Variation in the spacer regions separating tRNA genes in Renibacterium salmoninarum distinguishes recent clinical isolates from the same location.
ABSTRACT: A means for distinguishing between clinical isolates of Renibacterium salmoninarum that is based on the PCR amplification of length polymorphisms in the tRNA intergenic spacer regions (tDNA-ILPs) was investigated. The method used primers specific to nucleotide sequences of R. salmoninarum tRNA genes and tRNA intergenic spacer regions that had been generated by using consensus tRNA gene primers. Twenty-one PCR products were sequenced from five isolates of R. salmoninarum from the United States, England, and Scotland, and four complete tRNA genes and spacer regions were identified. Sixteen specific PCR primers were designed and tested singly and in all possible pairwise combinations for their potential to discriminate between isolates from recent clinical outbreaks of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in the United Kingdom. Fourteen of the isolates were cultured from kidney samples taken from fish displaying clinical signs of BKD on five farms, and some of the isolates came from the same farm and at the same time. The tDNA-ILP profiles separated 22 clinical isolates into nine groups and highlighted that some farms may have had more than one source of infection. The grouping of isolates improved on the discriminatory power of previously reported typing methods based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and restriction fragment length profiles developed using insertion sequence IS994. Our method enabled us to make divisions between closely related clinical isolates of R. salmoninarum that have identical exact tandem repeat (ETR-A) loci, rRNA intergenic spacer sequences, and IS994 profiles.
Project description:Renibacterium salmoninarum is the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), which is a commercially important disease of farmed salmonids. Typing by conventional methods provides limited information on the evolution and spread of this pathogen, as there is a low level of standing variation within the R. salmoninarum population. Here, we apply whole-genome sequencing to 42 R. salmoninarum isolates from Chile, primarily from salmon farms, in order to understand the epidemiology of BKD in this country. The patterns of genomic variation are consistent with multiple introductions to Chile, followed by rapid dissemination over a 30?year period. The estimated dates of introduction broadly coincide with major events in the development of the Chilean aquaculture industry. We find evidence for significant barriers to transmission of BKD in the Chilean salmon production chain that may also be explained by previously undescribed signals of host tropism in R. salmoninarum. Understanding the genomic epidemiology of BKD can inform disease intervention and improve sustainability of the economically important salmon industry. This article contains data hosted by Microreact.
Project description:Renibacterium salmoninarum is a genospecies that is an obligate pathogen of salmonid fish and is capable of intracellular survival. Conventional typing systems have failed to differentiate isolates of R. salmoninarum. We used two methods to assess the extent of molecular variation which was present in isolates from different geographic locations. In one analysis we investigated possible polymorphisms in a specific region of the genome, the intergenic spacer (ITS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. In the other analysis we analyzed differences throughout the genome by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). We amplified the spacer region of 74 isolates by using PCR and performed a DNA sequence analysis with 14 geographically distinct samples. The results showed that the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA spacer region of R. salmoninarum is highly conserved and suggested that only a single copy of the rRNA operon is present in this slowly growing pathogen. DNA sequencing of the spacer region showed that it was the same length in all 14 isolates examined, and the same nucleotide sequence, sequevar 1, was obtained for 11 of these isolates. Two other sequevars were found. No tRNA genes were found. We found that RAPD analysis allows reproducible differentiation between isolates of R. salmoninarum obtained from different hosts and different geographic regions. By using RAPD analysis it was possible to differentiate between isolates with identical ITS sequences.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a bacterial disease of fish, which is both geographically widespread and difficult to control. Previously, application of various molecular typing methods has failed to reliably discriminate between R. salmoninarum isolates originating from different host species and geographic areas. The current study aimed to utilize multilocus variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) to investigate inter-strain variation of R. salmoninarum to establish whether host-specific populations exist in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout respectively. Such information would be valuable in risk assessment of transmission of R. salmoninarum in a multispecies aquaculture environment. RESULTS:The present analysis utilizing sixteen VNTRs distinguished 17 different haplotypes amongst 41 R. salmoninarum isolates originating from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout in Scotland, Norway and the US. The VNTR typing system revealed two well supported groups of R. salmoninarum haplotypes. The first group included R. salmoninarum isolates originating from both Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout circulating in Scottish and Norwegian aquaculture, in addition to the type strain ATCC33209T originating from Chinook salmon in North America. The second group comprised isolates found exclusively in Atlantic salmon, of mainly wild origin, including isolates NCIB1114 and NCIB1116 associated with the original Dee disease in Scotland. CONCLUSIONS:The present study confirmed that VNTR analysis can be successfully applied to discriminate R. salmoninarum strains. There was no clear distinction between isolates originating from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout as several haplotypes in group 1 clustered together R. salmoninarum isolates from both species. These findings indicate a potential exchange of pathogens between Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout in Scottish and Norwegian aquaculture during the last 20 years. In a scenario of expansion of rainbow trout farming into the marine environment, appropriate biosecurity measures to minimize disease occurrence are advised. The present results also suggest that R. salmoninarum isolates circulating in European aquaculture over the last 20 years are genetically distant to the wild strains originally causing BKD in the rivers Dee and Spey.
