ABSTRACT: This accession contains simulated phenotype data that can be used to as an example for phenotype harmonization. Data were originally created for the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Whole Genome Sequencing Program.
Project description:This accession contains simulated phenotype data that can be used to as an example for phenotype harmonization. Data were originally created for the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Whole Genome Sequencing Program.
Project description:With advances in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) technology, more advanced statistical methods for testing genetic association with rare variants are being developed. Methods in which variants are grouped for analysis are also known as variant-set, gene-based, and aggregate unit tests. The burden test and sequence kernel association test (SKAT) are two widely used variant-set tests, which were originally developed for samples of unrelated individuals and later have been extended to family data with known pedigree structures. However, computationally efficient and powerful variant-set tests are needed to make analyses tractable in large-scale WGS studies with complex study samples. In this paper, we propose the variant-set mixed model association tests (SMMAT) for continuous and binary traits using the generalized linear mixed model framework. These tests can be applied to large-scale WGS studies involving samples with population structure and relatedness, such as in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. SMMATs share the same null model for different variant sets, and a virtue of this null model, which includes covariates only, is that it needs to be fit only once for all tests in each genome-wide analysis. Simulation studies show that all the proposed SMMATs correctly control type I error rates for both continuous and binary traits in the presence of population structure and relatedness. We also illustrate our tests in a real data example of analysis of plasma fibrinogen levels in the TOPMed program (n = 23,763), using the Analysis Commons, a cloud-based computing platform.
Project description:Genetic variants associated with disease outcomes can be used to develop personalized treatment. To reach this precision medicine goal, hundreds of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted in the past decade to search for promising genetic variants associated with various traits. They have successfully identified tens of thousands of disease-related variants. However, in total these identified variants explain only part of the variation for most complex traits. There remain many genetic variants with small effect sizes to be discovered, which calls for the development of (a) GWAS with more samples and more comprehensively genotyped variants, for example, the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program is planning to conduct whole genome sequencing on over 100?000 individuals; and (b) novel and more powerful statistical analysis methods. The current dominating GWAS analysis approach is the "single trait" association test, despite the fact that many GWAS are conducted in deeply phenotyped cohorts including many correlated and well-characterized outcomes, which can help improve the power to detect novel variants if properly analyzed, as suggested by increasing evidence that pleiotropy, where a genetic variant affects multiple traits, is the norm in genome-phenome associations. We aim to develop pleiotropy informed powerful association test methods across multiple traits for GWAS. Since it is generally very hard to access individual-level GWAS phenotype and genotype data for those existing GWAS, due to privacy concerns and various logistical considerations, we develop rigorous statistical methods for pleiotropy informed adaptive multitrait association test methods that need only summary association statistics publicly available from most GWAS. We first develop a pleiotropy test, which has powerful performance for truly pleiotropic variants but is sensitive to the pleiotropy assumption. We then develop a pleiotropy informed adaptive test that has robust and powerful performance under various genetic models. We develop accurate and efficient numerical algorithms to compute the analytical P-value for the proposed adaptive test without the need of resampling or permutation. We illustrate the performance of proposed methods through application to joint association test of GWAS meta-analysis summary data for several glycemic traits. Our proposed adaptive test identified several novel loci missed by individual trait based GWAS meta-analysis. All the proposed methods are implemented in a publicly available R package.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diagnosed by reduced lung function, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. We performed whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis of lung function and COPD in a multi-ethnic sample of 11,497 participants from population- and family-based studies, and 8499 individuals from COPD-enriched studies in the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program. We identify at genome-wide significance 10 known GWAS loci and 22 distinct, previously unreported loci, including two common variant signals from stratified analysis of African Americans. Four novel common variants within the regions of PIAS1, RGN (two variants) and FTO show evidence of replication in the UK Biobank (European ancestry n?~?320,000), while colocalization analyses leveraging multi-omic data from GTEx and TOPMed identify potential molecular mechanisms underlying four of the 22 novel loci. Our study demonstrates the value of performing WGS analyses and multi-omic follow-up in cohorts of diverse ancestry.
