Molecular analysis of Malassezia microflora on the skin of atopic dermatitis patients and healthy subjects.
ABSTRACT: Members of the genus Malassezia, lipophilic yeasts, are considered to be one of the exacerbating factors in atopic dermatitis (AD). We examined variation in cutaneous colonization by Malassezia species in AD patients and compared it with variation in healthy subjects. Samples were collected by applying transparent dressings to the skin lesions of AD patients. DNA was extracted directly from the dressings and amplified in a specific nested PCR assay. Malassezia-specific DNA was detected in all samples obtained from 32 AD patients. In particular, Malassezia globosa and M. restricta were detected in approximately 90% of the AD patients and M. furfur and M. sympodialis were detected in approximately 40% of the cases. The detection rate was not dependent on the type of skin lesion. In healthy subjects, Malassezia DNA was detected in 78% of the samples, among which M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis were detected at frequencies ranging from 44 to 61%, with M. furfur at 11%. The diversity of Malassezia species found in AD patients was greater (2.7 species detected in each individual) than that found in healthy subjects (1.8 species per individual). Our results suggest that M. furfur, M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis are common inhabitants of the skin of both AD patients and healthy subjects, while the skin microflora of AD patients shows more diversity than that of healthy subjects. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a nested PCR as an alternative to fungal culture for analysis of the distribution of cutaneous Malassezia spp.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Malassezia yeasts which belong to the physiological microflora of human skin have also been implicated in several dermatological disorders, including pityriasis versicolor (PV), atopic dermatitis (AD), and psoriasis (PS). The Malassezia genus has repeatedly been revised and it now accommodates 14 species, all but one being lipid-dependent species. The traditional, phenotype-based identification schemes of Malassezia species are fraught with interpretative ambiguities and inconsistencies, and are thus increasingly being supplemented or replaced by DNA typing methods. The aim of this study was to explore the species composition of Malassezia microflora on the skin of healthy volunteers and patients with AD and PS. METHODS: Species characterization was performed by conventional, culture-based methods and subsequently molecular techniques: PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1/2 regions and the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene. The Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Malassezia sympodialis was the predominant species, having been cultured from 29 (82.9%) skin samples collected from 17 out of 18 subjects under the study. Whereas AD patients yielded exclusively M. sympodialis isolates, M. furfur isolates were observed only in PS patients. The isolation of M. sympodialis was statistically more frequent among AD patients and healthy volunteers than among PS patients (P <?0.03). Whether this mirrors any predilection of particular Malassezia species for certain clinical conditions needs to be further evaluated. The overall concordance between phenotypic and molecular methods was quite high (65%), with the discordant results being rather due to the presence of multiple species in a single culture (co-colonization) than true misidentification. All Malassezia isolates were susceptible to cyclopiroxolamine and azole drugs, with M. furfur isolates being somewhat more drug tolerant than other Malassezia species. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an important insight into the species composition of Malassezia microbiota in human skin. The predominance of M. sympodialis in both normal and pathologic skin, contrasts with other European countries, reporting M. globosa and M. restricta as the most frequently isolated Malassezia species.
Project description:Background:Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is the most common chronic superficial infection of the stratum corneum, reported in 40-60% of the tropical population. After the description of the new Malassezia species, only a few studies have been conducted from India. Aims:Molecular identification, quantification of Malassezia species implicated with PV and correlation to its clinical presentation. Materials and Methods:The subjects include 50 PV patients, who attended the dermatology outpatient department of our hospital and 50 healthy individuals. Same size area of the skin was sampled from lesional and non-lesional sites in the patient group and from forehead, cheek, and chest of healthy individuals. Malassezia spp. isolated were identified by conventional method and confirmed by ITS2 PCR-RFLP and sequencing of D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. Results:Eighty percent of patients presented with hypopigmented lesions and 20% with hyperpigmented lesions. From PV lesions, the most frequently isolated species was M. furfur (50%), followed by M. globosa (27.3%), mixture of M. furfur and M. globosa (15.9%), M. sympodialis (4.5%), and M. slooffiae (2.3%). Higher Malassezia density was found in lesional area as compared to non-lesional area of PV patients and in healthy individuals (P 0.0001). Conclusion:Although M. furfur was the most prevalent species isolated from both patients and controls, significantly higher isolation of M. globosa from the lesional area compared to non-lesional area indicates its possible role along with M. furfur in causing PV.
