Project description:Enterococcus faecium has emerged as a major opportunistic pathogen for two decades, with the spread of hospital-adapted multidrug-resistant clones. Members of the intestinal microbiota, they are subjected to numerous bacterial stresses, including antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations (SICs). Since fluoroquinolones are extensively prescribed, SICs are very likely to occur in vivo with potential effects on bacterial metabolism with subsequent modulation of opportunistic traits. The aim of the study was to evaluate globally the impact of subinhibitory concentrations (SICs) of ciprofloxacin on antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity of E. faecium. Transcriptomic analysis was performed by RNA-seq (HiSeq 2500, Illumina) using the vanB-positive reference strain E. faecium Aus0004 in the absence or presence of ciprofloxacin SIC (0.38 mg/L, i.e. MIC 1/8). Several genetic and phenotypic tests were used for validation. In the presence of ciprofloxacin SIC, 196 genes were significantly induced whereas 286 were significantly repressed, meaning that 16.8% of the E. faecium genome was altered. Amongst upregulated genes, EFAU004_02294 (fold change of 14.3) encoded a protein (EfmQnr) homologue of Qnr proteins involved in quinolone resistance in Gram-negative bacilli. Its implication in intrinsic and adaptive FQ resistance in E. faecium was experimentally ascertained. Moreover, EFAU004_02292 coding for the collagen adhesin Acm was also induced by SIC of ciprofloxacin (fold change of 8.2), and higher adhesion capabilities were demonstrated phenotypically. Both Efmqnr and Acm determinants may play an important role in the transition from a commensal to a pathogenic state of E. faecium that resides in the gut of patients receiving a fluoroquinolone therapy. Overall design: Transcriptome analysis by RNA-seq to monitor the levels of all transcripts in bacterial cells grown in the absence or the presence of a subinhibitory concentration (0.38 mg/L) of ciprofloxacin
Project description:Enterococcus faecium has become a major opportunistic pathogen with the emergence of multidrug-resistant clones that are well-adapted to the hospital environment. As part of the vast diversity of gut microbiota, they are faced with different environmental stress, including antimicrobial pressure. By contrast, little is known about the effect of non-antibiotic molecules on bacterial physiology while numerous drugs are used in inpatients, especially those hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the most prescribed xenobiotics in ICUs on fitness, pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance of E. faecium. Several phenotypic analysis was carried out and we rapidly brought to light that caspofungin, an antifungal agent belonging to the echinocandin family, seemed to have an important impact on E. faecium growth. Since the fungal target of caspofungin [beta-(1,3)-glucan synthase] is absent in enterococci, the mechanism of caspofungin action was investigated by several approaches. First, we decided to confirm this result by electronic microscopy and a peptidoglycan analysis by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Again, we highlighted that caspofungin even at subinhibitory concentrations (SICs) seemed to have an impact on cell wall organization especially in muropeptide precursors abundance. Then, a transcriptomic analysis was performed by RNA-seq (HiSeq 2500, Illumina) using the vanB-positive reference strain E. faecium Aus0004 in the presence or absence of caspofungin SIC (8 mg/L i.e., ¼ of the MIC). Transcriptomic analysis showed that the expression of 568 genes (19.9% of the genome) was significantly altered in the presence of caspofungin SIC, with 323 genes induced (fold change >2, p-value <0.1) and 245 genes repressed (fold change <-2, p-value <0.1). Regarding the repressed genes, the pdhABCD operon is largely downregulated (fold changes -4.3, -9.7, -6.9 and -6.4, respectively). This operon encoded components of the pyruvate deshydrogenase multienzyme complex involved in bacterial energetic pathway by the citrate cycle (i.e., TCA cycle). Moreover, it seemed that the glycerol metabolism pathway and in particular the glpOKF operon is downregulated too. The dramatic alteration of TCA seemed to have an drastic impact on bacterial cells viability indeed decrease of glycerol metabolism could explain the conformational modifications of peptidoglycan. Overall design: Transcriptome analysis by RNA-seq to monitor the levels of all transcripts in bacterial cells grown in the absence or the presence of a subinhibitory concentration (8 mg/L) of caspofungin
