The Discovery of Actinospene, a New Polyene Macrolide with Broad Activity against Plant Fungal Pathogens and Pathogenic Yeasts.
ABSTRACT: Phytopathogenic fungi infect crops, presenting a worldwide threat to agriculture. Polyene macrolides are one of the most effective antifungal agents applied in human therapy and crop protection. In this study, we found a cryptic polyene biosynthetic gene cluster in Actinokineospora spheciospongiae by genome mining. Then, this gene cluster was activated via varying fermentation conditions, leading to the discovery of new polyene actinospene (1), which was subsequently isolated and its structure determined through spectroscopic techniques including UV, HR-MS, and NMR. The absolute configuration was confirmed by comparing the calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Unlike known polyene macrolides, actinospene (1) demonstrated more versatile post-assembling decorations including two epoxide groups and an unusual isobutenyl side chain. In bioassays, actinospene (1) showed a broad spectrum of antifungal activity against several plant fungal pathogens as well as pathogenic yeasts with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 2 and 10 μg/mL.
Project description:The use of antimycotic drugs in fungal infections is based on the concept that they suppress fungal growth by a direct killing effect. However, amphotericin and nystatin have been reported to also trigger interleukin-1? (IL-1?) secretion in monocytes but the molecular mechanism is unknown. Here we report that only the polyene macrolides amphotericin B, nystatin, and natamycin but none of the tested azole antimycotic drugs induce significant IL-1? secretion in-vitro in dendritic cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow. IL-1? release depended on Toll-like receptor-mediated induction of pro-IL-1? as well as the NLRP3 inflammasome, its adaptor ASC, and caspase-1 for enzymatic cleavage of pro-IL-1? into its mature form. All three drugs induced potassium efflux from the cells as a known mechanism for NLRP3 activation but the P2X7 receptor was not required for this process. Natamycin-induced IL-1? secretion also involved phagocytosis, as cathepsin activation as described for crystal-induced IL-1? release. Together, the polyene macrolides amphotericin B, nystatin, and natamycin trigger IL-1? secretion by causing potassium efflux from which activates the NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1. We conclude that beyond their effects on fungal growth, these antifungal drugs directly activate the host's innate immunity.
Project description:Polyene macrolides such as nystatin A1 and amphotericin B belong to a large family of very valuable antifungal polyketide compounds typically produced by soil actinomycetes. Recently, nystatin-like Pseudonocardia polyene (NPP) A1 has been identified as a unique disaccharide-containing tetraene antifungal macrolide produced by Pseudonocardia autotrophica. Despite its significantly increased water solubility and decreased hemolytic activity, its antifungal activity remains limited compared with that of nystatin A1. In this study, we developed NPP B1, a novel NPP A1 derivative harboring a heptaene core structure, by introducing two amino acid substitutions in the putative NADPH-binding motif of the enoyl reductase domain in module 5 of the NPP A1 polyketide synthase NppC. The low level NPP B1 production yield was successfully improved by eliminating the native plasmid encoding a polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster present in P. autotrophica. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity and toxicity studies indicated that NPP B1 exhibited comparable antifungal activity against Candida albicans and was less toxic than the most potent heptaene antifungal, amphotericin B. Moreover, NPP B1 showed improved pharmacokinetic parameters compared to those of amphotericin B, suggesting that NPP B1 could be a promising candidate for development into a pharmacokinetically improved and less-toxic polyene antifungal antibiotic.
