ABSTRACT: This data set concerns DNA copy number alterations and mutation data from 30 IBD-associated dysplastic lesions and 13 IBD-associated cancers. DNA was isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. Whole-genome shallow seq and Truseq amplicon cancer panel (Illumina) were used for detection of DNA copy number alterations and gene mutations, respectively.
Project description:The requirement for large amounts of good quality DNA for whole-genome applications prohibits their use for small, laser capture micro-dissected (LCM), and/or rare clinical samples, which are also often formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE). Whole-genome amplification of DNA from these samples could, potentially, overcome these limitations. However, little is known about the artefacts introduced by amplification of FFPE-derived DNA with regard to genotyping, and subsequent copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses. Using a ligation adaptor amplification method, we present data from a total of 22 Affymetrix SNP 6.0 experiments, using matched paired amplified and non-amplified DNA from 10 LCM FFPE normal and dysplastic oral epithelial tissues, and an internal method control. An average of 76.5% of SNPs were called in both matched amplified and non-amplified DNA samples, and concordance was a promising 82.4%. Paired analysis for copy number, LOH, and both combined, showed that copy number changes were reduced in amplified DNA, but were 99.5% concordant when detected, amplifications were the changes most likely to be 'missed', only 30% of non-amplified LOH changes were identified in amplified pairs, and when copy number and LOH are combined ?50% of gene changes detected in the unamplified DNA were also detected in the amplified DNA and within these changes, 86.5% were concordant for both copy number and LOH status. However, there are also changes introduced as ?20% of changes in the amplified DNA are not detected in the non-amplified DNA. An integrative network biology approach revealed that changes in amplified DNA of dysplastic oral epithelium localize to topologically critical regions of the human protein-protein interaction network, suggesting their functional implication in the pathobiology of this disease. Taken together, our results support the use of amplification of FFPE-derived DNA, provided sufficient samples are used to increase power and compensate for increased error rates.
Project description:Advanced cancer genomics technologies are now being employed in clinical sequencing, where next-generation sequencers are used to simultaneously identify multiple types of DNA alterations for prescription of molecularly targeted drugs. However, no computational tool is available to accurately detect DNA alterations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples commonly used in hospitals. Here, we developed a computational tool tailored to the detection of single nucleotide variations, indels, fusions, and copy number alterations in FFPE samples. Elaborated multilayer noise filters reduced the inherent noise while maintaining high sensitivity, as evaluated in tumor-unmatched normal samples using orthogonal technologies. This tool, cisCall, should facilitate clinical sequencing in everyday diagnostics. It is available at https://www.ciscall.org .
Project description:Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most aggressive subtype of lung cancer in its clinical behavior, with a 5-year overall survival as low as 5%. Despite years of research in the field, molecular determinants of SCLC behavior are still poorly understood, and this deficiency has translated into an absence of specific diagnostics and targeted therapeutics. We hypothesized that tumor DNA copy number alterations would allow the identification of molecular pathways involved in SCLC progression. Array comparative genomic hybridization was performed on DNA extracted from 46 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded SCLC tissue specimens. Genomic profiling of tumor and sex-matched control DNA allowed the identification of 70 regions of copy number gain and 55 regions of copy number loss. Using molecular pathway analysis, we found a strong enrichment in these regions of copy number alterations for 11 genes associated with the focal adhesion pathway. We verified these findings at the genomic, gene expression and protein level. Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), one of the central genes represented in this pathway, was commonly expressed in SCLC tumors and constitutively phosphorylated in SCLC cell lines. Those were poorly adherent to most substrates but not to laminin-322. Inhibition of FAK phosphorylation at Tyr(397) by a small-molecule inhibitor, PF-573,228, induced a dose-dependent decrease of adhesion and an increase of spreading in SCLC cell lines on laminin-322. Cells that tended to spread also showed a decrease in focal adhesions, as demonstrated by a decreased vinculin expression. These results support the concept that pathway analysis of genes in regions of copy number alterations may uncover molecular mechanisms of disease progression and demonstrate a new role of FAK and associated adhesion pathways in SCLC. Further investigations of FAK at the functional level may lead to a better understanding of SCLC progression and may have therapeutic implications.
Project description:As more clinically relevant cancer genes are identified, comprehensive diagnostic approaches are needed to match patients to therapies, raising the challenge of optimization and analytical validation of assays that interrogate millions of bases of cancer genomes altered by multiple mechanisms. Here we describe a test based on massively parallel DNA sequencing to characterize base substitutions, short insertions and deletions (indels), copy number alterations and selected fusions across 287 cancer-related genes from routine formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) clinical specimens. We implemented a practical validation strategy with reference samples of pooled cell lines that model key determinants of accuracy, including mutant allele frequency, indel length and amplitude of copy change. Test sensitivity achieved was 95-99% across alteration types, with high specificity (positive predictive value >99%). We confirmed accuracy using 249 FFPE cancer specimens characterized by established assays. Application of the test to 2,221 clinical cases revealed clinically actionable alterations in 76% of tumors, three times the number of actionable alterations detected by current diagnostic tests.
Project description:Adoption of new technology in both basic research and clinical settings requires rigorous validation of analytical performance. The OncoScan® FFPE Assay is a multiplexing tool that offers genome-wide copy number and loss of heterozygosity detection, as well as identification of frequently tested somatic mutations.In this study, 162 formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples, representing six different tumour types, were profiled in triplicate across three independent laboratories. OncoScan® formalin fixed paraffin embedded assay data was then analysed for reproducibility of genome-wide copy number, loss of heterozygosity and somatic mutations. Where available, somatic mutation data was compared to data from orthogonal technologies (pyro/sanger sequencing).Cross site comparisons of genome-wide copy number and loss of heterozygosity profiles showed greater than 95% average agreement between sites. Somatic mutations pre-validated by orthogonal technologies showed greater than 90% agreement with OncoScan® somatic mutation calls and somatic mutation concordance between sites averaged 97%.Reproducibility of whole-genome copy number, loss of heterozygosity and somatic mutation data using the OncoScan® assay has been demonstrated with comparatively low DNA inputs from a range of highly degraded formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples. In addition, our data shows examples of clinically-relevant aberrations that demonstrate the potential utility of the OncoScan® assay as a robust clinical tool for guiding tumour therapy.
