Overproduction of L-Lysine from methanol by Methylobacillus glycogenes derivatives carrying a plasmid with a mutated dapA gene.
ABSTRACT: The dapA gene, encoding dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DDPS) partially desensitized to inhibition by L-lysine, was cloned from an L-threonine- and L-lysine-coproducing mutant of the obligate methylotroph Methylobacillus glycogenes DHL122 by complementation of the nutritional requirement of an Escherichia coli dapA mutant. Introduction of the dapA gene into DHL122 and AL119, which is the parent of DHL122 and an L-threonine producing mutant, elevated the specific activity of DDPS 20-fold and L-lysine production 2- to 3-fold with concomitant reduction of L-threonine in test tube cultures. AL119 containing the dapA gene produced 8 g of L-lysine per liter in a 5-liter jar fermentor from methanol as a substrate. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the dapA gene shows that it encodes a peptide with an M(r) of 30,664 and that the encoded amino acid sequence is extensively homologous to those of other organisms. In order to study the mutation that occurred in DHL122, the dapA genes of the wild type and AL119 were cloned and sequenced. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the dapA genes revealed that the amino acid at residue 88 was F in DHL122 whereas it was L in the wild type and AL119, suggesting that this amino acid alteration that occurred in DHL122 caused the partial desensitization of DDPS to the inhibition by L-lysine. The similarity in the amino acid sequences of DDPS in M. glycogenes and other organisms suggests that the mutation of the dapA gene in DHL122 is located in the region concerned with interaction of the allosteric effector, L-lysine.
Project description:We have cloned the homoserine dehydrogenase genes (hom) from the gram-negative obligate methylotrophs Methylobacillus glycogenes ATCC 21276 and ATCC 21371 by complementation of an Escherichia coli homoserine dehydrogenase-deficient mutant. The 4.15-kb DNA fragment cloned from M. glycogenes ATCC 21371 also complemented an E. coli threonine synthase-deficient mutant, suggesting the DNA fragment contained the thrC gene in addition to the hom gene. The homoserine dehydrogenases expressed in the E. coli recombinants were hardly inhibited by L-threonine, L-phenylalanine, or L-methionine. However, they became sensitive to the amino acids after storage at 4 degrees C for 4 days as in M. glycogenes. The structures of the homoserine dehydrogenases overexpressed in E. coli were thought to be different from those in M. glycogenes, probably in subunit numbers of the enzyme, and were thought to have converted to the correct structures during the storage. The nucleotide sequences of the hom and thrC genes were determined. The hom genes of M. glycogenes ATCC 21276 and ATCC 21371 encode peptides with M(r)s of 48,225 and 44,815, respectively. The thrC genes were located 50 bp downstream of the hom genes. The thrC gene of ATCC 21371 encodes a peptide with an M(r) of 52,111, and the gene product of ATCC 21276 was truncated. Northern (RNA) blot analysis suggests that the hom and thrC genes are organized in an operon. Significant homology between the predicted amino acid sequences of the hom and thrC genes and those from other microorganisms was found.
Project description:Aspartokinase (AK) controls the carbon flow into the aspartate pathway for the biosynthesis of the amino acids l-methionine, l-threonine, l-isoleucine, and l-lysine. We report here the cloning of four genes (asd, encoding aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase; dapA, encoding dihydrodipicolinate synthase; dapG, encoding AKI; and yclM, encoding AKIII) of the aspartate pathway in Bacillus methanolicus MGA3. Together with the known AKII gene lysC, dapG and yclM form a set of three AK genes in this organism. Overexpression of dapG, lysC, and yclM increased l-lysine production in wild-type B. methanolicus strain MGA3 2-, 10-, and 60-fold (corresponding to 11 g/liter), respectively, without negatively affecting the specific growth rate. The production levels of l-methionine (less than 0.5 g/liter) and l-threonine (less than 0.1 g/liter) were low in all recombinant strains. The AK proteins were purified, and biochemical analyses demonstrated that they have similar V(max) values (between 47 and 58 micromol/min/mg protein) and K(m) values for l-aspartate (between 1.9 and 5.0 mM). AKI and AKII were allosterically inhibited by meso-diaminopimelate (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)], 0.1 mM) and by l-lysine (IC(50), 0.3 mM), respectively. AKIII was inhibited by l-threonine (IC(50), 4 mM) and by l-lysine (IC(50), 5 mM), and this enzyme was synergistically inhibited in the presence of both of these amino acids at low concentrations. The correlation between the impact on l-lysine production in vivo and the biochemical properties in vitro of the individual AK proteins is discussed. This is the first example of improving l-lysine production by metabolic engineering of B. methanolicus and also the first documentation of considerably increasing l-lysine production by overexpression of a wild-type AK.
