Activities of newer fluoroquinolones against Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates including those with mutations in the gyrA, parC, and parE loci.
ABSTRACT: Resistance to fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics in Streptococcus pneumoniae has been attributed primarily to specific mutations in the genes for DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE). Resistance to some FQs can result from a single mutation in one or more of the genes encoding these essential enzymes. A group of 160 clinical isolates of pneumococci was examined in this study, including 36 ofloxacin-resistant isolates (MICs, > or = 8 micrograms/ml) recovered from patients in North America, France, and Belgium. The susceptibilities of all isolates to clinafloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and trovafloxacin were examined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards reference broth microdilution and disk diffusion susceptibility testing methods. Among the ofloxacin-resistant strains, 32 of 36 were also categorized as resistant to levofloxacin, 35 were resistant to sparfloxacin, 29 were resistant to grepafloxacin, and 19 were resistant to trovafloxacin. In vitro susceptibility to clinafloxacin appeared to be least affected by resistance to the other FQs. Eight isolates with high- and low-level resistance to the newer FQs were selected for DNA sequence analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. The DNA and the inferred amino acid sequences of the resistant strains were compared with the analogous sequences of reference strain S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 and FQ-susceptible laboratory strain R6. Reduced susceptibilities to grepafloxacin and sparfloxacin (MICs, 1 to 2 micrograms/ml) and trovafloxacin (MICs, 0.5 to 1 microgram/ml) were associated with either a mutation in parC that led to a single amino acid substitution (Ser-79 to Phe or Tyr) or double mutations that involved the genes for both GyrA (Ser-81 to Phe) and ParE (Asp-435 to Asn). High-level resistance to all of the compounds except clinafloxacin was associated with two or more amino acid substitutions involving both GyrA (Ser-81 to Phe) and ParC (Ser-79 to Phe or Ser-80 to Pro and Asp-83 to Tyr). No mutations were observed in the gyrB sequences of resistant strains. These data indicate that mutations in pneumococcal gyrA, parC, and parE genes all contribute to decreased susceptibility to the newer FQs, and genetic analysis of the QRDR of a single gene, either gyrA or parC, is not predictive of pneumococcal resistance to these agents.
Project description:A total of 88 salmonella isolates (72 clinical isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was >0.06 microg/ml, 15 isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was < or =0.06 microg/ml, and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 13311) were studied for the presence of genetic alterations in four quinolone resistance genes, gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE, by multiplex PCR amplimer conformation analysis. The genetic alterations were confirmed by direct nucleotide sequencing. A considerable number of strains had a mutation in parC, the first to be reported in salmonellae. Seven of the isolates sensitive to 0.06 micro g of ciprofloxacin per ml had a novel mutation at codon 57 of parC (Tyr57-->Ser) which was also found in 29 isolates for which ciprofloxacin MICs were >0.06 micro g/ml. Thirty-two isolates had a single gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Phe, Ser83-->Tyr, Asp87-->Asn, Asp87-->Tyr, or Asp87-->Gly), 34 had both a gyrA mutation and a parC mutation (29 isolates with a parC mutation of Tyr57-->Ser and 5 isolates with a parC mutation of Ser80-->Arg). Six isolates which were isolated recently (from 1998 to 2001) were resistant to 4 micro g of ciprofloxacin per ml. Two of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83-->Phe and Asp87-->Asn) and a parC mutation (Ser80-->Arg) (MICs, 8 to 32 microg/ml), and four of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83-->Phe and Asp87-->Gly), one parC mutation (Ser80-->Arg), and one parE mutation (Ser458-->Pro) (MICs, 16 to 64 micro g/ml). All six of these isolates and those with a Ser80-->Arg parC mutation were S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. One S. enterica serotype Typhi isolate harbored a single gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Phe), and an S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A isolate harbored a gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Tyr) and a parC mutation (Tyr57-->Ser); both of these isolates had decreased susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones. The MICs of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and sparfloxacin were in general the lowest of those of the six fluoroquinolones tested. Isolates with a single gyrA mutation were less resistant to fluoroquinolones than those with an additional parC mutation (Tyr57-->Ser or Ser80-->Arg), while those with double gyrA mutations were more resistant.
