Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Effector HopAU1 Interacts with Calcium-Sensing Receptor to Activate Plant Immunity.
ABSTRACT: Kiwifruit canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), is a destructive pathogen that globally threatens the kiwifruit industry. Understanding the molecular mechanism of plant-pathogen interaction can accelerate applying resistance breeding and controlling plant diseases. All known effectors secreted by pathogens play an important role in plant-pathogen interaction. However, the effectors in Psa and their function mechanism remain largely unclear. Here, we successfully identified a T3SS effector HopAU1 which had no virulence contribution to Psa, but could, however, induce cell death and activate a series of immune responses by agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana, including elevated transcripts of immune-related genes, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and callose deposition. We found that HopAU1 interacted with a calcium sensing receptor in N. benthamiana (NbCaS) as well as its close homologue in kiwifruit (AcCaS). More importantly, silencing CaS by RNAi in N. benthamiana greatly attenuated HopAU1-triggered cell death, suggesting CaS is a crucial component for HopAU1 detection. Further researches showed that overexpression of NbCaS in N. benthamiana significantly enhanced plant resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phytophthora capsici, indicating that CaS serves as a promising resistance-related gene for disease resistance breeding. We concluded that HopAU1 is an immune elicitor that targets CaS to trigger plant immunity.
Project description:Bacterial phytopathogen type III secreted (T3S) effectors have been strongly implicated in altering the interaction of pathogens with host plants. Therefore, it is useful to characterize the whole effector repertoire of a pathogen to understand the interplay of effectors in plants. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a causal agent of kiwifruit canker disease. In this study, we generated an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression library of YFP-tagged T3S effectors from two strains of Psa, Psa-NZ V13 and Psa-NZ LV5, in order to gain insight into their mode of action in Nicotiana tabacum and N. benthamiana. Determining the subcellular localization of effectors gives an indication of the possible host targets of effectors. A confocal microscopy assay detecting YFP-tagged Psa effectors revealed that the nucleus, cytoplasm and cell periphery are major targets of Psa effectors. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of multiple Psa effectors induced HR-like cell death (HCD) in Nicotiana spp., suggesting that multiple Psa effectors may be recognized by Nicotiana spp.. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of several known plant immune regulators, EDS1, NDR1, or SGT1 specified the requirement of SGT1 in HCD induced by several Psa effectors in N. benthamiana. In addition, the suppression activity of Psa effectors on HCD-inducing proteins and PTI was assessed. Psa effectors showed differential suppression activities on each HCD inducer or PTI. Taken together, our Psa effector repertoire analysis highlights the great diversity of T3S effector functions in planta.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), a bacterial pathogen, is a severe threat to kiwifruit production. To elucidate the species-specific interaction between Psa and kiwifruit, transcriptomic-profiles analyses were conducted, under Psa-infected treatment and mock-inoculated control, on shoots of resistant Maohua (MH) and susceptible Hongyang (HY) kiwifruit varieties. The plant hormone-signal transduction and plant–pathogen interaction were significantly enriched in HY compared with MH. However, the starch and sucrose metabolism, antigen processing and presentation, phagosome, and galactose metabolism were significantly enriched in MH compared with HY. Interestingly, the MAP2 in the pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-triggered immunity (PTI) was significantly up-regulated in MH. The genes RAR1, SUGT1, and HSP90A in the effector-triggered immunity (ETI), and the NPR1 and TGA genes involved in the salicylic acid signaling pathway as regulatory roles of ETI, were significantly up-regulated in HY. Other important genes, such as the CCRs involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, were highly expressed in MH, but some genes in the Ca2+ internal flow or involved in the reactive oxygen metabolism were obviously expressed in HY. These results suggested that the PTI and cell walls involved in defense mechanisms were significant in MH against Psa infection, while the ETI was notable in HY against Psa infection. This study will help to understand kiwifruit bacterial canker disease and provide important theoretical support in kiwifruit breeding.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) biovar 3, a virulent, canker-inducing pathogen is an economic threat to the kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) industry worldwide. The commercially grown diploid (2×) A. chinensis var. chinensis is more susceptible to Psa than tetraploid and hexaploid kiwifruit. However information on the genetic loci modulating Psa resistance in kiwifruit is not available. Here we report mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regulating resistance to Psa in a diploid kiwifruit population, derived from a cross between an elite Psa-susceptible 'Hort16A' and a resistant male breeding parent P1. Using high-density genetic maps and intensive phenotyping, we identified a single QTL for Psa resistance on Linkage Group (LG) 27 of 'Hort16A' revealing 16-19% phenotypic variance and candidate alleles for susceptibility and resistance at this loci. In addition, six minor QTLs were identified in P1 on distinct LGs, exerting 4-9% variance. Resistance in the F1 population is improved by additive effects from 'Hort16A' and P1 QTLs providing evidence that divergent genetic pathways interact to combat the virulent Psa strain. Two different bioassays further identified new QTLs for tissue-specific responses to Psa. The genetic marker at LG27 QTL was further verified for association with Psa resistance in diploid Actinidia chinensis populations. Transcriptome analysis of Psa-resistant and susceptible genotypes in field revealed hallmarks of basal defense and provided candidate RNA-biomarkers for screening for Psa resistance in greenhouse conditions.
