New Sequence Types and Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Strains of Streptococcus suis in Diseased Pigs, Italy, 2017-2019.
ABSTRACT: Streptococcus suis is a pathogen associated with severe diseases in pigs and humans. Human infections have a zoonotic origin in pigs. To assess circulating strains, we characterized the serotypes, sequence types, and antimicrobial susceptibility of 78 S. suis isolates from diseased farmed pigs in Italy during 2017-2019. Almost 60% of infections were caused by serotypes 1/2 and 9. All but 1 of the serotype 2 and 1/2 isolates were confined to a single cluster, and serotype 9 isolates were distributed along the phylogenetic tree. Besides sequence type (ST) 1, the serotype 2 cluster included ST7, which caused severe human infections in China in 1998 and 2005. A large proportion of serotype 9 isolates, assigned to ST123, were resistant to penicillin. The emergence of this clone threatens the successful treatment of S. suis infection. Characterizing S. suis isolates from pigs will promote earlier detection of emerging clones.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an economically important pathogen of pigs as well as a zoonotic cause of human disease. Serotyping is used for further characterization of isolates; some serotypes seem to be more virulent and more widely spread than others. This study characterizes a collection of German field isolates of Streptococcus suis from pigs dating from 1996 to 2016 with respect to capsular genes (cps) specific for individual serotypes and pathotype by multiplex PCR and relates results to the clinical background of these isolates. The most prominent finding was the reduction in prevalence of serotype-2/serotype-1/2 among invasive isolates during this sampling period, which might be attributed to widely implemented autogenous vaccination programs in swine against serotype 2 in Germany. In diseased pigs (systemically ill; respiratory disease) isolates of serotype-1/serotype-14, serotype-2/serotype-1/2, serotype 3 to 5 and 7 to 9 were most frequent while in carrier isolates a greater variety of cps types was found. Serotype-1/serotype-14 seemed to be preferentially located in joints, serotype 4 and serotype 3 in the central nervous system, respectively. The virulence associated extracellular protein factor was almost exclusively associated with invasive serotype-1/serotype-14 and serotype-2/serotype-1/2 isolates. In contrast, lung isolates of serotype-2/serotype-1/2 mainly harbored the gene for muramidase-released protein. Serotype 4 and serotype 9 isolates from clinically diseased pigs most frequently carried the muramidase-released protein gene and the suilysin gene. When examined by transmission electron microscopy all but one of the isolates which were non-typable by molecular and serological methods showed various amounts of capsular material indicating potentially new serotypes among these isolates. Given the variety of cps types/serotypes detected in pigs, not only veterinarians but also medical doctors should consider other serotypes than just serotype 2 when investigating potential human cases of Streptococcus suis infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that causes serious systemic infections in pigs and occupation-related infections in humans who contact with pigs or pork products. In China, it has caused two outbreaks of human infection and surveillance for S.suis has been ongoing since last time. CASE PRESENTATION:Two cases of meningitis and sepsis caused by S. suis were reported in this study. Both patients work in relation to the pork trade, a risk factor for S. suis infection. The outcome was favorable after a prolonged ceftriaxone therapy but one patient was left with mild hearing loss. Two isolates were identified as sequencing type (ST) 7, S. suis serotype 2 (SS2), which is one the most prevalent and cause two outbreaks in China. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) revealed that a high degree identity was noted in the genome organizations and sequences between two sporadic ST7 SS2 isolates in this study and representative epidemic virulent isolates. Major differences among them are two sporadic ST7 SS2 isolates lacked a virulence factor called agglutinin receptor and an 89?K pathogenicity island (PAI), which plays important role in the pathogenesis of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). A summary about STs of human infection with S. suis in China was completed. The result showed ST1 and ST7 were still the major STs and several novel STs were successfully discovered in different provinces. CONCLUSIONS:Our results enhanced the understanding of the ability to cause life-threatening infections in humans and the distribution and evolution of the S. suis in China.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in the porcine industry and also a zoonotic agent. Serotype 9 is becoming one of the most prevalent serotypes within the S. suis population in certain European countries. In the present study, serotype 9 strains isolated from a country where infection due to this serotype is endemic (Spain), were compared to those recovered from Canada, where this serotype is rarely isolated from diseased pigs. For comparison purposes, strains from Brazil and the only strain isolated from a human case, in Thailand, were also incorporated. Firstly, sequence types (STs) were obtained followed by detection of putative virulence factors. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the non-recombinant single nucleotide polymorphisms from core genomes of tested strains. Most Spanish strains were either ST123 or ST125, whereas Canadian strains were highly heterogeneous. However, the distribution of putative virulence factors was similar in both groups of strains. The fact that ST16 strains harbored more putative virulence genes and shared greater similarity with the genome of human serotype 2 strains suggests that they present a higher zoonotic and virulence potential than those from Canada and Spain. More than 80% of the strains included in this study carried genes associated with resistance to tetracycline, lincosamides and macrolides. Serotype 9 strains may be nearly 400 years old and have evolved in parallel into 2 lineages. The rapid population expansion of dominant lineage 1 occurred within the last 40 years probably due to the rapid development of the porcine industry.