Project description:The activities of two investigational fluoroquinolones and three fluoroquinolones that are currently marketed were determined for 182 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The collection included 57 pneumococcal isolates resistant to levofloxacin (MIC >/= 8 microg/ml) recovered from patients in North America and Europe. All isolates were tested with clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and trovafloxacin by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards broth microdilution and disk diffusion susceptibility test methods. Gemifloxacin demonstrated the greatest activity on a per gram basis, followed by clinafloxacin, trovafloxacin, gatifloxacin, and levofloxacin. Scatterplots of the MICs and disk diffusion zone sizes revealed a well-defined separation of levofloxacin-resistant and -susceptible strains when the isolates were tested against clinafloxacin and gatifloxacin. DNA sequence analyses of the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE from 21 of the levofloxacin-resistant strains identified eight different patterns of amino acid changes. Mutations among the four loci had the least effect on the MICs of gemifloxacin and clinafloxacin, while the MICs of gatifloxacin and trovafloxacin increased by up to six doubling dilutions. These data indicate that the newer fluoroquinolones have greater activities than levofloxacin against pneumococci with mutations in the DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV genes. Depending upon pharmacokinetics and safety, the greater potency of these agents could provide improved clinical efficacy against levofloxacin-resistant pneumococcal strains.
Project description:In this study, we assessed the activity of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and trovafloxacin against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae that were resistant to the less-recently developed fluoroquinolones by using defined amino acid substitutions in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. The molecular basis for resistance was assessed by using mutants selected with trovafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin in vitro. This demonstrated that the primary target of trovafloxacin in S. pneumoniae is the ParC subunit of DNA topoisomerase IV, similar to most other fluoroquinolones. However, first-step mutants bearing the Ser79-->Phe/Tyr substitution in topoisomerase IV subunit ParC were susceptible to trovafloxacin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.25 microg/ml, and mutations in the structural genes for both topoisomerase IV subunit ParC (parC) and the DNA gyrase subunit (gyrA) were required to achieve levels of resistance above the breakpoint. The data also suggest that enhanced activity of trovafloxacin against pneumococci is due to a combination of factors that may include reduced efflux of this agent and an enhanced activity against both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV.
Project description:The in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxacin were tested against 72 ciprofloxacin-resistant and 28 ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterobacter aerogenes. Irrespective of the alterations in GyrA and ParC proteins, clinafloxacin exhibited greater activity than all other fluoroquinolones tested against K. pneumoniae and E. aerogenes.
Project description:The nucleotide sequences of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the parC and gyrA genes from seven ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cpr) isolates of viridans group streptococci (two high-level Cpr Streptococcus oralis and five low-level Cpr Streptococcus mitis isolates) were determined and compared with those obtained from susceptible isolates. The nucleotide sequences of the QRDRs of the parE and gyrB genes from the five low-level Cpr S. mitis isolates and from the NCTC 12261 type strain were also analyzed. Four of these low-level Cpr isolates had changes affecting the subunits of DNA topoisomerase IV: three in Ser-79 (to Phe or Ile) of ParC and one in ParE at a position not previously described to be involved in quinolone resistance (Pro-424). One isolate did not show any mutation. The two high-level Cpr S. oralis isolates showed mutations affecting equivalent residue positions of ParC and GyrA, namely, Ser-79 to Phe and Ser-81 to Phe or Tyr, respectively. The parC mutations were able to transform Streptococcus pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin resistance, while the gyrA mutations transformed S. pneumoniae only when mutations in parC were present. These results suggest that DNA topoisomerase IV is a primary target of ciprofloxacin in viridans group streptococci, DNA gyrase being a secondary target.
Project description:Mycoplasma hominis mutants were selected stepwise for resistance to ofloxacin and sparfloxacin, and their gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE quinolone resistance-determining regions were characterized. For ofloxacin, four rounds of selection yielded six first-, six second-, five third-, and two fourth-step mutants. The first-step mutants harbored a single Asp426-->Asn substitution in ParE. GyrA changes (Ser83-->Leu or Trp) were found only from the third round of selection. With sparfloxacin, three rounds of selection generated 4 first-, 7 second-, and 10 third-step mutants. In contrast to ofloxacin resistance, GyrA mutations (Ser83-->Leu or Ser84-->Trp) were detected in the first-step mutants prior to ParC changes (Glu84-->Lys), which appeared only after the second round of selection. Further analysis of eight multistep-selected mutants of M. hominis that were previously described (2) revealed that they carried mutations in ParE (Asp426-->Asn), GyrA (Ser83-->Leu) and ParE (Asp426-->Asn), GyrA (Ser83-->Leu) and ParC (Ser80-->Ile), or ParC (Ser80-->Ile) alone, depending on the fluoroquinolone used for selection, i.e., ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, or pefloxacin, respectively. These data indicate that in M. hominis DNA gyrase is the primary target of sparfloxacin whereas topoisomerase IV is the primary target of pefloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.