Project description:Each oomycete pathogen encodes a large number of effectors. Some effectors can be used in crop disease resistance breeding, such as to accelerate R gene cloning and utilisation. Since cytoplasmic effectors may cause acute physiological changes in host cells at very low concentrations, we assume that some of these effectors can serve as functional genes for transgenic plants. Here, we generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants that express a Phytophthora sojae CRN (crinkling and necrosis) effector, PsCRN115. We showed that its expression did not significantly affect the growth and development of N. benthamiana, but significantly improved disease resistance and tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Furthermore, we found that expression of heat-shock-protein and cytochrome-P450 encoding genes were unregulated in PsCRN115-transgenic N. benthamiana based on digital gene expression profiling analyses, suggesting the increased plant defence may be achieved by upregulation of these stress-related genes in transgenic plants. Thus, PsCRN115 may be used to improve plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Plant-pathogenic oomycetes are responsible for economically important losses in crops worldwide. Phytophthora palmivora, a tropical relative of the potato late blight pathogen, causes rotting diseases in many tropical crops including papaya, cocoa, oil palm, black pepper, rubber, coconut, durian, mango, cassava and citrus. Transcriptomics have helped to identify repertoires of host-translocated microbial effector proteins which counteract defenses and reprogram the host in support of infection. As such, these studies have helped in understanding how pathogens cause diseases. Despite the importance of P. palmivora diseases, genetic resources to allow for disease resistance breeding and identification of microbial effectors are scarce. RESULTS:We employed the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana to study the P. palmivora root infections at the cellular and molecular levels. Time-resolved dual transcriptomics revealed different pathogen and host transcriptome dynamics. De novo assembly of P. palmivora transcriptome and semi-automated prediction and annotation of the secretome enabled robust identification of conserved infection-promoting effectors. We show that one of them, REX3, suppresses plant secretion processes. In a survey for early transcriptionally activated plant genes we identified a N. benthamiana gene specifically induced at infected root tips that encodes a peptide with danger-associated molecular features. CONCLUSIONS:These results constitute a major advance in our understanding of P. palmivora diseases and establish extensive resources for P. palmivora pathogenomics, effector-aided resistance breeding and the generation of induced resistance to Phytophthora root infections. Furthermore, our approach to find infection-relevant secreted genes is transferable to other pathogen-host interactions and not restricted to plants.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Diverse plant pathogens deliver effectors into plant cells to alter host processes. Oomycete pathogen encodes a large number of putative RxLR effectors which are likely to play a role in manipulating plant defense responses. The secretome of Plasmopara viticola (downy mildew of grapevine) contains at least 162 candidate RxLR effectors discovered in our recent studies, but their roles in infection and pathogenicity remain to be determined. Here, we characterize in depth one of the putative RxLR effectors, PvRxLR16, which has been reported to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana in our previous study.<h4>Results</h4>The nuclear localization, W/Y/L motifs, and a putative N-glycosylation site in C-terminal of PvRxLR16 were essential for cell death-inducing activity. Suppressor of G-two allele of Skp1 (SGT1), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and required for Mla12 resistance (RAR1), but not somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK3), were required for the cell death response triggered by PvRxLR16 in N. benthamiana. Some mitogen-activated protein kinases and transcription factors were also involved in the perception of PvRxLR16 by N. benthamiana. PvRxLR16 could also significantly enhance plant resistance to Phytophthora capsici and the nuclear localization was required for this ability. However, some other PvRxLR effectors could suppress defense responses and disease resistance induced by PvRxLR16, suggesting that it may not trigger host cell death or immune responses during physiological infection under natural conditions.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These data demonstrate that PvRxLR16 may be recognized by endogenous proteins in nucleus to trigger immune responses in N. benthamiana, which in turn can be suppressed by other PvRxLR effectors.
