiquitin-specific protease domain. Further quantitative polymerase chain reaction proved that all patients and two proband-related family members carried this large deletion. CONCLUSIONS:Our study expands the types of mutations in CCS and will undoubtedly provide valuable information for genetic counseling for families affected by the condition.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Clusters of rare cylindroma or spiradenoma tumors are a recurrent clinical presentation, yet conventional genetic testing results in individuals with these tumors are frequently normal.<h4>Objective</h4>To determine if genetic mosaicism accounts for such cases.<h4>Methods</h4>A study of 6 cases from a series of 55 patients who met criteria for diagnostic gene testing for pathogenic CYLD variants over a 5-year period (2012-2017) was performed. A novel genetic assay was used to study DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes and, where possible, matched skin and tumor tissue.<h4>Results</h4>Two patients had mosaic pathogenic CYLD variants in both the blood and skin. One of these patients transmitted a pathogenic variant to her daughter, and we report the novel phenotype of a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving CYLD. Two patients had recurrent pathogenic variants in skin tumors from a single cluster but none detectable in the blood.<h4>Limitations</h4>The remaining 2 patients had clinical features of mosaicism, but these cases were not solved with the assays used because of a lack of access of fresh tumor tissue.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Genetic mosaicism should be considered in patients presenting with clustered cylindromas, because this may inform genetic testing and counseling of these patients.
Project description:Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have facilitated multi-gene panel (MGP) testing to detect germline DNA variants in hereditary cancer patients. This sensitive technique can uncover unexpected, non-germline incidental findings indicative of mosaicism, clonal hematopoiesis (CH), or hematologic malignancies. A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify cases of incidental findings from NGS-MGP testing. Inclusion criteria included: 1) multiple pathogenic variants in the same patient; 2) pathogenic variants at a low allele fraction; and/or 3) the presence of pathogenic variants not consistent with family history. Secondary tissue analysis, complete blood count (CBC) and medical record review were conducted to further delineate the etiology of the pathogenic variants. Of 6060 NGS-MGP tests, 24 cases fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified. Pathogenic variants were detected in TP53, ATM, CHEK2, BRCA1 and APC. 18/24 (75.0%) patients were classified as CH, 3/24 (12.5%) as mosaic, 2/24 (8.3%) related to a hematologic malignancy, and 1/24 (4.2%) as true germline. We describe a case-specific workflow to identify and interpret the nature of incidental findings on NGS-MGP. This workflow will provide oncology and genetic clinics a practical guide for the management and counselling of patients with unexpected NGS-MGP findings.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>DICER1 syndrome encompasses a variety of benign and malignant manifestations including multinodular goitre, which is the most common manifestation among individuals carrying pathogenic <i>DICER1</i> variants. This is the first study estimating the prevalence of pathogenic <i>DICER1</i> variants in young individuals with multinodular goitre.<h4>Methods</h4>Danish individuals diagnosed with nodular goitre based on thyroidectomy samples in 2001-2016 with the age limit at time of operation being ≤ 25 years were offered germline <i>DICER1</i> gene testing.<h4>Results</h4>Six of 46 individuals, 13% (CI [3.3;22.7], p <0.05), diagnosed with nodular goitre on the basis of thyroidectomy samples under the age of 25 years had pathogenic germline variants in <i>DICER1</i>. They were found in different pathoanatomical nodular goitre cohorts i.e. nodular goitre (n=2), colloid nodular goitre (n=3) and hyperplastic nodular goitre (n=1).<h4>Conclusions</h4>We recommend referral of patients thyroidectomised due to goitre aged <21 years and patients thyroidectomised due to goitre aged <25 years with a family history of goitre to genetic counselling. Patients of all ages thyroidectomised due to goitre, who are affected by another DICER1 manifestation should be referred to genetic counselling.
Project description:Germline mutations in the cylindromatosis gene (CYLD) are associated with a rare autosomal dominant disease known as CYLD cutaneous syndrome (CCS). Patients present multiple neoplasms originating from skin appendages. Here, we investigated the main clinical and molecular features of a large family with CCS having lived in a small Brazilian town for 6 generations, making its prevalence significantly high. We observed a predominance of the disease among males and a wide phenotypic variation. A high frequency of basal cell carcinomas among affected people was found. The mutation c.2806C>T, p.Arg936* in the CYLD gene was detected in all patients. In this work, a geographical cluster of CCS was found, which raised some community genetics issues related not only to the high prevalence of a rare disease in a limited area but also to the strong social stigma associated with the disease.
Project description:It is increasingly common in oncology practice to perform tumour sequencing using large cancer panels. For pathogenic sequence variants in cancer susceptibility genes identified on tumour-only sequencing, it is often unclear whether they are of somatic or constitutional (germline) origin. There is wide-spread disparity regarding both the extent to which systematic 'germline-focussed analysis' is carried out upon tumour sequencing data and for which variants follow-up analysis of a germline sample is carried out. Here we present analyses of paired sequencing data from 17 152 cancer samples, in which 1494 pathogenic sequence variants were identified across 65 cancer susceptibility genes. From these analyses, the European Society of Medical Oncology Precision Medicine Working Group Germline Subgroup has generated (i) recommendations regarding germline-focussed analyses of tumour-only sequencing data, (ii) indications for germline follow-up testing and (iii) guidance on patient information-giving and consent.