Project description:Polyene macrolide antibiotics are naturally occurring antifungal agents. Members of this class include amphotericin B, which has been used widely to treat systemic fungal infections. A general synthetic strategy has been devised to prepare polyol chains associated with the polyene macrolides. Cyanohydrin acetonide alkylations were used to assemble the carbon skeleton, and a simple modification of the strategy allowed an advanced intermediate to be converted to either the candidin polyol or the nystatin polyol. The candidin polyol was further elaborated to a protected candidin aglycone. This strategy will be applicable to other members of the polyene macrolide natural products.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polyene antibiotics are important as antifungal medicines albeit with serious side effects such as nephrotoxicity. Reedsmycin (RDM) A (1), produced by marine-derived Streptomyces youssoufiensis OUC6819, is a non-glycosylated polyene macrolide antibiotic with antifungal activity comparable to that of clinically used nystatin. To elucidate its biosynthetic machinery, herein, the rdm biosynthetic gene cluster was cloned and characterized. RESULTS:The rdm cluster is located within a 104 kb DNA region harboring 21 open reading frames (ORFs), among which 15 ORFs were designated as rdm genes. The assembly line for RDM A is proposed on the basis of module and domain analysis of the polyketide synthetases (PKSs) RdmGHIJ, which catalyze 16 rounds of decarboxylative condensation using malonyl-CoA as the starter unit (loading module), two methylmalonyl-CoA (module 1 and 2), and fourteen malonyl-CoA (module 3-16) as extender units successively. However, the predicted substrate specificity of AT0 in the loading module is methylmalonyl-CoA instead of malonyl-CoA. Interestingly, the rdm cluster contains a five-gene regulation system RdmACDEF, which is different from other reported polyene gene clusters. In vivo experiments demonstrated the XRE family regulator RdmA and the PAS/LuxR family regulator RdmF function in negative and positive manner, respectively. Notably, inactivation of rdmA and overexpression of rdmF led to increased production of RDM A by ~?2.0-fold and ~?2.5-fold, reaching yields of 155.3?±?1.89 and 184.8?±?9.93 mg/L, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Biosynthesis of RDM A is accomplished on a linear assembly line catalyzed by Rdm PKSs harboring a unique AT0 under the control of a complex regulatory system. These findings enable generation of new biologically active RDM derivatives at high yield and with improved properties by engineered biosynthesis.
Project description:Polyene macrolide antibiotics, including nystatin and amphotericin B, possess fungicidal activity and are being used as antifungal agents to treat both superficial and invasive fungal infections. Due to their toxicity, however, their clinical applications are relatively limited, and new-generation polyene macrolides with an improved therapeutic index are highly desirable. We subjected the polyol region of the heptaene nystatin analogue S44HP to biosynthetic engineering designed to remove and introduce hydroxyl groups in the C-9-C-10 region. This modification strategy involved inactivation of the P450 monooxygenase NysL and the dehydratase domain in module 15 (DH15) of the nystatin polyketide synthase. Subsequently, these modifications were combined with replacement of the exocyclic C-16 carboxyl with the methyl group through inactivation of the P450 monooxygenase NysN. Four new polyene macrolides with up to three chemical modifications were generated, produced at relatively high yields (up to 0.51 g/liter), purified, structurally characterized, and subjected to in vitro assays for antifungal and hemolytic activities. Introduction of a C-9 hydroxyl by DH15 inactivation also blocked NysL-catalyzed C-10 hydroxylation, and these modifications caused a drastic decrease in both antifungal and hemolytic activities of the resulting analogues. In contrast, single removal of the C-10 hydroxyl group by NysL inactivation had only a marginal effect on these activities. Results from the extended antifungal assays strongly suggested that the 9-hydroxy-10-deoxy S44HP analogues became fungistatic rather than fungicidal antibiotics.
Project description:Bioactive natural products from mangrove-derived actinomycetes are important sources for discovery of drug lead compounds. In this study, an extract prepared from culture of an actinomycete Streptomyces sp. ZQ4BG isolated from mangrove soils was found to have activity in inhibiting proliferation of glioma cells. Large culture of this mangrove actinomycete in Gause's liquid medium resulted in isolation of seven novel polyene-polyol macrolides, named as flavofungins III-IX (3-9), together with known flavofungins I (1) and II (2) and spectinabilin (10). Structures of these isolated compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR analyses and HRESIMS data. The stereochemical assignments were achieved by a combination of NOE information, universal NMR database, and chemical reactions including preparation of acetonide derivatives and Mosher esters. Flavofungins IV-VIII (4-8) are rare 32-membered polyene-polyol macrolides with a tetrahydrofuran ring, while flavofungin IX (9) represents the first example of this type of macrolide with a unique oxepane ring. Flavofungins I (1) and II (2) and spectinabilin (10) showed anti-glioma and antifungal activities.