Project description:The L2 reference strain of Chlamydia trachomatis was exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of ofloxacin (0.5 microg/ml) and sparfloxacin (0.015 microg/ml) to select fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants. In this study, two resistant strains were isolated after four rounds of selection. The C. trachomatis mutants presented with high-level resistance to various fluoroquinolones, particularly to sparfloxacin, for which a 1,000-fold increase in the MICs for the mutant strains compared to the MIC for the susceptible strain was found. The MICs of unrelated antibiotics (doxycycline and erythromycin) for the mutant strains were identical to those for the reference strain. The gyrase (gyrA, gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC, parE) genes of the susceptible and resistant strains of C. trachomatis were partially sequenced. A point mutation was found in the gyrA quinolone-resistance-determining region (QRDR) of both resistant strains, leading to a Ser83-->Ile substitution (Escherichia coli numbering) in the corresponding protein. The gyrB, parC, and parE QRDRs of the resistant strains were identical to those of the reference strain. These results suggest that in C. trachomatis, DNA gyrase is the primary target of ofloxacin and sparfloxacin.
Project description:Mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis were determined by genetic analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. This study included the P. mirabilis type strain ATCC 29906 and 29 clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility (MIC, 0.5 to 2 microg/ml) or resistance (MIC, > or =4 microg/ml) to ciprofloxacin. Susceptibility profiles for ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxacin were correlated with amino acid changes in the QRDRs. Decreased susceptibility and resistance were associated with double mutations involving both gyrA (S83R or -I) and parC (S80R or -I). Among these double mutants, MICs of ciprofloxacin varied from 1 to 16 microg/ml, indicating that additional factors, such as drug efflux or porin changes, also contribute to the level of resistance. For ParE, a single conservative change of V364I was detected in seven strains. An unexpected result was the association of gyrB mutations with high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in 12 of 20 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Changes in GyrB included S464Y (six isolates), S464F (three isolates), and E466D (two isolates). A three-nucleotide insertion, resulting in an additional lysine residue between K455 and A456, was detected in gyrB of one strain. Unlike any other bacterial species analyzed to date, mutation of gyrB appears to be a frequent event in the acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance among clinical isolates of P. mirabilis.
Project description:The major mechanism of resistance to fluoroquinolones for Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the modification of type II topoisomerases (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV). We examined the mutations in quinolone-resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes of recent clinical isolates. There were 150 isolates with reduced susceptibilities to levofloxacin and 127 with reduced susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin among 513 isolates collected during 1998 and 1999 in Japan. Sequencing results predicted replacement of an amino acid in the QRDR of DNA gyrase (GyrA or GyrB) for 124 of the 150 strains (82.7%); among these, 89 isolates possessed mutations in parC or parE which lead to amino acid changes. Substitutions of both Ile for Thr-83 in GyrA and Leu for Ser-87 in ParC were the principal changes, being detected in 48 strains. These replacements were obviously associated with reduced susceptibilities to levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and sparfloxacin; however, sitafloxacin showed high activity against isolates with these replacements. We purified GyrA (The-83 to Ile) and ParC (Ser-87 to Leu) by site-directed mutagenesis and compared the inhibitory activities of the fluoroquinolones. Sitafloxacin showed the most potent inhibitory activities against both altered topoisomerases among the fluoroquinolones tested. These results indicated that, compared with other available quinolones, sitafloxacin maintained higher activity against recent clinical isolates with multiple mutations in gyrA and parC, which can be explained by the high inhibitory activities of sitafloxacin against both mutated enzymes.
Project description:Of 94 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n = 51) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (n = 43), mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of topoisomerases GrlA, GrlB, GyrA, and GyrB together with MICs of six quinolones were analyzed. Amino acid substitutions at identical residues (GrlA residues 80 and 84; GyrA residues 84 and 88) were found in S. aureus and CNS. Active efflux, as suggested by blocking by reserpine, contributed substantially to the resistance phenotype in some strains. Among ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, levofloxacin, nalidixic acid, trovafloxacin, and sparfloxacin, a 0.5-microg/ml concentration of sparfloxacin discriminated best between strains with two or three mutations and those with no mutations.