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that causes infections in young piglets. S. suis is a heterogeneous species. Thirty-three different capsular serotypes have been described, that differ in virulence between as well as within serotypes. RESULTS: In this study, the correlation between gene content, serotype, phenotype and virulence among 55 S. suis strains was studied using Comparative Genome Hybridization (CGH). Clustering of CGH data divided S. suis isolates into two clusters, A and B. Cluster A isolates could be discriminated from cluster B isolates based on the protein expression of extracellular factor (EF). Cluster A contained serotype 1 and 2 isolates that were correlated with virulence. Cluster B mainly contained serotype 7 and 9 isolates. Genetic similarity was observed between serotype 7 and serotype 2 isolates that do not express muramidase released protein (MRP) and EF (MRP?EF?), suggesting these isolates originated from a common founder. Profiles of 25 putative virulence-associated genes of S. suis were determined among the 55 isolates. Presence of all 25 genes was shown for cluster A isolates, whereas cluster B isolates lacked one or more putative virulence genes. Divergence of S. suis isolates was further studied based on the presence of 39 regions of difference. Conservation of genes was evaluated by the definition of a core genome that contained 78% of all ORFs in P1/7. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we show that CGH is a valuable method to study distribution of genes or gene clusters among isolates in detail, yielding information on genetic similarity, and virulence traits of S. suis isolates.
Project description:Streptococcussuis is an important zoonotic agent causing severe diseases in pigs and humans. To date, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been identified based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharide. The capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) locus encodes proteins/enzymes that are responsible for capsular production and variation in the capsule structures are the basis of S. suis serotyping. Multiplex and/or simplex PCR assays have been developed for 15 serotypes based on serotype-specific genes in the cps gene cluster. In this study, we developed a set of multiplex PCR (mPCR) assays to identify the 33 currently known S. suis serotypes. To identify serotype-specific genes for mPCR, the entire genomes of reference strains for the 33 serotypes were sequenced using whole genome high-throughput sequencing, and the cps gene clusters from these strains were identified and compared. We developed a set of 4 mPCR assays based on the polysaccharide polymerase gene wzy, one of the serotype-specific genes. The assays can identify all serotypes except for two pairs of serotypes: 1 and 14, and 2 and 1/2, which have no serotype-specific genes between them. The first assay identifies 12 serotypes (serotypes 1 to 10, 1/2, and 14) that are the most frequently isolated from diseased pigs and patients; the second identifies 10 serotypes (serotypes 11 to 21 except 14); the third identifies the remaining 11 serotypes (serotypes 22 to 31, and 33); and the fourth identifies a new cps cluster of S. suis discovered in this study in 16 isolates that agglutinated with antisera for serotypes 29 and 21. The multiplex PCR assays developed in this study provide a rapid and specific method for molecular serotyping of S. suis.
Project description:Invasive Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infections in pigs are often associated with serotypes 2 and 9. Mucosal sites of healthy pigs can be colonized with these serotypes, often multiple serotypes per pig. To unravel the contribution of these serotypes in pathogenesis and epidemiology, simultaneous quantification of serotypes is needed. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting cps2J (serotypes 2 and 1/2) and cps9H (serotype 9) was evaluated with nasal and tonsillar samples from S. suis exposed pigs. qPCR specifically detected serotypes in all pig samples. The serotypes loads in pig samples estimated by qPCR showed, except for serotype 9 in tonsillar samples (correlation coefficient = 0.25), moderate to strong correlation with loads detected by culture (correlation coefficient > 0.65), and also in pigs exposed to both serotypes (correlation coefficient > 0.75). This qPCR is suitable for simultaneous differentiation and quantification of important S. suis serotypes.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing severe infections in pigs and humans. Thirty-three serotypes of S. suis have been identified using serum agglutination. The capsular polysaccharides synthesis (cps) locus is usually conserved among different strains of the same serotype. The cps loci of 15 serotypes have been sequenced, while the loci of the other serotypes remain unknown. In the present study, two to six serotype-specific genes of each of eight serotypes, i.e., serotypes 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 19, 23, and 25, were identified using cross-hybridization with 93 nucleic acid probes specific to genes in the cps locus, and serotype-specific PCR assays for rapid and sensitive detection of the eight serotypes were then developed. The PCR typing results of the 148 serologically typeable isolates were completely consistent with agglutination results. Furthermore, some autoagglutinating, acapsular, and multiagglutinating strains which could not be differentiated by traditional serum agglutination assays were positive in the PCR assays. Use of the PCR assays with clinical tonsillar specimens showed that the assays are sensitive and able to identify samples with autoagglutinating isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify the serotype-specific genes of the eight Streptococcus suis serotypes and develop rapid and sensitive PCR assays for the eight serotypes which can be identified only by serum agglutination.