Project description:The goal of this experiment is to characterize the copy number changes in esophageal mucosa of patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) who progress to esophageal dysplasia and adenocarcinoma (BE progressors), as compared to patients with BE who do not progress for at least two years after esophageal mucosal sampling (non-progressors with never dysplastic Barrett's esophagus - NvDBE - samples). We sampled esophageal mucosa from the following groups: 1) non-dysplastic intestinal metaplasia from 16 patients at least 1 year before progression to esophageal dysplasia or adenocarcinoma (PP-BE); 2) non-dysplastic intestinal metaplasia from 21 patients who did not progress to dysplasia or adenocarcinoma for at least 2 years of surveillance after the tested sample (NvDBE) 3) non-dysplastic intestinal metaplasia from 21 patients who had temporally concurrent but spatially separate intestinal metaplasia samples from the same procedure (C-BE). 4) 10 samples of esophageal dysplasia or adenocarcinoma from patients in group 1 and 3. Samples were obtained by endoscopic biopsy, endomucosal resection or surgical resection, processed for clinical purposes by routine histopathologic methods, including formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE). DNA was extracted from 5 micro tissue sections of FFPE blocks and DNA extracted using QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue Kit (Qiagen, Germantown, MD). Samples were processed for identification of somatic copy number alterations using the OncoScan FFPE Assay or the OncoScan CNV Assay (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) according to the manufacturer's protocols. After hybridization, the arrays were washed, stained using GeneChip Fluidics Station 450 (Affymetrix) and scanned using GeneChip Scanner 3000 7G (Affymetrix). The CEL files generated are deposited here.
Project description:PURPOSE:Genetic alterations in colorectal peritoneal metastases (PM) are largely unknown. This study was designed to analyze whole-genome copy number alterations (CNA) in colorectal PM and to identify alterations associated with prognosis after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). METHODS:All patients with PM, originating from a colorectal adenocarcinoma, who were treated with CRS and HIPEC in Uppsala Sweden, between 2004 and 2015, were included (n?=?114). DNA derived from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens were analyzed for CNA using molecular inversion probe arrays. RESULTS:There were extensive but varying degrees of CNA, ranging from minimal CNA to total aneuploidy. In particular, gain of parts of chromosome 1p and major parts of 15q were associated with poor survival. A combination of gains of 1p and 15q was associated with poor survival, also after adjustment for differences in peritoneal cancer index and completeness of cytoreduction score [hazard ratio (HR) 5.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.19-16.18]. These patients had a mean copy number (CN) of 3.19 compared with 2.24 in patients without gains. Complete CN analysis was performed in 53 patients. Analysis was unsuccessful for the remaining patients due to insufficient amounts of DNA and signals caused by interstitial components and normal cells. There was no difference in survival between patients with successful and unsuccessful CN analysis. CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that gains of parts of chromosome 1p and of major parts of chromosome 15q were significantly associated with poor survival after CRS and HIPEC, which could represent future prognostic biomarkers.
Project description:Pathology archives with linked clinical data are an invaluable resource for translational research, with the limitation that most cancer samples are formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Therefore, FFPE tissues are an important resource for genomic profiling studies but are under-utilised due to the low amount and quality of extracted nucleic acids. We profiled the copy number landscape of 356 breast cancer patients using DNA extracted FFPE tissues by shallow whole genome sequencing. We generated a total of 491 sequencing libraries from 2 kits and obtained data from 98.4% of libraries with 86.4% being of good quality. We generated libraries from as low as 3.8?ng of input DNA and found that the success was independent of input DNA amount and quality, processing site and age of the fixed tissues. Since copy number alterations (CNA) play a major role in breast cancer, it is imperative that we are able to use FFPE archives and we have shown in this study that sWGS is a robust method to do such profiling.
Project description:The development of targeted therapies for both germline and somatic DNA mutations has increased the need for molecular profiling assays to determine the mutational status of specific genes. Moreover, the potential of off-label prescription of targeted therapies favors classifying tumors based on DNA alterations rather than traditional tissue pathology. Here we describe the analytical validation of a custom probe-based NGS tumor panel, TumorNext, which can detect single nucleotide variants, small insertions and deletions in 142 genes that are frequently mutated in somatic and/or germline cancers. TumorNext also detects gene fusions and structural variants, such as tandem duplications and inversions, in 15 frequently disrupted oncogenes and tumor suppressors. The assay uses a matched control and custom bioinformatics pipeline to differentiate between somatic and germline mutations, allowing precise variant classification. We tested 170 previously characterized samples, of which > 95% were formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 8 different cancer types, and highlight examples where lack of germline status may have led to the inappropriate prescription of therapy. We also describe the validation of the Affymetrix OncoScan platform, an array technology for high resolution copy number variant detection for use in parallel with the NGS panel that can detect single copy amplifications and hemizygous deletions. We analyzed 80 previously characterized formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens and provide examples of hemizygous deletion detection in samples with known pathogenic germline mutations. Thus, the TumorNext combined approach of NGS and OncoScan potentially allows for the identification of the "second hit" in hereditary cancer patients.