Project description:Most genome-wide association and fine-mapping studies to date have been conducted in individuals of European descent, and genetic studies of populations of Hispanic/Latino and African ancestry are limited. In addition, these populations have more complex linkage disequilibrium structure. In order to better define the genetic architecture of these understudied populations, we leveraged >100,000 phased sequences available from deep-coverage whole genome sequencing through the multi-ethnic NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program to impute genotypes into admixed African and Hispanic/Latino samples with genome-wide genotyping array data. We demonstrated that using TOPMed sequencing data as the imputation reference panel improves genotype imputation quality in these populations, which subsequently enhanced gene-mapping power for complex traits. For rare variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.5%, we observed a 2.3- to 6.1-fold increase in the number of well-imputed variants, with 11-34% improvement in average imputation quality, compared to the state-of-the-art 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 and Haplotype Reference Consortium reference panels. Impressively, even for extremely rare variants with minor allele count <10 (including singletons) in the imputation target samples, average information content rescued was >86%. Subsequent association analyses of TOPMed reference panel-imputed genotype data with hematological traits (hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), and white blood cell count (WBC)) in ~21,600 African-ancestry and ~21,700 Hispanic/Latino individuals identified associations with two rare variants in the HBB gene (rs33930165 with higher WBC [p = 8.8x10-15] in African populations, rs11549407 with lower HGB [p = 1.5x10-12] and HCT [p = 8.8x10-10] in Hispanics/Latinos). By comparison, neither variant would have been genome-wide significant if either 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 or Haplotype Reference Consortium reference panels had been used for imputation. Our findings highlight the utility of the TOPMed imputation reference panel for identification of novel rare variant associations not previously detected in similarly sized genome-wide studies of under-represented African and Hispanic/Latino populations.
Project description:Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is widely used to diagnose diabetes and assess glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. However, nonglycemic determinants, including genetic variation, may influence how accurately HbA1c reflects underlying glycemia. Analyzing the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) sequence data in 10,338 individuals from five studies and four ancestries (6,158 Europeans, 3,123 African-Americans, 650 Hispanics, and 407 East Asians), we confirmed five regions associated with HbA1c (GCK in Europeans and African-Americans, HK1 in Europeans and Hispanics, FN3K and/or FN3KRP in Europeans, and G6PD in African-Americans and Hispanics) and we identified an African-ancestry-specific low-frequency variant (rs1039215 in HBG2 and HBE1, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.03). The most associated G6PD variant (rs1050828-T, p.Val98Met, MAF = 12% in African-Americans, MAF = 2% in Hispanics) lowered HbA1c (-0.88% in hemizygous males, -0.34% in heterozygous females) and explained 23% of HbA1c variance in African-Americans and 4% in Hispanics. Additionally, we identified a rare distinct G6PD coding variant (rs76723693, p.Leu353Pro, MAF = 0.5%; -0.98% in hemizygous males, -0.46% in heterozygous females) and detected significant association with HbA1c when aggregating rare missense variants in G6PD. We observed similar magnitude and direction of effects for rs1039215 (HBG2) and rs76723693 (G6PD) in the two largest TOPMed African American cohorts, and we replicated the rs76723693 association in the UK Biobank African-ancestry participants. These variants in G6PD and HBG2 were monomorphic in the European and Asian samples. African or Hispanic ancestry individuals carrying G6PD variants may be underdiagnosed for diabetes when screened with HbA1c. Thus, assessment of these variants should be considered for incorporation into precision medicine approaches for diabetes diagnosis.