Project description:Metastasis is one of the important reasons for the poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), abnormal glycosylation plays a pivotal role in HCC metastasis. The goal of this study was to screen and validate the transcriptional profiling of glycogenes associated with HCC metastasis.The differentially transcribed glycogenes were screened out by the Human Glycosylation RT2 Profiler PCR Array, and were identified by qRT-PCR in human HCC cell lines and their orthotopic xenograft tumors. Further analyses were performed with K-mean clustering, Gene Ontology (GO) and ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA). Four differentially transcribed glycogenes were validated in clinical cancer specimens by qRT-PCR.A total of thirty-three differentially transcribed glycogenes were obtained by comparison the transcription in the metastatic human HCC cell lines (MHCC97L, MHCC97H and HCCLM3) with the transcription in the non-metastatic HCC cell line Hep3B. Seven differentially transcribed glycogenes were selected to further identification in human HCC cell lines and their orthotopic xenograft tumors. According to their trends by K-mean clustering, all of the differentially transcribed glycogenes were classified in six clusters. GO analysis of the differentially transcribed glycogenes described them in biological process, subcellular location and molecular function. Furthermore, the partial regulatory network of the differentially transcribed glycogenes was acquired through the IPA. The transcription levels of galnt3, gcnt3, man1a1, mgat5b in non-metastatic and metastatic HCC clinical cancer specimens showed the same changing trends with the results in human HCC cell lines and their orthotopic xenograft tumors, and the divergent transcription levels of gcnt3 and mgat5b were statistically significant.The transcriptional profiling of glycogenes associated with HCC metastasis was obtained and validated in this study and it might provide novel drug targets and potential biological markers for HCC metastasis.
Project description:The diaminopimelic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis has been suggested to provide attractive targets for the development of novel antibacterial drugs. Here we report the characterization of two enzymes from this pathway in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, utilizing structural biology, biochemistry and genetics. We show that tetrahydrodipicolinate N-succinyltransferase (DapD) from P. aeruginosa is specific for the L-stereoisomer of the amino substrate L-2-aminopimelate, and its D-enantiomer acts as a weak inhibitor. The crystal structures of this enzyme with L-2-aminopimelate and D-2-aminopimelate, respectively, reveal that both compounds bind at the same site of the enzyme. Comparison of the binding interactions of these ligands in the enzyme active site suggests misalignment of the amino group of D-2-aminopimelate for nucleophilic attack on the succinate moiety of the co-substrate succinyl-CoA as the structural basis of specificity and inhibition. P. aeruginosa mutants where the dapA gene had been deleted were viable and able to grow in a mouse lung infection model, suggesting that DapA is not an optimal target for drug development against this organism. Structure-based sequence alignments, based on the DapA crystal structure determined to 1.6 Å resolution revealed the presence of two homologues, PA0223 and PA4188, in P. aeruginosa that could substitute for DapA in the P. aeruginosa PAO1?dapA mutant. In vitro experiments using recombinant PA0223 protein could however not detect any DapA activity.
Project description:PURPOSE:A prior study showed that exogenous galectin-3 (Gal-3) stimulates re-epithelialization of corneal wounds in wild-type (Gal-3(+/+)) mice but, surprisingly, not in galectin-3-deficient (Gal-3(-/-)) mice. In an effort to understand why the injured corneas of Gal-3(-/-) mice are unresponsive to exogenous Gal-3, the present study was designed to determine whether genes encoding the enzymes that regulate the synthesis of glycan ligands of Gal-3 are differentially expressed in Gal-3(-/-) corneas compared with the Gal-3(+/+) corneas. METHODS:Glycogene microarray technology was used to identify differentially expressed glycosyltransferases in healing Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(-/-) corneas. RESULTS:Of approximately 2000 glycogenes on the array, the expression of 8 was upregulated and that of 14 was downregulated more than 1.3-fold in healing Gal-3(-/-) corneas. A galactosyltransferase, beta3GalT5, which has the ability to synthesize Gal-3 ligands was markedly downregulated in healing Gal-3(-/-) corneas. The genes for polypeptide galactosaminyltransferases (ppGalNAcT-3 and -7) that are known to initiate O-linked glycosylation and N-aspartyl-beta-glucosaminidase, which participates in the removal of N-glycans, were found to be upregulated in healing Gal-3(-/-) corneas. Microarray data were validated by qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS:Based on the known functions of the differentially expressed glycogenes, it appears that the glycan structures on glycoproteins and glycolipids, synthesized as a result of the differential glycogene expression pattern in healing Gal-3(-/-) corneas may lead to the downregulation of specific counterreceptors for Gal-3. This may explain, at least in part, why, unlike healing Gal-3(+/+) corneas, the healing Gal-3(-/-) corneas are unresponsive to the stimulatory effect of exogenous Gal-3 on re-epithelialization of corneal wounds.
