Project description:Primary cilia protrude from the surface of quiescent cells and disassemble at cell cycle reentry. We previously showed that ciliary reassembly is suppressed by trichoplein-mediated Aurora A activation pathway in growing cells. Here, we report that Ndel1, a well-known modulator of dynein activity, localizes at the subdistal appendage of the mother centriole, which nucleates a primary cilium. In the presence of serum, Ndel1 depletion reduces trichoplein at the mother centriole and induces unscheduled primary cilia formation, which is reverted by forced trichoplein expression or coknockdown of KCTD17 (an E3 ligase component protein for trichoplein). Serum starvation induced transient Ndel1 degradation, subsequent to the disappearance of trichoplein at the mother centriole. Forced expression of Ndel1 suppressed trichoplein degradation and axonemal microtubule extension during ciliogenesis, similar to trichoplein induction or KCTD17 knockdown. Most importantly, the proportion of ciliated and quiescent cells was increased in the kidney tubular epithelia of newborn Ndel1-hypomorphic mice. Thus, Ndel1 acts as a novel upstream regulator of the trichoplein-Aurora A pathway to inhibit primary cilia assembly.
Project description:By regulating several hallmarks of cancer, BAG3 exerts oncogenic functions in a wide variety of malignant diseases including glioblastoma (GBM) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here we performed global proteomic/phosphoproteomic analyses of Crispr/Cas9-mediated isogenic BAG3 knockouts of the two GBM lines U343 and U251 in comparison to parental controls. Depletion of BAG3 evoked major effects on proteins involved in ciliogenesis/ciliary function and the activity of the related kinases aurora-kinase A (AURKA) and cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK1). Cilia formation was significantly enhanced in BAG3 KO cells, a finding that could be confirmed in BAG3-proficient vs -deficient BT-549 TNBC cells, thus identifying a completely novel function of BAG3 as a negative regulator of ciliogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that enhanced ciliogenesis and reduced expression of SNAI1 and ZEB1, two key transcription factors regulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is correlated to decreased cell migration and invasion, both in the GBM and TNBC BAG3 knockout cells. Our data obtained in two different tumor entities identify suppression of EMT and ciliogenesis as putative synergizing mechanisms of BAG3-driven tumor aggressiveness in therapy-resistant cancers.
Project description:Chromosome segregation during mitosis is antagonistically regulated by the Aurora-B kinase and RepoMan (recruits PP1 onto mitotic chromatin at anaphase)-associated phosphatases PP1/PP2A. Aurora B is overexpressed in many cancers but, surprisingly, this only rarely causes lethal aneuploidy. Here we show that RepoMan abundance is regulated by the same mechanisms that control Aurora B, including FOXM1-regulated expression and proteasomal degradation following ubiquitination by APC/C-CDH1 or SCFFBXW7. The deregulation of these mechanisms can account for the balanced co-overexpression of Aurora B and RepoMan in many cancers, which limits chromosome segregation errors. In addition, Aurora B and RepoMan independently promote cancer cell proliferation by reducing checkpoint--induced cell-cycle arrest during interphase. The co-up-regulation of RepoMan and Aurora B in tumors is inversely correlated with patient survival, underscoring its potential importance for tumor progression. Finally, we demonstrate that high RepoMan levels sensitize cancer cells to Aurora-B inhibitors. Hence, the co-up-regulation of RepoMan and Aurora B is associated with tumor aggressiveness but also exposes a vulnerable target for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Autophagy is an essential cellular quality control process that has emerged as a critical one for vascular homeostasis. Here, we show that trichoplein (TCHP) links autophagy with endothelial cell (EC) function. TCHP localizes to centriolar satellites, where it binds and stabilizes PCM1. Loss of TCHP leads to delocalization and proteasome-dependent degradation of PCM1, further resulting in degradation of PCM1's binding partner GABARAP. Autophagic flux under basal conditions is impaired in THCP-depleted ECs, and SQSTM1/p62 (p62) accumulates. We further show that TCHP promotes autophagosome maturation and efficient clearance of p62 within lysosomes, without affecting their degradative capacity. Reduced TCHP and high p62 levels are detected in primary ECs from patients with coronary artery disease. This phenotype correlates with impaired EC function and can be ameliorated by NF-?B inhibition. Moreover, Tchp knock-out mice accumulate of p62 in the heart and cardiac vessels correlating with reduced cardiac vascularization. Taken together, our data reveal that TCHP regulates endothelial cell function via an autophagy-mediated mechanism.
