Modified "Allele-Specific qPCR" Method for SNP Genotyping Based on FRET.
ABSTRACT: The proposed method is a modified and improved version of the existing "Allele-specific q-PCR" (ASQ) method for genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This method is similar to frequently used techniques like Amplifluor and Kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP), as well as others employing common universal probes (UPs) for SNP analyses. In the proposed ASQ method, the fluorophores and quencher are located in separate complementary oligonucleotides. The ASQ method is based on the simultaneous presence in PCR of the following two components: an allele-specific mixture (allele-specific and common primers) and a template-independent detector mixture that contains two or more (up to four) universal probes (UP-1 to 4) and a single universal quencher oligonucleotide (Uni-Q). The SNP site is positioned preferably at a penultimate base in each allele-specific primer, which increases the reaction specificity and allele discrimination. The proposed ASQ method is advanced in providing a very clear and effective measurement of the fluorescence emitted, with very low signal background-noise, and simple procedures convenient for customized modifications and adjustments. Importantly, this ASQ method is estimated as two- to ten-fold cheaper than Amplifluor and KASP, and much cheaper than all those methods that rely on dual-labeled probes without universal components, like TaqMan and Molecular Beacons. Results for SNP genotyping in the barley genes HvSAP16 and HvSAP8, in which stress-associated proteins are controlled, are presented as proven and validated examples. This method is suitable for bi-allelic uniplex reactions but it can potentially be used for 3- or 4-allelic variants or different SNPs in a multiplex format in a range of applications including medical, forensic, or others involving SNP genotyping.
Project description:KASP (KBioscience Competitive Allele Specific PCR) and Amplifluor (Amplification with fluorescence) SNP markers are two prominent technologies based upon a shared identical Allele-specific PCR platform.Amplifluor-like SNP and KASP analysis was carried out using published and own design of Universal probes (UPs) and Gene-specific primers (GSPs).Advantages of the Amplifluor-like system over KASP include the significantly lower costs and much greater flexibility in the adjustment and development of 'self-designed' dual fluorescently-labelled UPs and regular GSPs. The presented results include optimisation of 'tail' length in UPs and GSPs, protocol adjustment, and the use of various fluorophores in different qPCR instruments. The compatibility of the KASP Master-mix in both original and Amplifluor-like systems has been demonstrated in the presented results, proving their similar principles. Results of SNP scoring with rare alleles in addition to more frequently occurring alleles are shown.The Amplifluor-like system produces SNP genotyping results with a level of sensitivity and accuracy comparable to KASP but at a significantly cheaper cost and with much greater flexibility for UPs with self-designed GSPs.
Project description:Customizable endonucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) enable rapid generation of mutant strains at genomic loci of interest in animal models and cell lines. With the accelerated pace of generating mutant alleles, genotyping has become a rate-limiting step to understanding the effects of genetic perturbation. Unless mutated alleles result in distinct morphological phenotypes, mutant strains need to be genotyped using standard methods in molecular biology. Classic restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or sequencing is labor-intensive and expensive. Although simpler than RFLP, current versions of allele-specific PCR may still require post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) handling such as sequencing, or they are more expensive if allele-specific fluorescent probes are used. Commercial genotyping solutions can take weeks from assay design to result, and are often more expensive than assembling reactions in-house. Key components of commercial assay systems are often proprietary, which limits further customization. Therefore, we developed a one-step open-source genotyping method based on quantitative PCR. The allele-specific qPCR (ASQ) does not require post-PCR processing and can genotype germline mutants through either threshold cycle (Ct) or end-point fluorescence reading. ASQ utilizes allele-specific primers, a locus-specific reverse primer, universal fluorescent probes and quenchers, and hot start DNA polymerase. Individual laboratories can further optimize this open-source system as we completely disclose the sequences, reagents, and thermal cycling protocol. We have tested the ASQ protocol to genotype alleles in five different genes. ASQ showed a 98-100% concordance in genotype scoring with RFLP or Sanger sequencing outcomes. ASQ is time-saving because a single qPCR without post-PCR handling suffices to score genotypes. ASQ is cost-effective because universal fluorescent probes negate the necessity of designing expensive probes for each locus.