Project description:<i>Pseudomonas syringae</i> pv. <i>actinidiae</i> (<i>Psa</i>), a bacterial pathogen, causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. To elucidate the local and systemic influences of <i>Psa</i> infection on kiwifruit, comprehensive analyses were conducted by combining metabolomic and physiological approach under <i>Psa</i>-infected treatment and mock-inoculated control in leaves, stems, and bleeding saps. Our results show that <i>Psa</i> infection stimulated kiwifruit metabolic reprogramming. Levels of many sugars, fumarate, and malic acid were decreased in <i>Psa</i>-infected leaves and stems, accompanied by the increased level of amino acids (AAs), which implies the anaplerotic reaction to replenish the TCA cycle generating energy and intermediates for defense-related metabolic pathways, such as phenylpropanoid metabolism. The inconsistent results were observed in bleeding saps, which may be attributed to the induced phloem transport of carbon (C) out of leaves and such a transport benefits bacterium movement. Arg, Gln, and pyroglutamic acid systematically were accumulated in long-distance leaves, which probably confers to systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and <i>Psa</i> inoculation accelerated the nitrogen (N) cycling in kiwifruit. Moreover, <i>Psa</i> infection specifically affected the content of phenolic compounds and lignin. Phenolic compounds were negatively and lignin was positively related to kiwifruit <i>Psa</i> resistance, respectively. Our results first reveal that <i>Psa</i> enhances infection by manipulating C/N metabolism and sweet immunity, and that host lignin synthesis is a major physical barrier for restricting bacterial infection. This study provides an insight into the complex remodeling of plant metabolic response to <i>Psa</i> stress.
Project description:Polyploidy is a key driver of significant evolutionary changes in plant species. The genus Actinidia (kiwifruit) exhibits multiple ploidy levels, which contribute to novel fruit traits, high yields and resistance to the canker-causing dieback disease incited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) biovar 3. However, the genetic mechanism for resistance to Psa observed in polyploid kiwifruit is not yet known. In this study we performed detailed genetic analysis of a tetraploid Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis population derived from a cross between a female parent that exhibits weak tolerance to Psa and a highly Psa-resistant male parent. We used the capture-sequencing approach across the whole kiwifruit genome and generated the first ultra-dense maps in a tetraploid kiwifruit population. We located quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Psa resistance on these maps. Our approach to QTL mapping is based on the use of identity-by-descent trait mapping, which allowed us to relate the contribution of specific alleles from their respective homologues in the male and female parent, to the control of Psa resistance in the progeny. We identified genes in the diploid reference genome whose function is suggested to be involved in plant defense, which underly the QTLs, including receptor-like kinases. Our study is the first to cast light on the genetics of a polyploid kiwifruit and suggest a plausible mechanism for Psa resistance in this species.
Project description:An outbreak of kiwifruit bacterial canker disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) beginning in 2008 caused disaster to the kiwifruit industry. However the mechanisms of interaction between kiwifruit and Psa are unknown. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate many biological processes, but comprehensive repertoires of kiwifruit lncRNAs and their effects on the interaction between kiwifruit and Psa are unknown. Here, based on in-depth transcriptomic analysis of four kiwifruit materials at three stages of infection with Psa, we identified 14,845 transcripts from 12,280 loci as putative lncRNAs. Hierarchical clustering analysis of differentially-expressed transcripts reveals that both protein-coding and lncRNA transcripts are expressed species-specifically. Comparing differentially-expressed transcripts from different species, variations in pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) were the main causes of species-specific responses to infection by Psa. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we identified species-specific expressed key lncRNAs which were closely related to plant immune response and signal transduction. Our results illustrate that different kiwifruit species employ multiple different plant immunity layers to fight against Psa infection, which causes distinct responses. We also discovered that lncRNAs might affect kiwifruit responses to Psa infection, indicating that both protein-coding regions and noncoding regions can affect kiwifruit response to Psa infection.
Project description:Plants have evolved intracellular immune receptors to detect pathogen proteins known as effectors. How these immune receptors detect effectors remains poorly understood. Here we describe the structural basis for direct recognition of AVR-Pik, an effector from the rice blast pathogen, by the rice intracellular NLR immune receptor Pik. AVR-PikD binds a dimer of the Pikp-1 HMA integrated domain with nanomolar affinity. The crystal structure of the Pikp-HMA/AVR-PikD complex enabled design of mutations to alter protein interaction in yeast and in vitro, and perturb effector-mediated response both in a rice cultivar containing Pikp and upon expression of AVR-PikD and Pikp in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. These data reveal the molecular details of a recognition event, mediated by a novel integrated domain in an NLR, which initiates a plant immune response and resistance to rice blast disease. Such studies underpin novel opportunities for engineering disease resistance to plant pathogens in staple food crops.