Project description:NDEL1 is a binding partner of LIS1 that participates in the regulation of cytoplasmic dynein function and microtubule organization during mitotic cell division and neuronal migration. NDEL1 preferentially localizes to the centrosome and is a likely target for cell cycle-activated kinases, including CDK1. In particular, NDEL1 phosphorylation by CDK1 facilitates katanin p60 recruitment to the centrosome and triggers microtubule remodeling. Here, we show that Aurora-A phosphorylates NDEL1 at Ser251 at the beginning of mitotic entry. Interestingly, NDEL1 phosphorylated by Aurora-A was rapidly downregulated thereafter by ubiquitination-mediated protein degradation. In addition, NDEL1 is required for centrosome targeting of TACC3 through the interaction with TACC3. The expression of Aurora-A phosphorylation-mimetic mutants of NDEL1 efficiently rescued the defects of centrosomal maturation and separation which are characteristic of Aurora-A-depleted cells. Our findings suggest that Aurora-A-mediated phosphorylation of NDEL1 is essential for centrosomal separation and centrosomal maturation and for mitotic entry.
Project description:Proliferating cells, including cancer cells, require altered metabolism to efficiently incorporate nutrients such as glucose into biomass. The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) promotes the metabolism of glucose by aerobic glycolysis and contributes to anabolic metabolism. Paradoxically, decreased pyruvate kinase enzyme activity accompanies the expression of PKM2 in rapidly dividing cancer cells and tissues. We demonstrate that phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the substrate for pyruvate kinase in cells, can act as a phosphate donor in mammalian cells because PEP participates in the phosphorylation of the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM1) in PKM2-expressing cells. We used mass spectrometry to show that the phosphate from PEP is transferred to the catalytic histidine (His11) on human PGAM1. This reaction occurred at physiological concentrations of PEP and produced pyruvate in the absence of PKM2 activity. The presence of histidine-phosphorylated PGAM1 correlated with the expression of PKM2 in cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. Thus, decreased pyruvate kinase activity in PKM2-expressing cells allows PEP-dependent histidine phosphorylation of PGAM1 and may provide an alternate glycolytic pathway that decouples adenosine triphosphate production from PEP-mediated phosphotransfer, allowing for the high rate of glycolysis to support the anabolic metabolism observed in many proliferating cells.
Project description:Lissencephaly is a devastating neurological disorder caused by to defective neuronal migration. LIS1 (or PAFAH1B1), the gene mutated in lissencephaly patients and its binding protein NDEL1 were found to regulate cytoplasmic dynein function and localization. LIS1 and NDEL1 also play a pivotal role on a microtubule regulation and determination of cell polarity. For example, LIS1 is required for the precise control of mitotic spindle orientation in both neuroepithelial stem cells and radial glial progenitor cells. On the other hand, NDEL1 is essential for mitotic entry as an effector molecule of Aurora-A kinase. In addition, an atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-Aurora-A-NDEL1 pathway is critical for the regulation of microtubule organization during neurite extension. These findings suggest that physiological functions of LIS1 and NDEL1 in neurons have been ascribed for proteins fundamentally required for cell cycle progression and control. In turn, cell cycle regulators may exert other functions during neurogenesis in a direct or an indirect fashion. Thus far, only a handful of cell cycle regulators have been shown to play physiological cell cycle-independent roles in neurons. Further identification of such proteins and elucidation of their underlying mechanisms of action will likely reveal novel concepts and/or patterns that provide a clear link between their seemingly distinct cell cycle and neuronal functions.