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The detection and identification of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is essential for determining patient disease susceptibility and the delivery of medicines targeted to the individual. At present, SNP genotyping technology includes Sanger sequencing, TaqMan-probe quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR, and Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASP). However, these technologies have some disadvantages: the high cost of development and detection, long and time consuming protocols, and high false positive rates. Focusing on these limitations, we proposed a new SNP detection method named universal probe-based intermediate primer-triggered qPCR (UPIP-qPCR). In this method, only two types of fluorescence-labeled probes were used for SNP genotyping, thus greatly reducing the cost of development and detection for SNP genotyping.<h4>Results</h4>In the amplification process of UPIP-qPCR, unlabeled intermediate primers with template-specific recognition functions could trigger probe hydrolysis and specific signal release. UPIP-qPCR can be used successfully and widely for SNP genotyping. The sensitivity of UPIP-qPCR in SNP genotyping was 0.01 ng, the call rate was more than 99.1%, and the accuracy was more than 99.9%. High-throughput DNA microarrays based on intermediate primers can be used for SNP genotyping.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This novel approach is both cost effective and highly accurate; it is a reliable SNP genotyping method that would serve the needs of the clinician in the provision of targeted medicine.
Project description:Advances in high-throughput genotyping enable the generation of genome-scale data much more easily and at lower cost than ever before. However, small-scale and cost-effective high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping technologies are still under development. In this study, we compared the performances of TaqMan, KASP and rhAmp SNP genotyping platforms in terms of their assay design flexibility, assay design success rate, allele call rate and quality, ease of experiment run and cost per sample. Fifty SNP markers linked to genes governing various agronomic traits of wheat were chosen to design SNP assays. Design success rates were 39/50, 49/50, and 49/50 for TaqMan, KASP, and rhAmp, respectively, and 30 SNP assays were manufactured for genotyping comparisons across the three platforms. rhAmp showed 97% of samples amplified while TaqMan and KASP showed 93% and 93.5% of amplifications, respectively. Allele call quality of rhAmp was 97%, while it was 98% for both TaqMan and KASP. rhAmp and KASP showed significantly better (p < 0.001) allele discrimination than TaqMan; however, TaqMan showed the most compact cluster. Based on the current market, rhAmp was the least expensive technology followed by KASP. In conclusion, rhAmp provides a reliable and cost-effective option for targeted genotyping and marker-assisted selection in crop genetic improvement.
Project description:Background:PCR allelic discrimination technologies have broad applications in the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetics and genomics. The use of fluorescence-tagged probes is the leading method for targeted SNP detection, but assay costs and error rates could be improved to increase genotyping efficiency. A new assay, rhAmp, based on RNase H2-dependent PCR (rhPCR) combined with a universal reporter system attempts to reduce error rates from primer/primer and primer/probe dimers while lowering costs compared to existing technologies. Before rhAmp can be widely adopted, more experimentation is required to validate its effectiveness versus established methods. Results:The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy, sensitivity and costs of TaqMan, KASP, and rhAmp SNP genotyping methods in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). For each approach, assays were designed to genotype 33 SNPs in a set of 96 sugar beet individuals obtained from 12 parental lines. The assay sensitivity was tested using a series of dilutions from 100 to 0.1 ng per PCR reaction. PCR was carried out on the QuantStudio 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA). The call-rate, defined as the percentage of genotype calls relative to the possible number of calls, was 97.0, 97.6, and 98.1% for TaqMan, KASP, and rhAmp, respectively. For rhAmp SNP, 24 of the 33 SNPs demonstrated 100% concordance with other two technologies. The genotype concordance with either technologies for the other 9 targets was above 99% (99.34-99.89%). Conclusion:The sensitivity test demonstrated that TaqMan and rhAmp were able to successfully determine SNP genotypes using as little as 0.2 ng DNA per reaction, while the KASP was unable to ascertain SNP states below 0.9 ng of DNA per reaction. Comparative cost per reaction was also analyzed with rhAmp SNP offering the lowest cost per reaction. In conclusion, rhAmp produced more calls than either TaqMan or KASP, higher signal to NTC data while offering the lowest cost per reaction.