Project description:The objective of this study was to determine the capsular serotypes and potential virulence factors of Streptococcus suis isolated from pigs with polyserositis. Among the 24 isolates evaluated, serotype 3 [7 (29%) of the isolates] and serotype 4 [5 (21%)] were the most common. The isolates were also studied for the presence of the genes mrp, epf, and sly, which encode muramidase-released protein (MRP), extracellular factor (EF), and suilysin (SLY), respectively. Of the 24 isolates, 8 carried mrp: 4 of serotype 3, 2 of serotype 2, and 2 of serotype 4. One mrp(+) isolate (serotype 2) also carried the epf gene. All 24 isolates carried the sly gene. The serotype and genotype distribution greatly differed from that reported for isolates from pigs with other clinical manifestations of S. suis infection in other countries.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen. Serotype 2 and sequence type (ST) 1 are the most frequently reported strains in both infected humans and pigs. ST7 is only endemic to China, and it was responsible for outbreaks in 1998 and 2005 in China. In the present study, 38 sporadic ST7 S. suis strains, which mostly caused sepsis, were collected from patients in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GX) between 2007 and 2018. Of 38 sporadic ST7 strains, serotype 14 was the most frequent (27 strains, 71.1%), followed by serotype 2 (11 strains, 28.9%). The phylogenetic structure of the ST7 population, including epidemic and sporadic ST7 strains, was constructed using mutational single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). High diversity within the ST7 population was revealed and divided into five lineages. Only one sporadic ST7 strain, GX14, from a Streptococcal toxic-shock-like syndrome (STSLS) patient was clustered into the same lineage as the epidemic strains. GX14 and the epidemic strains diverged in 1974. The sporadic ST7 strains of GX were mainly clustered into lineage 5, which emerged in 1980. Comparing to genome of epidemic strain, the major differences in genome of sporadic ST7 strains of GX was the absence of 89 kb pathogenicity island (PAI) specific to epidemic strain and insertion of 128 kb ICE_phage tandem MGE or ICE portion of the MGE. These mobile elements play a significant role in the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in sporadic ST7 strains. Our results enhanced the understanding of the evolution of the ST7 strains and their ability to cause life-threatening infections in humans.
Project description:Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is the main cause of zoonotic S. suis infection despite the fact that other serotypes are frequently isolated from diseased pigs. Studies comparing concurrent invasive human and pig isolates from a single geographical location are lacking. We compared the population structures of invasive S. suis strains isolated between 1986 and 2008 from human patients (N?=?24) and from pigs with invasive disease (N?=?124) in The Netherlands by serotyping and multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Fifty-six percent of pig isolates were of serotype 9 belonging to 15 clonal complexes (CCs) or singleton sequence types (ST). In contrast, all human isolates were of serotype 2 and belonged to two non-overlapping clonal complexes CC1 (58%) and CC20 (42%). The proportion of serotype 2 isolates among S. suis strains isolated from humans was significantly higher than among strains isolated from pigs (24/24 vs. 29/124; P<0.0001). This difference remained significant when only strains within CC1 and CC20 were considered (24/24 vs. 27/37,P?=?0.004). The Simpson diversity index of the S. suis population isolated from humans (0.598) was smaller than of the population isolated from pigs (0.765, P?=?0.05) indicating that the S. suis population isolated from infected pigs was more diverse than the S. suis population isolated from human patients. S. suis serotype 2 strains of CC20 were all negative in a PCR for detection of genes encoding extracellular protein factor (EF) variants. These data indicate that the polysaccharide capsule is an important correlate of human S. suis infection, irrespective of the ST and EF encoding gene type of S. suis strains.