Project description:Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD), which is caused by a Gram-positive, intracellular bacterial pathogen (Renibacterium salmoninarum), affects salmonids including Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). However, the transcriptome response of Atlantic salmon to BKD remained unknown before the current study. We used a 44K salmonid microarray platform to characterise the global gene expression response of Atlantic salmon to BKD. Fish (~54 g) were injected with a dose of R. salmoninarum (H-2 strain, 2 × 108 CFU per fish) or sterile medium (control), and then head kidney samples were collected at 13 days post-infection/injection (dpi). Firstly, infection levels of individuals were determined through quantifying the R. salmoninarum level by RNA-based TaqMan qPCR assays. Thereafter, based on the qPCR results for infection level, fish (n = 5) that showed no (control), higher (H-BKD), or lower (L-BKD) infection level at 13 dpi were subjected to microarray analyses. We identified 6,766 and 7,729 differentially expressed probes in the H-BKD and L-BKD groups, respectively. There were 357 probes responsive to the infection level (H-BKD vs. L-BKD). Several adaptive and innate immune processes were dysregulated in R. salmoninarum-infected Atlantic salmon. Adaptive immune pathways associated with lymphocyte differentiation and activation (e.g., lymphocyte chemotaxis, T-cell activation, and immunoglobulin secretion), as well as antigen-presenting cell functions, were shown to be differentially regulated in response to BKD. The infection level-responsive transcripts were related to several mechanisms such as the JAK-STAT signalling pathway, B-cell differentiation and interleukin-1 responses. Sixty-five microarray-identified transcripts were subjected to qPCR validation, and they showed the same fold-change direction as microarray results. The qPCR-validated transcripts studied herein play putative roles in various immune processes including pathogen recognition (e.g., tlr5), antibacterial activity (e.g., hamp and camp), regulation of immune responses (e.g., tnfrsf11b and socs1), T-/B-cell differentiation (e.g., ccl4, irf1 and ccr5), T-cell functions (e.g., rnf144a, il13ra1b and tnfrsf6b), and antigen-presenting cell functions (e.g., fcgr1). The present study revealed diverse immune mechanisms dysregulated by R. salmoninarum in Atlantic salmon, and enhanced the current understanding of Atlantic salmon response to BKD. The identified biomarker genes can be used for future studies on improving the resistance of Atlantic salmon to BKD.
Project description:A novel strategy for identification of Carnobacterium food isolates based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of PCR-amplified 16S-23S ribosomal intergenic spacer regions (ISRs) was developed. PCR amplification from all Carnobacterium strains studied always yielded three ISR amplicons, which were designated the small ISR (S-ISR), the medium ISR (M-ISR), and the large ISR (L-ISR). The lengths of these ISRs varied from one species to another. Carnobacterium divergens NCDO 2763(T) and C. mobile DSM 4849(T) generated one major S-ISR band (ca. 400 bp) and minor M-ISR and L-ISR bands (ca. 500 and ca. 600 bp, respectively). The ISRs amplified from C. gallinarum NCFB 2766(T) and C. piscicola NCDO 2762(T) were larger (S-ISR, ca. 600 bp; M-ISR, ca. 700 bp; and L-ISR, ca. 800 bp). The L-ISR contained two tDNAs coding for tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Ala) genes. The M-ISR included one tRNA(Ala) gene, and the S-ISR did not contain a tDNA gene. The RFLP scheme devised involves estimation of variable PCR product sizes together with HinfI, TaqI, and HindIII restriction analysis. Forty-two isolates yielded four unique band patterns that correctly resolved these isolates into four Carnobacterium species. This method is very suitable for rapid, low-cost identification of a wide variety of Carnobacterium species without sequencing.