Project description:In this study, we investigated low-frequency and rare variants associated with blood pressure (BP) by focusing on a linkage region on chromosome 16p13. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) data obtained through the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program on 395 Cleveland Family Study (CFS) European Americans (CFS-EA). By analyzing functional coding variants and non-coding rare variants with CADD score?>?10 residing within the chromosomal region in families with linkage evidence, we observed 25 genes with nominal statistical evidence (burden or SKAT p?<?0.05). One of the genes is RBFOX1, an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein that regulates tissue-specific alternative splicing that we previously reported to be associated with BP using exome array data in CFS. After follow-up analysis of the 25 genes in ten independent TOPMed studies with individuals of European, African, and East Asian ancestry, and Hispanics (N?=?29,988), we identified variants in SLX4 (p?=?2.19?×?10-4) to be significantly associated with BP traits when accounting for multiple testing. We also replicated the associations previously reported for RBFOX1 (p?=?0.007). Follow-up analysis with GTEx eQTL data shows SLX4 variants are associated with gene expression in coronary artery, multiple brain tissues, and right atrial appendage of the heart. Our study demonstrates that linkage analysis of family data can provide an efficient approach for detecting rare variants associated with complex traits in WGS data.
Project description:De novo mutations (DNMs), or mutations that appear in an individual despite not being seen in their parents, are an important source of genetic variation whose impact is relevant to studies of human evolution, genetics, and disease. Utilizing high-coverage whole-genome sequencing data as part of the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program, we called 93,325 single-nucleotide DNMs across 1,465 trios from an array of diverse human populations, and used them to directly estimate and analyze DNM counts, rates, and spectra. We find a significant positive correlation between local recombination rate and local DNM rate, and that DNM rate explains a substantial portion (8.98 to 34.92%, depending on the model) of the genome-wide variation in population-level genetic variation from 41K unrelated TOPMed samples. Genome-wide heterozygosity does correlate with DNM rate, but only explains <1% of variation. While we are underpowered to see small differences, we do not find significant differences in DNM rate between individuals of European, African, and Latino ancestry, nor across ancestrally distinct segments within admixed individuals. However, we did find significantly fewer DNMs in Amish individuals, even when compared with other Europeans, and even after accounting for parental age and sequencing center. Specifically, we found significant reductions in the number of C?A and T?C mutations in the Amish, which seem to underpin their overall reduction in DNMs. Finally, we calculated near-zero estimates of narrow sense heritability (<i>h</i> <sup>2</sup>), which suggest that variation in DNM rate is significantly shaped by nonadditive genetic effects and the environment.
Project description:Objective:The gold standard for diagnosing sleep disorders is polysomnography, which generates extensive data about biophysical changes occurring during sleep. We developed the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR), a comprehensive system for sharing sleep data. The NSRR embodies elements of a data commons aimed at accelerating research to address critical questions about the impact of sleep disorders on important health outcomes. Approach:We used a metadata-guided approach, with a set of common sleep-specific terms enforcing uniform semantic interpretation of data elements across three main components: (1) annotated datasets; (2) user interfaces for accessing data; and (3) computational tools for the analysis of polysomnography recordings. We incorporated the process for managing dataset-specific data use agreements, evidence of Institutional Review Board review, and the corresponding access control in the NSRR web portal. The metadata-guided approach facilitates structural and semantic interoperability, ultimately leading to enhanced data reusability and scientific rigor. Results:The authors curated and deposited retrospective data from 10 large, NIH-funded sleep cohort studies, including several from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, into the NSRR. The NSRR currently contains data on 26 808 subjects and 31 166 signal files in European Data Format. Launched in April 2014, over 3000 registered users have downloaded over 130 terabytes of data. Conclusions:The NSRR offers a use case and an example for creating a full-fledged data commons. It provides a single point of access to analysis-ready physiological signals from polysomnography obtained from multiple sources, and a wide variety of clinical data to facilitate sleep research.
Project description:Precision medicine is based on accurate diagnosis and tailored intervention through the use of omics and clinical data together with epidemiology and environmental exposures. Precision medicine should be achieved with minimum adverse events and maximum efficacy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this review, the breakthroughs of omics in CKD and the application of systems biology are reviewed. The potential role of transforming growth factor-?1 in the targeted intervention of renal fibrosis is discussed as an example of how to make precision medicine work for CKD.