Sensitive and Selective Electrochemical Detection of Epirubicin as Anticancer Drug Based on Nickel Ferrite Decorated with Gold Nanoparticles.
ABSTRACT: The accurate and precise monitoring of epirubicin (EPR), one of the most widely used anticancer drugs, is significant for human and environmental health. In this context, we developed a highly sensitive electrochemical electrode for EPR detection based on nickel ferrite decorated with gold nanoparticles (Au@NiFe2O4) on the screen-printed electrode (SPE). Various spectral characteristic methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to investigate the surface morphology and structure of the synthesized Au@NiFe2O4 nanocomposite. The novel decorated electrode exhibited a high electrocatalytic activity toward the electrooxidation of EPR, and a nanomolar limit of detection (5.3 nM) was estimated using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) with linear concentration ranges from 0.01 to 0.7 and 0.7 to 3.6 µM. The stability, selectivity, repeatability reproducibility and reusability, with a very low electrode response detection limit, make it very appropriate for determining trace amounts of EPR in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.
Project description:In this work, gold and bismuth bimetallic nanoparticles decorated L-cysteine functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposites (Au-BiNPs/SH-GO) were prepared and applied to selective detection of Fe(III) in lake and seawater samples by modifying onto glassy carbon electrodes. Bimetallic nanoparticles have various excellent properties and better catalytic properties because of the unique synergistic effect between metals. The modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Under optimized conditions, current peak intensity increased linearly with increasing Fe(III) concentration over the range of 0.2-50 μM and a detection limit of 0.07 μM (S/N = 3). The Au-BiNPs/SH-GO/GCE was used for the determination of Fe(III) in lake and seawater samples with recoveries ranged from 90 to 103%. Those satisfactory results revealed the potential application of the Au-BiNPs/SH-GO electrochemical sensor for heavy metals detection in environmental monitoring.
Project description:Graphical abstract A sensitive and fast sandwich-type electrochemical SARS-CoV‑2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid protein immunosensor was prepared based on bismuth tungstate/bismuth sulfide composite (Bi2WO6/Bi2S3) as electrode platform and graphitic carbon nitride sheet decorated with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and tungsten trioxide sphere composite (g-C3N4/Au/WO3) as signal amplification. The electrostatic interactions between capture antibody and Bi2WO6/Bi2S3 led to immobilization of the capture nucleocapsid antibody. The detection antibody was then conjugated to g-C3N4/Au/WO3 via the affinity of amino-gold. After physicochemically characterization via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis were implemented to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the prepared immunosensor. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (SARS-CoV-2 NP) in a small saliva sample (100.0 µL) took just 30 min and yielded a detection limit (LOD) of 3.00 fg mL−1, making it an effective tool for point-of-care COVID-19 testing. <h4>Supplementary Information</h4> The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00604-021-05092-6.
Project description:Linker-free magnetite nanoparticles (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>NPs)-decorated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were grown using a new protocol that can be used as a new platform for synthesis of other intact metal-metal oxide nanocomposites without the need for linkers. This minimizes the distance between the metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and ensures the optimum combined effects between the two material interfaces. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the successful synthesis of the Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-Au nanocomposite, without any change in the magnetite phase. Characterization, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, revealed the composite to consist of AuNPs of 70 ± 10 nm diameter decorated with tiny 10 ± 3 nm diameter Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>NPs in Au:Fe mass ratio of 5:1. The prepared Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-Au nanocomposite was embedded in ionic liquid (IL) and applied for the modification of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the electrochemical detection of As(III) in water. By combining the excellent catalytic properties of the AuNPs with the high adsorption capacity of the tiny Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>NPs towards As(III), as well as the good conductivity of IL, the Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-Au-IL nanocomposite showed excellent performance in the square wave anodic stripping voltammetry detection of As(III). Under the optimized conditions, a linear range of 1 to 100 ?g/L was achieved with a detection limit of 0.22 ?g/L (S/N = 3), and no interference from 100-fold higher concentrations of a wide variety of cations and anions found in water. A very low residual standard deviation of 1.16% confirmed the high precision/reproducibility of As(III) analysis and the reliability of the Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-Au-IL sensing interface. Finally, this proposed sensing interface was successfully applied to analyzing synthetic river and wastewater samples with a 95-101% recovery, demonstrating excellent accuracy, even in complex synthetic river and wastewater samples containing high concentrations of humic acid without any sample pretreatments.