Project description:Malassezia species are lipophilic and lipid-dependent yeasts belonging to the human and animal microbiota. Typically, they are isolated from regions rich in sebaceous glands. They have been associated with dermatological diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, atopic dermatitis, and folliculitis. The genomes of Malassezia globosa, Malassezia sympodialis, and Malassezia pachydermatis lack the genes related to fatty acid synthesis. Here, the lipid-synthesis pathways of these species, as well as of Malassezia furfur, and of an atypical M. furfur variant were reconstructed using genome data and Constraints Based Reconstruction and Analysis. To this end, the genomes of M. furfur CBS 1878 and the atypical M. furfur 4DS were sequenced and annotated. The resulting Enzyme Commission numbers and predicted reactions were similar to the other Malassezia strains despite the differences in their genome size. Proteomic profiling was utilized to validate flux distributions. Flux differences were observed in the production of steroids in M. furfur and in the metabolism of butanoate in M. pachydermatis. The predictions obtained via these metabolic reconstructions also suggested defects in the assimilation of palmitic acid in M. globosa, M. sympodialis, M. pachydermatis, and the atypical variant of M. furfur, but not in M. furfur. These predictions were validated via physiological characterization, showing the predictive power of metabolic network reconstructions to provide new clues about the metabolic versatility of Malassezia.
Project description:Malassezia yeasts are lipid dependent and part of the human and animal skin microbiome. However, they are also associated with a variety of dermatological conditions and even cause systemic infections. How these yeasts can live as commensals on the skin and switch to a pathogenic stage has long been a matter of debate. Lipids are important cellular molecules, and understanding the lipid metabolism and composition of Malassezia species is crucial to comprehending their biology and host-microbe interaction. Here, we investigated the lipid composition of Malassezia strains grown to the stationary phase in a complex Dixon medium broth. In this study, we perform a lipidomic analysis of a subset of species; in addition, we conducted a gene prediction analysis for the detection of lipid metabolic proteins. We identified 18 lipid classes and 428 lipidic compounds. The most commonly found lipids were triglycerides (TAG), sterol (CH), diglycerides (DG), fatty acids (FAs), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), ceramides, cholesteryl ester (CE), sphingomyelin (SM), acylcarnitine, and lysophospholipids. Particularly, we found a low content of CEs in Malassezia furfur, atypical M. furfur, and Malassezia pachydermatis and undetectable traces of these components in Malassezia globosa, Malassezia restricta, and Malassezia sympodialis. Remarkably, uncommon lipids in yeast, like diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine and FA esters of hydroxyl FAs, were found in a variable concentration in these Malassezia species. The latter are bioactive lipids recently reported to have antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The results obtained can be used to discriminate different Malassezia species and offer a new overview of the lipid composition of these yeasts. We could confirm the presence and the absence of certain lipid-biosynthesis genes in specific species. Further analyses are necessary to continue disclosing the complex lipidome of Malassezia species and the impact of the lipid metabolism in connection with the host interaction.
Project description:Malassezia is a genus of lipophilic yeasts residing on the skin of warm-blooded animals. The correlation between specific species and their involvement in skin diseases has been well researched. However, only very few studies have investigated the distribution of Malassezia spp. on the healthy skin of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The purpose of this work was to analyze whether the composition of Malassezia spp. isolated from the skin of the HIV-infected patients differs from that of healthy individuals. The study included a total of 96 subjects, who were divided into two equally sized groups: HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative. The specimens were collected from the subjects by swabbing four anatomical sites (face, chest, back, and scalp). Species were identified using phenotype-based methods, and the identification of strains isolated from the HIV-seropositive patients was confirmed by PCR sequencing of the rDNA cluster. Malassezia spp. were isolated from 33 (69%) HIV-seropositive patients and 38 (79%) healthy volunteers. It was found that men were much more likely to have their heads colonized with Malassezia spp. than women. The most prevalent species on the skin of both HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative individuals were Malassezia sympodialis, M. globosa, and M. furfur, albeit at different proportions in the two populations. The diversity of Malassezia spp. was the highest on the face of the HIV-seropositive patients (Shannon-Weiner Index H?=?1.35) and lowest on the back of the healthy volunteers (H?=?0.16). The phenotype- and molecular-based identification methods were congruent at 94.9%. It was observed a tendency that the HIV-seropositive patients had higher CD4+ cell counts, indicating higher colonization with Malassezia spp.
Project description:Malassezia species are lipophilic and lipid dependent yeasts belonging to the human and animal microbiota. Typically, they are isolated from regions rich in sebaceous glands. They have been associated with dermatological diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, tinea versicolor, atopic dermatitis, and folliculitis. Genome sequences of Malassezia globosa, Malassezia sympodialis, and Malassezia pachydermatis lack genes related to fatty acid synthesis. Here, lipid synthesis pathways of M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. globosa, M. sympodialis and an atypical variant of M. furfur were reconstructed using genome data and Constraints Based Reconstruction and Analysis. The metabolic reconstruction allowed us to predict variation in the fluxes of each reaction over the network to satisfy the biomass objective function. Proteomic profiling improved and validated the models through data integration. Results suggest that several mechanisms including steroid and butanoate metabolism explain the yeast’s growth under different lipid conditions. Flux differences were observed in production of riboflavin in M. furfur and the biosynthesis of glycerolipids in the atypical variant of M. furfur and Malassezia sympodialis.