Project description:Wheat breeders and academics alike use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as molecular markers to characterize regions of interest within the hexaploid wheat genome. A number of SNP-based genotyping platforms are available, and their utility depends upon factors such as the available technologies, number of data points required, budgets and the technical expertise required. Unfortunately, markers can rarely be exchanged between existing and newly developed platforms, meaning that previously generated data cannot be compared, or combined, with more recently generated data sets. We predict that genotyping by sequencing will become the predominant genotyping technology within the next 5-10 years. With this in mind, to ensure that data generated from current genotyping platforms continues to be of use, we have designed and utilized SNP-based capture probes from several thousand existing and publicly available probes from Axiom® and KASP™ genotyping platforms. We have validated our capture probes in a targeted genotyping by sequencing protocol using 31 previously genotyped UK elite hexaploid wheat accessions. Data comparisons between targeted genotyping by sequencing, Axiom® array genotyping and KASP™ genotyping assays, identified a set of 3256 probes which reliably bring together targeted genotyping by sequencing data with the previously available marker data set. As such, these probes are likely to be of considerable value to the wheat community. The probe details, full probe sequences and a custom built analysis pipeline may be freely downloaded from the CerealsDB website (http://www.cerealsdb.uk.net/cerealgenomics/CerealsDB/sequence_capture.php).
Project description:Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) is a cost-effective single-step SNP genotyping technology, With an objective to enhance the marker repertoire and develop high efficient KASP-SNP markers in Chinese cabbage, we re-sequenced four Chinese cabbage doubled haploid (DH) lines, Y177-47, Y635-10, Y510-1 and Y510-9, and generated a total of more than 38.5 billion clean base pairs. A total of 827,720 SNP loci were identified with an estimated density of 3,217 SNPs/Mb. Further, a total of 387,354 SNPs with at least 30 bp to the next most adjacent SNPs on either side were selected as resource for KASP markers. From this resource, 258 (96.27%) of 268 SNP loci were successfully transformed into KASP-SNP markers using a Roche LightCycler 480-II instrument. Among these markers, 221 (85.66%) were co-dominant markers, 220 (85.27%) were non-synonymous SNPs, and 257 (99.6%) were newly developed markers. In addition, 53 markers were applied for genotyping of 34 Brassica rapa accessions. Cluster analysis separated these 34 accessions into three clusters based on heading types. The millions of SNP loci, a large set of resource for KASP markers, as well as the newly developed KASP markers in this study may facilitate further genetic and molecular breeding studies in Brassica rapa.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Maize is one of the most important field crops in the world. Most of the key agronomic traits, including yield traits and plant architecture traits, are quantitative. Fine mapping of genes/ quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing a key trait is essential for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in maize breeding. However, the SNP markers with high density and high polymorphism are lacking, especially kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) SNP markers that can be used for automatic genotyping. To date, a large volume of sequencing data has been produced by the next generation sequencing technology, which provides a good pool of SNP loci for development of SNP markers. In this study, we carried out a multi-step screening method to identify kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) SNP markers based on the RNA-Seq data sets of 368 maize inbred lines.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 2,948,985 SNPs were identified in the high-throughput RNA-Seq data sets with the average density of 1.4 SNP/kb. Of these, 71,311 KASP SNP markers (the average density of 34 KASP SNP/Mb) were developed based on the strict criteria: unique genomic region, bi-allelic, polymorphism information content (PIC) value ≥0.4, and conserved primer sequences, and were mapped on 16,161 genes. These 16,161 genes were annotated to 52 gene ontology (GO) terms, including most of primary and secondary metabolic pathways. Subsequently, the 50 KASP SNP markers with the PIC values ranging from 0.14 to 0.5 in 368 RNA-Seq data sets and with polymorphism between the maize inbred lines 1212 and B73 in in silico analysis were selected to experimentally validate the accuracy and polymorphism of SNPs, resulted in 46 SNPs (92.00%) showed polymorphism between the maize inbred lines 1212 and B73. Moreover, these 46 polymorphic SNPs were utilized to genotype the other 20 maize inbred lines, with all 46 SNPs showing polymorphism in the 20 maize inbred lines, and the PIC value of each SNP was 0.11 to 0.50 with an average of 0.35. The results suggested that the KASP SNP markers developed in this study were accurate and polymorphic.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These high-density polymorphic KASP SNP markers will be a valuable resource for map-based cloning of QTL/genes and marker-assisted selection in maize. Furthermore, the method used to develop SNP markers in maize can also be applied in other species.