Project description:A promising alternative route for the synthesis of three-dimensional Au dendrites was developed by direct electrodeposition from a solution of HAuCl<sub>4</sub> containing 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS). Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry were used to study the interaction of APTS in electrolyte. The effect of APTS on the formation of the hierarchical structure of Au dendrites was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, rotating disk electrode, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance. The growth directions of the trunks and branches of the Au dendrites can be controlled by sweep-potential electrodeposition to obtain more regular structures. The efficacy of as-synthesised Au dendrites was demonstrated in the enhanced electro-catalytic activity to methanol electro-oxidation and the high sensitivity of glucose detection, which have potential applications in direct-methanol fuel cells and non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensors, respectively.
Project description:Herein, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based electrochemical sensor for the determination of the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2-RBD) has been developed. For this purpose, first, a macroporous gold screen-printed electrode (MP-Au-SPE) has been fabricated. The MIP was then synthesized on the surface of the MP-Au-SPE through the electro-polymerization of ortho-phenylenediamine in the presence of SARS-CoV-2-RBD molecules as matrix polymer, and template molecules, respectively. During the fabrication process, the SARS-CoV-2-RBD molecules were embedded in the polymer matrix. Subsequently, the template molecules were removed from the electrode by using alkaline ethanol. The template molecules removal was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR). The fabricated MIP film acted as an artificial recognition element for the measurement of SARS-CoV-2-RBD. The EIS technique was used for the measurement of the SARS-CoV-2-RBD in the saliva solution. The electron transfer resistance (R<sub>et</sub>) of the MIP-based sensor in a ferri/ferrocyanide solution increased as the SARS-CoV-2-RBD concentration increased due to the occupation of the imprinted cavities by the SARS-CoV-2-RBD. The MIP-based sensor exhibited a good response to the SARS-CoV-2-RBD in the concentration range between 2.0 and 40.0 pg mL<sup>-1</sup> with a limit of detection of 0.7 pg mL<sup>-1</sup>. The obtained results showed that the fabricated MIP sensor has high selectivity sensitivity, and stability.
Project description:In this work, three different aqueous solutions containing imidazole-based ILs with different alkyl chain lengths ([Cnmim]Br, n = 2, 6, 12) were adopted as the medium for the synthesis of ionic liquid-polypyrrole (IL-PPy) composites. Herein, the ILs undertook the roles of the pyrrole solvent, the media for emulsion polymerization of PPy and PPy dopants, respectively. The electrochemical performances of the three IL-PPy composites on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated by electrochemical experiments, which indicated that [C12mim]Br-PPy (C12-PPy) composites displayed better electrochemical performance due to their larger surface area and firmer immobilization on the GCE. Further, C12-PPy/GCE were decorated with Au microparticles by electrodeposition that can not only increase the conductivity, but also immobilize sufficient biomolecules on the electrode. Then, the obtained C12-PPy-Au/GCE with outstanding electrochemical performance was employed as a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilization platform to fabricate a novel C12-PPy-Au-HRP/GCE biosensor for H?O? detection. The results showed that the prepared C12-PPy-Au-HRP/GCE biosensor exhibited high sensitivity, fast response, and a wide detection range as well as low detection limit towards H?O?. This work not only provides an outstanding biomolecule immobilization matrix for the fabrication of highly sensitive biosensors, but also advances the understanding of the roles of ILs in improving the electrochemical performance of biosensors.