Project description:Strain JAU4234, identified as Streptomyces padanus, was isolated from soil collected in Jiangxi Province, China. It produced actinomycin X2, fungichromin, and a new polyene macrolide compound with antifungal activity, antifungalmycin 702. Antifungalmycin 702 had good general antifungal activity and may have potential future agricultural and/or clinical applications.
Project description:We report the draft genome sequence of Actinokineospora bangkokensis 44EHWT, the producer of the antifungal polyene compounds, thailandins A and B. The sequence contains 7.45 Mb, 74.1% GC content and 35 putative gene clusters for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There are three gene clusters encoding large polyketide synthases of type I. Annotation of the ORF functions and targeted gene disruption enabled us to identify the cluster for thailandin biosynthesis. We propose a plausible biosynthetic pathway for thailandin, where the unusual butylmalonyl-CoA extender unit is incorporated and results in an untypical side chain.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Polyenes represent a major class of antifungal agents characterised by the presence of a series of conjugated double bonds in their planar hydroxylated macrolide ring structure. Despite their general interest, very little is known about the factors that modulate their biosynthesis. Among these factors, we have recently discovered a new inducing compound (PI-factor) in the pimaricin producer Streptomyces natalensis, which elicits polyene production in a manner characteristic of quorum sensing. Here, we describe the involvement of an amino-acid exporter from S. natalensis in modulating the expression of pimaricin biosynthetic genes via secretion of the quorum-sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor. RESULTS: Adjacent to the pimaricin gene cluster lies a member of the RhtB family of amino-acid exporters. Gene deletion and complementation experiments provided evidence for a role for PimT in the export of L-homoserine, L-serine, and L-homoserine lactone. Expression of the gene was shown to be induced by homoserine and by the quorum-sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor. Interestingly, the mutant displayed 65% loss of pimaricin production, and also 50% decrease in the production of PI, indicating that PimT is used as PI-factor exporter, and suggesting that the effect in antifungal production might be due to limited secretion of the inducer. CONCLUSION: This report describes the involvement of an amino acid exporter (encoded by pimT in the vicinity of the pimaricin cluster) in modulating the expression of antibiotic biosynthetic genes via secretion of the quorum-sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor. The discovery of the participation of amino acid exporters in a signal transduction cascade for the production of polyene macrolides is unexpected, and represents an important step forward towards understanding the regulatory network for polyene regulation. Additionally, this finding constitutes the first detailed characterization of an amino-acid exporter in an Actinomycete, and to our knowledge, the first evidence for the implication of this type of exporters in quorum sensing.
Project description:The bacteria harbored by fungus-growing ants produce a variety of small molecules that help maintain a complex multilateral symbiosis. In a survey of antifungal compounds from these bacteria, we discovered selvamicin, an unusual antifungal polyene macrolide, in bacterial isolates from two neighboring ant nests. Selvamicin resembles the clinically important antifungals nystatin A1 and amphotericin B, but it has several distinctive structural features: a noncationic 6-deoxymannose sugar at the canonical glycosylation site and a second sugar, an unusual 4-O-methyldigitoxose, at the opposite end of selvamicin's shortened polyene macrolide. It also lacks some of the pharmacokinetic liabilities of the clinical agents and appears to have a different target. Whole genome sequencing revealed the putative type I polyketide gene cluster responsible for selvamicin's biosynthesis including a subcluster of genes consistent with selvamicin's 4-O-methyldigitoxose sugar. Although the selvamicin biosynthetic cluster is virtually identical in both bacterial producers, in one it is on the chromosome, in the other it is on a plasmid. These alternative genomic contexts illustrate the biosynthetic gene cluster mobility that underlies the diversity and distribution of chemical defenses by the specialized bacteria in this multilateral symbiosis.