Project description:The effects of acute administration of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (cachectin) (TNF-alpha) or of malignant tumour growth (Walker-256 carcinosarcoma) on hepatic availability and uptake of individual amino acids were compared. The results show that, in spite of lowering the hepatic availability of alanine, aspartate, serine, glycine and proline, the cytokine increased both the total amino acid hepatic uptake and the individual uptakes of alanine, glutamate, serine, threonine, proline, lysine and arginine, while decreasing those of leucine, isoleucine and phenylalanine. Tumour burden resulted in an increase in the hepatic availability of glutamine, threonine, glycine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine. Total liver amino acid uptake was unaffected, whereas the individual uptakes of alanine, threonine and proline were increased and those of glutamate, glutamine, serine and leucine were decreased. When effects of the cytokine are compared with those induced by tumour growth, there are similar increases in net utilization for alanine, proline and leucine, and a 3-fold difference in the increase observed for threonine. Unmatched effects are seen for glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, glycine, lysine, arginine, valine, phenylalanine and serine.
Project description:Uptake of uracil by Candida utilis is increased by addition of leucine to a minimal medium in which organisms are growing. This response requires protein synthesis and has kinetics consistent with the induction of additional uracil transport by the amino acid or a derivative. Consequently, the contribution of exogenous radioactive uracil to the pyrimidine nucleotide pools increases so that RNA made after the amino acid is added is of greater specific radioactivity. Some other amino acids are as effective as leucine in increasing the incorporation of uracil into RNA. Growth with leucine present also increases to different extents the initial rates of uptake of adenine, cytosine, uridine, lysine, histidine, threonine, phenylalanine, aspartic acid and leucine itself. The action of leucine on lysine transport appears to involve induction. These effects are not restricted to leucine; growth with aspartic acid or phenylalanine in the medium gives similar results. Lysine, on the other hand, is without action on the uptake of leucine, aspartic acid, phenylalanine, threonine or uracil but decreases the initial rates of uptake of both histidine and lysine. We suggest that lysine represses its own transport. Similarly, there is a specific decrease in uracil uptake caused by growth with this pyrimidine. Thus in C. utilis there are complex interrelationships in the uptake of nitrogen-containing compounds.
Project description:Bee pollen is a natural product that has valuable nutritional and medicinal characteristics and has recently garnered increasing attention in the food industry due to its nutritive value. Here, we harvested pollen loads from the Al-Ahsa oasis in eastern Saudi Arabia during spring, summer, autumn, and winter in 2018/2019 to compare the nutritional value of bee pollen protein with the amino acid requirements of honeybees and adult humans. Based on the nutritional value of bee pollen protein, the optimal season for harvesting bee pollen was determined. The composition of the bee pollen showed the highest contents of crude protein, total amino acids, leucine, glutamic acid, valine, isoleucine, threonine, and glycine in samples collected in spring. The highest contents of lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, arginine, tyrosine, and cysteine were observed in samples collected in winter. The highest contents of histidine, methionine, and serine were in samples collected in autumn. Moreover, the highest levels of aspartic acid, proline, and alanine were in samples collected in summer. Leucine, valine, lysine, histidine, threonine, and phenylalanine (except in autumn bee pollen) contents in pollen from all four seasons were above the requirements of honeybees. Leucine, valine, histidine, isoleucine (except in autumn bee pollen), lysine (except in spring and summer bee pollen), and threonine (except in winter and spring bee pollen) in all tested samples were above the requirements of adult humans. In comparison with the minimal amino acid requirements of adult humans and honeybees, the 1st limiting amino acid in bee pollen collected during the different seasons was methionine. Bee pollen collected during spring (March-May) and winter (December-February) can be considered a nutritive food source for adult humans and honeybees.
Project description:Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DapA) catalyzes the first committed step of the diaminopimelate biosynthetic pathway of lysine. It has been shown to be an essential enzyme in many bacteria and has been the subject of research to generate novel antibiotics. However, this pathway is present in both pathogenic and commensal bacteria, and antibiotics targeting DapA may interfere with normal gut colonization. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is a Gram-negative commensal bacterium that makes up a large proportion of the normal microbiota of the human gut. The structure of DapA from B. thetaiotaomicron (BtDapA) has been determined. This structure will help to guide the generation of selectively active antibiotic compounds targeting DapA.