Project description:The lipophilic yeast Malassezia globosa is one of the major constituents of the mycoflora of the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). We compared the genotypes of M. globosa colonizing the skin surface of 32 AD patients and 20 healthy individuals for polymorphism of the intergenic spacer (IGS) 1 region of the rRNA gene. Sequence analysis demonstrated that M. globosa was divided into four major groups, which corresponded to the sources of the samples, on the phylogenetic tree. Of the four groups, two were from AD patients and one was from healthy subjects. The remaining group included samples from both AD patients and healthy subjects. In addition, the IGS 1 region of M. globosa contained short sequence repeats: (CT)(n), and (GT)(n). The number of sequence repeats also differed between the IGS 1 of M. globosa from AD patients and that from healthy subjects. These findings suggest that a specific genotype of M. globosa may play a significant role in AD, although M. globosa commonly colonizes both AD patients and healthy subjects.
Project description:Dandruff is a skin condition that affects the scalp of up to half the world's population, it is characterised by an itchy, flaky scalp and is associated with colonisation of the skin by Malassezia spp. Management of this condition is typically via antifungal therapies, however the precise role of microbes in the aggravation of the condition are incompletely characterised. Here, a combination of 454 sequencing and qPCR techniques were used to compare the scalp microbiota of dandruff and non-dandruff affected Chinese subjects. Based on 454 sequencing of the scalp microbiome, the two most abundant bacterial genera found on the scalp surface were Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) and Staphylococcus, while Malassezia was the main fungal inhabitant. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of four scalp taxa (M. restricta, M. globosa, C. acnes and Staphylococcus spp.) believed to represent the bulk of the overall population was additionally carried out. Metataxonomic and qPCR analyses were performed on healthy and lesional buffer scrub samples to facilitate assessment of whether the scalp condition is associated with differential microbial communities on the sampled skin. Dandruff was associated with greater frequencies of M. restricta and Staphylococcus spp. compared with the healthy population (p<0.05). Analysis also revealed the presence of an unclassified fungal taxon that could represent a novel Malassezia species.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Atopic dermatitis (AD) patients have an altered skin bacterial community, with an abundance of Staphylococcus aureus associated with flares, highlighting that microbial organisms may be important for disease exacerbation. Despite strong evidence of association between bacterial skin colonisation and AD, very limited knowledge regarding the eukaryotic microbial community, including fungi and ectoparasites, in AD exists. In this study, we compared the skin and nasal eukaryotic microbial community between adult AD patients (n?=?55) and non-AD healthy controls (n?=?45) using targeted 18S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Analysis was based on the presence or absence of eukaryotic microorganisms.<h4>Results</h4>The cutaneous composition of the eukaryotic microbial community and the alpha-diversity differed significantly between AD patients and non-AD individuals, with increased species richness on AD skin. Alpha-diversity and beta-diversity were similar on lesional and non-lesional skin of patients. The ectoparasite Demodex folliculorum and the yeast Geotrichum candidum were significantly more prevalent on the skin of AD patients. The prevalence of D. folliculorum on lesional skin was greater among patients recently treated with topical corticosteroid. Malassezia was one of the most frequently detected genera at all sites, with M. globosa and M. restricta being the most prevalent. M. restricta was under represented in the anterior nares of AD patients as compared to the non-AD control population.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Significant differences in the eukaryotic microbial communities were found between AD patients and non-AD individuals, with the most striking finding being the significantly overrepresentation of D. folliculorum on AD skin. Whether D. folliculorum can contribute to skin inflammation in AD needs further investigation.
Project description:The species constituting the genus Malassezia are considered to be emergent opportunistic yeasts of great importance. Characterized as lipophilic yeasts, they are found in normal human skin flora and sometimes are associated with different dermatological pathologies. We have isolated seven Malassezia species strains that have a different Tween assimilation pattern from the one typically used to differentiate M. furfur, M. sympodialis, and M. slooffiae from other Malassezia species. In order to characterize these isolates of Malassezia spp., we studied their physiological features and conducted morphological and molecular characterization by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing of the 26S and 5.8S ribosomal DNA-internal transcribed spacer 2 regions in three strains from healthy individuals, four clinical strains, and eight reference strains. The sequence analysis of the ribosomal region was based on the Blastn algorithm and revealed that the sequences of our isolates were homologous to M. furfur sequences. To support these findings, we carried out phylogenetic analyses to establish the relationship of the isolates to M. furfur and other reported species. All of our results confirm that all seven strains are M. furfur; the atypical assimilation of Tween 80 was found to be a new physiological pattern characteristic of some strains isolated in Colombia.