Project description:Down-regulator associated protein, DrAp1, acts as a negative cofactor (NC2?) in a transcription repressor complex together with another subunit, down-regulator Dr1 (NC2?). In binding to promotors and regulating the initiation of transcription of various genes, DrAp1 plays a key role in plant transition to flowering and ultimately in seed production. TaDrAp1 and TaDrAp2 genes were identified, and their expression and genetic polymorphism were studied using bioinformatics, qPCR analyses, a 40K Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray, and Amplifluor-like SNP genotyping in cultivars of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and breeding lines developed from a cross between spelt (T. spelta L.) and bread wheat. TaDrAp1 was highly expressed under non-stressed conditions, and at flowering, TaDrAp1 expression was negatively correlated with yield capacity. TaDrAp2 showed a consistently low level of mRNA production. Drought caused changes in the expression of both TaDrAp1 and TaDrAp2 genes in opposite directions, effectively increasing expression in lower yielding cultivars. The microarray 40K SNP assay and Amplifluor-like SNP marker, revealed clear scores and allele discriminations for TaDrAp1 and TaDrAp2 and TaRht-B1 genes. Alleles of two particular homeologs, TaDrAp1-B4 and TaDrAp2-B1, co-segregated with grain yield in nine selected breeding lines. This indicated an important regulatory role for both TaDrAp1 and TaDrAp2 genes in plant growth, ontogenesis, and drought tolerance in bread and spelt wheat.
Project description:For future food security, it is important that wheat, one of the most widely consumed crops in the world, can survive the threat of abiotic and biotic stresses. New genetic variation is currently being introduced into wheat through introgressions from its wild relatives. For trait discovery, it is necessary that each introgression is homozygous and hence stable. Breeding programmes rely on efficient genotyping platforms for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Recently, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based markers have been made available on high-throughput Axiom® SNP genotyping arrays. However, these arrays are inflexible in their design and sample numbers, making their use unsuitable for long-term MAS. SNPs can potentially be converted into Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP™) assays that are comparatively cost-effective and efficient for low-density genotyping of introgression lines. However, due to the polyploid nature of wheat, KASP assays for homoeologous SNPs can have difficulty in distinguishing between heterozygous and homozygous hybrid lines in a backcross population. To identify co-dominant SNPs, that can differentiate between heterozygotes and homozygotes, we PCR-amplified and sequenced genomic DNA from potential single-copy regions of the wheat genome and compared them to orthologous copies from different wild relatives. A panel of 620 chromosome-specific KASP assays have been developed that allow rapid detection of wild relative segments and provide information on their homozygosity and site of introgression in the wheat genome. A set of 90 chromosome-nonspecific assays was also produced that can be used for genotyping introgression lines. These multipurpose KASP assays represent a powerful tool for wheat breeders worldwide.