Project description:We show that in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, an apical ceramide-enriched compartment (ACEC) at the base of primary cilia is colocalized with Rab11a. Ceramide and Rab11a vesicles isolated by magnetic sorting contain a highly similar profile of proteins (atypical protein kinase C [aPKC], Cdc42, Sec8, Rab11a, and Rab8) and ceramide species, suggesting the presence of a ciliogenic protein complex associated with ceramide at the ACEC. It is intriguing that C16 and C18 ceramide, although less abundant ceramide species in MDCK cells, are highly enriched in ceramide and Rab11a vesicles. Expression of a ceramide-binding but dominant-negative mutant of aPKC suppresses ciliogenesis, indicating that the association of ceramide with aPKC is critical for the formation of this complex. Our results indicate that ciliogenic ceramide is derived from apical sphingomyelin (SM) that is endocytosed and then converted to the ACEC. Consistently, inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase with imipramine disrupts ACEC formation, association of ciliogenic proteins with Rab11a vesicles, and cilium formation. Ciliogenesis is rescued by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, indicating that ceramide promotes tubulin acetylation in cilia. Taken together, our results suggest that the ACEC is a novel compartment in which SM-derived ceramide induces formation of a ciliogenic lipid-protein complex that sustains primary cilia by preventing deacetylation of microtubules.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in cancer initiation, relapse and metastasis. To date, no specific medicine has been found to target CSCs as they are resistant to most conventional therapies and proliferate indefinitely. Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) has been widely used for cancer patients with remarkable therapeutic effects in Chinese clinical settings for many years. This study focused on whether CKI could inhibit MCF-7 SP cells in vitro and in vivo.<h4>Methods</h4>The analysis of CKI on SP population and the main genes of Wnt signaling pathway were studied first. Then we studied the tumorigenicity of SP cells and the effects of CKI on SP cells in vivo. The mice inoculated with 10,000 SP cells were randomly divided into three groups (6 in each group) and treated with CKI, cisplatin and saline (as a control) respectively for 7 weeks. The tumor formation rates of each group were compared. The main genes and proteins of the Wnt signaling pathway were analyzed by RT-PCR and western blot.<h4>Results</h4>CKI suppressed the size of SP population (approximately 90%), and down-regulated the main genes of Wnt signaling pathway. We also determined that MCF-7 SP cells were more tumorigenic than non-SP and unsorted cells. The Wnt signaling pathway was up-regulated in tumors derived from SP cells compared with that in tumors from non-SP cells. The tumor formation rate of the CKI Group was 33% (2/6, P < 0.05), and that of Cisplatin Group was 50%(3/6, P < 0.05), whereas that of the Control Group was 100% (6/6).The RT-PCR and western blot results indicated that CKI suppressed tumor growth by down-regulating the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, while cisplatin activated the Wnt/?-catenin pathway and might spare SP cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>It suggested that CKI may serve as a novel drug targeting cancer stem-like cells, though further studies are recommended.
Project description:Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a recently discovered growth-promoting transcription coactivator that has been shown to regulate the malignancy of various cancers. How YAP is regulated is not fully understood. Here, we show that one of the factors regulating YAP is phosphatidylserine (PS) in recycling endosomes (REs). We use proximity biotinylation to find proteins proximal to PS. Among these proteins are YAP and multiple proteins related to YAP signalling. Knockdown of ATP8A1 (an RE PS-flippase) or evectin-2 (an RE-resident protein) and masking of PS in the cytoplasmic leaflet of membranes, all suppress nuclear localization of YAP and YAP-dependent transcription. ATP8A1 knockdown increases the phosphorylated (activated) form of Lats1 that phosphorylates and inactivates YAP, whereas evectin-2 knockdown reduces the ubiquitination and increased the level of Lats1. The proliferation of YAP-dependent metastatic cancer cells is suppressed by knockdown of ATP8A1 or evectin-2. These results suggest a link between a membrane phospholipid and cell proliferation.