Project description:The molecular diversity among 60 isolates of Renibacterium salmoninarum which differ in place and date of isolation was investigated by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Isolates were grouped into 21 banding patterns which did not reflect the biological source. Four 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (ITS1) sequence variations and two alleles of an exact tandem repeat locus, ETR-A, were the bases for formation of distinct groups within the RAPD clusters. This study provides evidence that the most common ITS1 sequence variant, SV1, possesses two copies of a 51-bp repeat unit at ETR-A and has been widely dispersed among countries which are associated with mainstream intensive salmonid culture.
Project description:Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) is widespread in many areas of the world and can cause substantial economic losses for the salmon aquaculture industry. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathophysiological response and gene expression profiles related to the immune response at different water temperatures and to identify the best immunopathological biomarkers to define a phenotype of resistance to BKD. The abundance of msa transcripts of R. salmoninarum in the head kidney was significantly higher in infected fish at 11°C. R. salmoninarum induced significantly more severe kidney lesions, anemia and impaired renal function at 11°C. In addition, the expression pattern of the genes related to humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in infected fish at 11 and 15°C was very similar, although R. salmoninarum induced a significantly greater downregulation of the adaptive immune response genes at the lower water temperature. These results could be due to a suppressed host response directly related to the lowest water temperature and/or associated with a delayed host response related to the lowest water temperature. Although no significant differences in survival rate were observed, fish infected at the lowest temperature showed a higher probability of death and delayed the mortality curve during the late stage of infection (35 days after infection). Thirty-three immunopathological biomarkers were identified for potential use in the search for a resistance phenotype for BKD, and eight were genes related specifically to the adaptive cell-mediated immune response.
Project description:Vibrio cholerae identification based on molecular sequence data has been hampered by a lack of sequence variation from the closely related Vibrio mimicus. The two species share many genes coding for proteins, such as ctxAB, and show almost identical 16S DNA coding for rRNA (rDNA) sequences. Primers targeting conserved sequences flanking the 3' end of the 16S and the 5' end of the 23S rDNAs were used to amplify the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions of V. cholerae and V. mimicus. Two major (ca. 580 and 500 bp) and one minor (ca. 750 bp) amplicons were consistently generated for both species, and their sequences were determined. The largest fragment contains three tRNA genes (tDNAs) coding for tRNAGlu, tRNALys, and tRNAVal, which has not previously been found in bacteria examined to date. The 580-bp amplicon contained tDNAIle and tDNAAla, whereas the 500-bp fragment had single tDNA coding either tRNAGlu or tRNAAla. Little variation, i.e., 0 to 0.4%, was found among V. cholerae O1 classical, O1 El Tor, and O139 epidemic strains. Slightly more variation was found against the non-O1/non-O139 serotypes (ca. 1% difference) and V. mimicus (2 to 3% difference). A pair of oligonucleotide primers were designed, based on the region differentiating all of V. cholerae strains from V. mimicus. The PCR system developed was subsequently evaluated by using representatives of V. cholerae from environmental and clinical sources, and of other taxa, including V. mimicus. This study provides the first molecular tool for identifying the species V. cholerae.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Molecular studies of Bacillus diversity in various environments have been reported. However, there have been few investigations concerning Bacillus in steel plant environments. In this study, genotypic and phenotypic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 40 bacterial isolates recovered from steel plant waste were investigated using classical and molecular methods. RESULTS:16S rDNA partial sequencing assigned all the isolates to the Bacillus genus, with close genetic relatedness to the Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus groups, and to the species Bacillus sphaericus. tDNA-intergenic spacer length polymorphisms and the 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer region failed to identify the isolates at the species level. Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence) based PCR using the primer sets ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus), (GTG)5, and BOXAIR. Genotypic fingerprinting of the isolates reflected high intraspecies and interspecies diversity. Clustering of the isolates using ERIC-PCR fingerprinting was similar to that obtained from the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic tree, indicating the potential of the former technique as a simple and useful tool for examining relationships among unknown Bacillus spp. Physiological, biochemical and heavy metal susceptibility profiles also indicated considerable phenotypic diversity. Among the heavy metal compounds tested Zn, Pb and Cu were least toxic to the bacterial isolates, whereas Ag inhibited all isolates at 0.001 mM. CONCLUSION:Isolates with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences had different genomic fingerprints and differed considerably in their physiological capabilities, so the high levels of phenotypic diversity found in this study are likely to have ecological relevance.
Project description:Streptococcus iniae is a cause of septicemia, meningoencephalitis, and death in farmed fish and of cellulitis in human beings. A set of nested oligonucleotide PCR primers that specifically amplified a 373-bp subunit from a variety of clinical isolates from farmed fish and human patients were constructed from a 524-bp consensus sequence of the S. iniae 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer.