Identification and Expression Analysis of an Interacting Protein (LvFABP) that Mediates Vibrio parahaemolyticus AHPND Toxin Action.
ABSTRACT: Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus causing AHPND (VPAHPND) is the most serious disease affecting shrimp farming. The PirAvp and PirBvp toxins of VPAHPND are known virulence factors. However, the corresponding target protein in shrimp that mediates their action has not been identified. By screening yeast two-hybrid cDNA libraries from intestine, stomach, and hepatopancreas of Litopenaeus vannamei, the protein with the largest increase in gene expression in shrimp hepatopancreas in response to VPAHPND challenge was identified and designated LvFABP. Analysis revealed high sequence homology of the LvFABP gene and a lipocalin/cytosolic fatty acid binding gene. Yeast two-hybrid pairwise analysis, GST-pull down assay, and far-western blot assay were performed to determine the interaction between LvFABP and PirBvp. LvFABP was able to directly bind to PirBvp. The expression of LvFABP in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher at P23 and P27 developmental stages of L. vannamei. RNA interference (RNAi) of LvFABP reduced the mortality, histopathological signs of AHPND in the hepatopancreas, and the number of virulent VPAHPND bacteria in the intestine, stomach, and hepatopancreas after VPAHPND challenge. We concluded that the LvFABP was involved in AHPND pathogenesis and acted as a VPAHPND toxin interacting protein. This is the first identification of VPAHPND toxin interacting protein from the shrimp digestive system by yeast two-hybrid library screening and were confirmed by in vitro protein interaction verification and in vivo challenge experiments. This study provides novel insight into the contributions of LvFABP towards AHPND pathogenesis in shrimp. The findings could inform AHPND preventative measures in shrimp farming.
Project description:The causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is the bacterium, <i>Vibrio parahaemolyticus</i>, which secretes toxins into the gastrointestinal tract of its host. <i>Vibrio parahaemolyticus</i> toxins A and B (PirA<sup>vp</sup>/PirB<sup>vp</sup>) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease, and are, therefore, the focus of studies developing treatments for AHPND. We previously produced recombinant antibodies based on the hagfish variable lymphocyte receptor B (VLRB) capable of neutralizing some viruses, suggesting that this type of antibody may have a potential application for treatment of AHPND. Here, recombinant PirA<sup>vp</sup>/PirB<sup>vp</sup>, produced using a bacterial expression system, were used as antigens to screen a hagfish VLRB cDNA library to obtain PirA<sup>vp</sup>/PirB<sup>vp</sup>-specific antibodies. A cell line secreting these antibodies was established by screening and cloning the DNA extracted from hagfish B cells. Supernatants collected from cells secreting the PirA<sup>vp</sup>/PirB<sup>vp</sup> antibodies were collected and concentrated, and used to passively immunize shrimp to neutralize the toxins PirA<sup>vp</sup> or PirB<sup>vp</sup> associated with AHPND. Briefly, 10 ?g of PirA<sup>vp</sup> and PirB<sup>vp</sup> antibodies, 7C12 and 9G10, respectively, were mixed with the shrimp feed, and fed to shrimp for three days consecutive days prior to experimentally infecting the shrimp with <i>V. parahaemolyticus</i> (containing toxins A and B), and resulting mortalities recorded for six days. Results showed significantly higher level of survival in shrimp fed with the PirB<sup>vp</sup>-9G10 antibody (60%) compared to the group fed the PirA<sup>vp</sup>-7C12 antibody (3%) and the control group (0%). This suggests that VLRB antibodies may be a suitable alternative to immunoglobulin-based antibodies, as passive immunization treatments for effective management of AHPND outbreaks within shrimp farms.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a shrimp farming disease, caused by a pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying a plasmid encoding Vp_PirAB-like toxin (VpAHPND). Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei were fed food pellets containing formalin-killed VpAHPND (FKC-VpAHPND) to select for toxin resistance. To identify genes associated with Vp_PirAB-like toxin resistance, total RNA was sequenced to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the stomach and hepatopancreas among surviving shrimp (sur-FKC), AHPND-infected shrimp (Vp-inf) and normal shrimp (control). From a total of 79,591 genes, 194 and 224 DEGs were identified in the stomach and hepatopancreas transcriptomes, respectfully. The expressions of DEGs were validated by qPCR of ten genes. Only one gene, a gene homologous to L vannamei anti-lipopolysaccharide factor AV-R isoform (LvALF AV-R), was expressed significantly more strongly in sur-FKC than in the other groups. The association of LvALF AV-R expression and toxin resistance was affirmed from the surviving shrimp in a second-trial of FKC-VpAHPND feeding. These results suggest that LvALF AV-R may be involved in shrimp defense mechanisms against Vp_PirAB-like toxin virulence. Overall design: Total RNA of stomach and hepatopancreas from 3 groups of control (N =3), Vp-inf (N=3), and sur-FKC (N=4) were prepared library with Truseq Stranded mRNA Library Prep Kit. RNA-seq was genrated by Illumina MiSeq
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of shrimp is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates (VPAHPND isolates) that harbor a pVA plasmid encoding toxins PirA Vp and PirB Vp These are released from VPAHPND isolates that colonize the shrimp stomach and produce pathognomonic AHPND lesions (massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells). PCR results indicated that V. parahaemolyticus isolate XN87 lacked pirA Vp but carried pirB Vp Unexpectedly, Western blot analysis of proteins from the culture broth of XN87 revealed the absence of both toxins, and the lack of PirB Vp was further confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, shrimp immersion challenge with XN87 resulted in 47% mortality without AHPND lesions. Instead, lesions consisted of collapsed hepatopancreatic tubule epithelia. In contrast, control shrimp challenged with typical VPAHPND isolate 5HP gave 90% mortality, accompanied by AHPND lesions. Sequence analysis revealed that the pVA plasmid of XN87 contained a mutated pirA Vp gene interrupted by the out-of-frame insertion of a transposon gene fragment. The upstream region and the beginning of the original pirA Vp gene remained intact, but the insertion caused a 2-base reading frameshift in the remainder of the pirA Vp gene sequence and in the downstream pirB Vp gene sequence. Reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing of 5HP revealed a bicistronic pirAB Vp mRNA transcript that was not produced by XN87, explaining the absence of both toxins in its culture broth. However, the virulence of XN87 revealed that some V. parahaemolyticus isolates carrying mutant pVA plasmids that produce no Pir Vp toxins can cause mortality in shrimp in ponds experiencing an outbreak of early mortality syndrome (EMS) but may not have been previously recognized to be AHPND related because they did not cause pathognomonic AHPND lesions.IMPORTANCE Shrimp acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates (VPAHPND isolates) that harbor the pVA1 plasmid encoding toxins PirA Vp and PirB Vp The toxins are produced in the shrimp stomach but cause death by massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells (pathognomonic AHPND lesions). V. parahaemolyticus isolate XN87 harbors a mutant pVA plasmid that produces no Pir toxins and does not cause AHPND lesions but still causes ?50% shrimp mortality. Such isolates may cause a portion of the mortality in ponds experiencing an outbreak of EMS that is not ascribed to VPAHPND Thus, they pose to shrimp farmers an additional threat that would be missed by current testing for VPAHPND Moribund shrimp from ponds experiencing an outbreak of EMS that exhibit collapsed hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells can serve as indicators for the possible presence of such isolates, which can then be confirmed by additional PCR tests for the presence of a pVA plasmid.
Project description:The acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of Penaeus vannamei shrimp is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying toxin genes, pirA and pirB We report the complete genome sequence of the novel V. parahaemolyticus strain R14, which did not display AHPND symptoms in P. vannamei despite containing the binary toxin genes.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a severe, newly emergent penaeid shrimp disease caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus that has already led to tremendous losses in the cultured shrimp industry. Until now, its disease-causing mechanism has remained unclear. Here we show that an AHPND-causing strain of V. parahaemolyticus contains a 70-kbp plasmid (pVA1) with a postsegregational killing system, and that the ability to cause disease is abolished by the natural absence or experimental deletion of the plasmid-encoded homologs of the Photorhabdus insect-related (Pir) toxins PirA and PirB. We determined the crystal structure of the V. parahaemolyticus PirA and PirB (PirA(vp) and PirB(vp)) proteins and found that the overall structural topology of PirA(vp)/PirB(vp) is very similar to that of the Bacillus Cry insecticidal toxin-like proteins, despite the low sequence identity (<10%). This structural similarity suggests that the putative PirAB(vp) heterodimer might emulate the functional domains of the Cry protein, and in particular its pore-forming activity. The gene organization of pVA1 further suggested that pirAB(vp) may be lost or acquired by horizontal gene transfer via transposition or homologous recombination.
Project description:Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying binary toxin genes, pirAB, is one of the etiological agents causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp. This disease has emerged recently as a major threat to shrimp aquaculture worldwide. During a routine PCR screening of AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus strains, an isolate tested PCR positive for pirB (R13) and another isolate tested positive for both the pirA and pirB (R14) genes. To evaluate the pathogenicity of these isolates, specific pathogen-free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei were experimentally challenged. For both R13 and R14 isolates, the final survival rate was 100% at termination of the challenge, whereas the final survival with the AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus was 0%. The nucleotide sequence of the plasmid DNA carrying the binary toxin genes revealed that R13 contains a deletion of the entire pirA gene whereas R14 contains the entire coding regions of both pirA and pirB genes. However, R14 possesses an insertion upstream of the pirA gene. In R14, mRNA for both pirA and pirB genes could be detected but no cognate proteins. This shows that the genome of AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus is highly plastic and, therefore, detection of the pirA and pirB genes alone by DNA-PCR is insufficient as a diagnostic test for AHPND.
Project description:Gram-negative marine bacterium <i>Vibrio parahaemolyticus</i> is an important aquatic pathogen and has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrotic disease (AHPND) in shrimp aquaculture. The AHPND-causing <i>V. parahaemolyticus</i> strains contain a pVA1 plasmid encoding the binary PirA<sup>VP</sup> and PirB<sup>VP</sup> toxins, are the primary virulence factor that mediates AHPND and mortality in shrimp. Since PirAB<sup>VP</sup> toxins are secreted extracellularly, one can hypothesize that PirAB<sup>VP</sup> toxins would aggravate vibriosis in the aquatic environment. To address this, <i>in vivo</i> and <i>in vitro</i> experiments were conducted. Germ-free <i>Artemia franciscana</i> were co-challenged with PirAB<sup>VP</sup> toxins and 10 <i>Vibrio</i> spp. The <i>in vivo</i> results showed that PirAB<sup>VP</sup> toxin interact synergistically with MM30 (a quorum sensing AI-2 deficient mutant) and <i>V. alginolyticus</i> AQ13-91, aggravating vibriosis. However, co-challenge by PirAB<sup>VP</sup> toxins and <i>V. campbellii</i> LMG21363, <i>V. parahaemolyticus</i> CAIM170, <i>V. proteolyticus</i> LMG10942, and <i>V. anguillarum</i> NB10 worked antagonistically, increasing the survival of <i>Artemia</i> larvae. The <i>in vitro</i> results showed that the addition of PirAB<sup>VP</sup> toxins significantly modulated the production of the virulence factors of studied <i>Vibrio</i> spp. Yet these <i>in vitro</i> results did not help to explain the <i>in vivo</i> results. Hence it appears that PirAB<sup>VP</sup> toxins can aggravate vibriosis. However, the dynamics of interaction is strain dependent.
Project description:The biofloc system is a relatively new aquaculture technology that offers practical solution to maintain culture water quality by recycling nutrients and improves the health status and resistance of shrimps against microbial infection, yet the mode of action involved remains unclear. This study aimed to unravel the underlying mechanism behind the protective effect of a biofloc system using Litopenaeus vannamei and acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND)-causing Vibrio parahaemolyticus M0904 strain as a host-pathogen model. The results showed that a biofloc system maintained at a C/N ratio of 15, improves the water quality and contributes to the nutrition of cultured animals as bioflocs might serve as an additional protein source. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that the biofloc system enhances the survival of L. vannamei upon challenge with a V. parahaemolyticus AHPND strain. Remarkably, the results highlight that in the biofloc system, AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus possibly switch from free-living virulent planktonic phenotype to a non-virulent biofilm phenotype, as demonstrated by a decreased transcription of flagella-related motility genes (flaA, CheR, and fliS), Pir toxin (PirB VP ), and AHPND plasmid genes (ORF14) and increased expression of the phenotype switching marker AlkPhoX gene in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Taken together, results suggest that biofloc steer phenotype switching, contributing to the decreased virulence of V. parahaemolyticus AHPND strain toward shrimp postlarvae. This information reinforces our understanding about AHPND in a biofloc setting and opens the possibility to combat AHPND not only by trying to eliminate the AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus from the system but rather to steer the phenotypic switch.
Project description:Background:Penaeus monodon is the second most widely cultured marine shrimp species in the global shrimp aquaculture industry. However, the growth of P. monodon production has been constantly impaired by disease outbreaks. Recently, there is a lethal bacterial infection, known as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus AHPND strain (Vp AHPND), which led to mass mortalities in P. monodon. Unfortunately, there is still insufficient knowledge about the underlying immune response of P. monodon upon AHPND infection. The present study aims to provide an insight into the antibacterial immune response elicited by P. monodon hepatopancreas towards AHPND infection. Methods:We have employed high-throughput RNA-Seq technology to uncover the transcriptome changes of P. monodon hepatopancreas when challenged with Vp AHPND. The shrimps were challenged with Vp AHPND through immersion method with dissected hepatopancreas samples for the control group (APm-CTL) and treatment group at 3 (APm-T3), 6 (APm-T6), and 24 (APm-T24) hours post-AHPND infection sent for RNA-Seq. The transcriptome de novo assembly and Unigene expression determination were conducted using Trinity, Tgicl, Bowtie2, and RSEM software. The differentially expressed transcripts were functionally annotated mainly through COG, GO, and KEGG databases. Results:The sequencing reads generated were filtered to obtain 312.77 Mb clean reads and assembled into 48662 Unigenes. Based on the DEGs pattern identified, it is inferred that the PAMPs carried by Vp AHPND or associated toxins are capable of activating PRRs, which leads to subsequent pathway activation, transcriptional modification, and antibacterial responses (Phagocytosis, AMPs, proPO system). DAMPs are released in response to cell stress or damage to further activate the sequential immune responses. The comprehensive interactions between Vp AHPND, chitin, GbpA, mucin, chitinase, and chitin deacetylase were postulated to be involved in bacterial colonization or antibacterial response. Conclusions:The outcomes of this research correlate the different stages of P. monodon immune response to different time points of AHPND infection. This finding supports the development of biomarkers for the detection of early stages of Vp AHPND colonization in P. monodon through host immune expression changes. The potential genes to be utilized as biomarkers include but not limited to C-type lectin, HMGB1, IMD, ALF, serine proteinase, and DSCAM.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), caused by marine bacteria Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, is a huge problem in shrimp farms. The V. parahaemolyticus infecting material is contained in a plasmid which encodes for the lethal toxins PirABVp, whose primary target tissue is the hepatopancreas, causing sloughing of epithelial cells, necrosis, and massive hemocyte infiltration. To get a better understanding of the hepatopancreas response during AHPND, juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were infected by immersion with V. parahaemolyticus. We performed transcriptomic mRNA sequencing of infected shrimp hepatopancreas, at 24 hours post-infection, to identify novel differentially expressed genes a total of 174,098 transcripts were examined of which 915 transcripts were found differentially expressed after comparative transcriptomic analysis: 442 up-regulated and 473 down-regulated transcripts. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis for up-regulated transcripts includes metabolic process, regulation of programmed cell death, carbohydrate metabolic process, and biological adhesion, whereas for down-regulated transcripts include, microtubule-based process, cell activation, and chitin metabolic process. The analysis of protein- protein network between up and down-regulated genes indicates that the first gene interactions are connected to oxidation-processes and sarcomere organization. Additionally, protein-protein networks analysis identified 20-top highly connected hub nodes. Based on their immunological or metabolic function, ten candidate transcripts were selected to measure their mRNA relative expression levels in AHPND infected shrimp hepatopancreas by RT-qPCR. Our results indicate a close connection between the immune and metabolism systems during AHPND infection. Our RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR data provide the possible immunological and physiological scenario as well as the molecular pathways that take place in the shrimp hepatopancreas in response to an infectious disease.