Project description:Hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) as a crucial signal molecule plays a vital part in the growth and development of various cells under normal physiological conditions. The development of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> sensors has received great research interest because of the importance of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> in biological systems and its practical applications in other fields. In this study, a H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> electrochemical sensor was constructed based on chalcogenide molybdenum disulfide-gold-silver nanocomposite (MoS<sub>2</sub>-Au-Ag). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were utilized to characterize the nanocomposites, and the electrochemical performances of the obtained sensor were assessed by two electrochemical detection methods: cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results showed that the MoS<sub>2</sub>-Au-Ag-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has higher sensitivity (405.24 µA mM<sup>-1</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup>), wider linear detection range (0.05-20 mM) and satisfactory repeatability and stability. Moreover, the prepared sensor was able to detect the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> discharge from living tumor cells. Therefore, this study offers a platform for the early diagnosis of cancer and other applications in the fields of biology and biomedicine.
Project description:A novel composite film was designed for use as a highly selective mediator-free amperometric biosensor, and a method was created for accomplishing direct electrochemistry of myoglobin on a multi-walled carbon nanotube and tyramine-modified composite decorated with Au nanoparticles on a glassy carbon electrode. The ultraviolet-visible and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results showed that myoglobin retained its native conformation in the interaction with Au-PTy-f-MWCNT. The surface coverage of Mb-heme-Fe((II)/(III)) immobilized on Au-PTy-f-MWCNT and the heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant were 2.12 × 10(-9) mol cm(-2) and 4.86 s(-1), respectively, indicating a higher loading capacity of the nanocomposite for direct electron transfer of Mb onto the electrode surface. The proposed Mb/Au-PTy-f-MWCNT biofilm exhibited excellent electrocatalytic behavior toward the reduction of H2O2 and the oxidation of nitrite with linear ranges of 2 to 5000 μM and 1 to 8000 μM and lower detection limits of 0.01 μM and 0.002 μM, respectively. An apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.12 mM indicated that the Mb immobilized on the Au-PTy-f-MWCNT film retained its native activity. This biosensor can be successfully applied to detect H2O2 and nitrite in disinfectant cream, eye drops, pickle juice, and milk samples.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proposed as diagnostic biomarkers for the screening of non-small cell lung cancer and monitoring disease progression. Accordingly, new, rapid, and cost-effective lncRNA biosensors that can be used clinically are urgently needed. Herein, a novel effective and ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor was developed based on a gold nanocage coupled with an amidated multi-walled carbon nanotube (Au NCs/MWCNT-NH<sub>2</sub>)-decorated screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Because of its large surface area, superior conductivity, and excellent biocompatibility, this SPCE Au NCs/MWCNT-NH<sub>2</sub> lncRNA biosensor showed a wide linear range (10<sup>-7</sup>-10<sup>-14</sup> M) and low limit of detection limit (42.8 fM) coupled with satisfactory selectivity and stability. Compared to traditional RT-PCR, the proposed method exhibits acceptable stability, good selectivity, is simpler to operate, has faster detection, and uses less costly raw materials. In summary, this biosensor may be a powerful tool for detecting lncRNAs for efficient clinical prognosis and cancer diagnosis.
Project description:Bimetallic alloy Au-Cu nanoparticles (Au-Cu alloy NPs) were synthesized using a chemical reduction method for sensing applications. Electronic absorption spectroscopy (UV-visible spectroscopy), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for the confirmation and morphological studies of the synthesized nanoparticles. The composition of Au-Cu alloy NPs was studied by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The high crystallinity of Au-Cu alloy NPs was demonstrated by XRD analysis. Both XRD and SEM analyses revealed that the nanoparticles' size ranges from 15 to 25 nm. Pyrrole was polymerized into polypyrrole (PPy) over a neat and clean glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by potentiodynamic polymerization. The sensitivity of GCE was improved by modifying it into a composite electrode. The composite electrode was developed by coating GCE with an overoxidized PPy polymer followed by Au-Cu alloy NPs. The ratio of Au and Cu was carefully controlled. The composite electrode (PPyox/Au-Cu/GCE) successfully detected an environmental toxin anthracene with a detection limit of 0.15 ?M, as evidenced by cyclic voltammetry (CV), square-wave voltammetry (SWV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).