Project description:Regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are now considered as major players in many physiological and adaptive responses in pathogenic bacteria. sRNAs have been extensively studied in Gram-negative bacteria, but less information is available in Gram-positive pathogens. There is a spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) opportunistic organisms, grouped as “ESKAPE” pathogens, which comprise enterococci, a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections and outbreaks with emergence of MDR isolates, especially vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). Note that no information about sRNA expression is known in this major opportunistic pathogen. By transcriptomic and genomic analyses using E. faecium Aus0004 reference strain, 249 transcribed IGRs, including sRNA candidates, were detected and, using a series of cut-offs, this set was lowered down to 54 sRNAs while 7 that were predicted based on comparative sequence analysis. RNA-seq was performed with and without subinhibitory concentrations (SIC) of daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic used for VREF infections. Under daptomycin SIC exposure, 260 genes (9.1% of the genome) had a significant alteration of expression including 80 upregulated genes and 180 downregulated genes. Among the repressed genes, a large proportion (55%) coded for proteins involved in carbohydrate and transport metabolism. Also, we focused on the 9 sRNAs exhibiting the highest expression, and all of them were confirmed as expressed along bacterial growth by Northern blots and qPCR. Out of these 9 sRNAs, four had significantly lower or higher expression in the presence of daptomycin SIC, and therefore responded to antibiotic exposure. Finally, we also tested the expression of these 9 sRNAs in a collection of isogenic Aus0004 mutants with increasing levels of daptomycin resistance, and we observed by qPCR that some sRNAs had a significantly modified expression in daptomycin resistance mutants. It highlights the significant implication of some of the E. faecium sRNAs in the early steps of the development of daptomycin resistance. This is the first experimental genome-wide sRNA identification in Gram-positive E. faecium, a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Overall design: Identification of the first sRNAs in Enterococcus faecium and transcriptome analysis by RNA-seq to monitor the levels of all transcripts (mRNAs and sRNAs) in bacterial cells grown in the absence or the presence of a subinhibitory concentration (0.5 mg/L) of daptomycin
Project description:Mapping of transposon mutant library in Enterococcus faecium during growth in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth and in a semi-static biofilm model. The goal of this study was to identify factors that play a role in E. faecium biofilm formation by selection of transposon insertion mutants that lost the capacity to form biofilm in vitro.
Project description:Young adult N2 Caenorhabditis elegans were infected with Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus faecium for 8 h to determine the transcriptional host response to each enterococcal species. Analysis of differential gene expression in C. elegans young adults exposed to four different bacteria: heat-killed Escherichia coli strain OP50 (control), wild-type E. faecalis MMH594, wild-type E. faecium E007, or Bacillus subtilis PY79 (sigF::kan). Samples were analyzed at 8 hours after exposure to the different bacteria. These studies identified C. elegans genes induced by pathogen infection. Brain-heart infusion agar plates (10 ug/ml kanamycin) were used. Overall design: There are 13 samples total: 3 biological replicates of E. faecalis-infected animals, 3 biological replicates of E. faecium-infected animals, 4 biological replicates of heat-killed E. coli-fed controls, and 3 biological replicates of B. subtilis-fed controls. All treatments were performed in parallel except for two heat-killed E. coli-fed controls, Jos5531(OP504) and Jos5532(OP505), which were processed together on a different day from the other samples.
Project description:Enterococcus faecium is an important opportunistic pathogen emerging in hospitals worldwide. We identified a new MarR family global regulator in E. faecium, named AsrR (antibiotic and stress response regulator). We phenotipically characterized key role for AsrR in E. faecium pathogenicity. The aim of the microarray-based experiments was to investigate the AsrR regulon in E. faecium. We constructed a mutant strain deleted for the asrR gene, we complemented the mutant and, finally, we observed genes expression in these strains in comparison with the wild-type strain. (The parental HM1070 was used to delete the asrR gene and to obtain the mutant strain. Then, the mutant strain was used to restore the asrR gene and to obtain the complemented strain.) This approach will allow us to identify the genes regulated by AsR to clarify its role in E. faecium.
Project description:The success of Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis evolving as multi-resistant nosocomial pathogens is associated with their ability to acquire and share adaptive traits, including mobile genetic elements (MGE) encoding antimicrobial resistance. Here, we define the mobilome in representative successful hospital associated genetic lineages, E. faecium ST17 (n=10) and ST78 (n=10), E. faecalis ST6 (n=10) and ST40 (n=10) using DNA microarray analyses. The hybridization patterns of 272 targets representing plasmid backbones (n=85), transposable elements (n=85), resistance determinants (n=67), prophages (n=29), and CRISPR-cas sequences (n=6) separated the strains according to species, and for E. faecalis also according to STs. Although plasmids belonging to the RCR-, Rep_3-, RepA_N- and Inc18-families were well represented with no significant differences in prevalence, the presence of specific replicon classes differed highly between the species; E. faecium was dominated by rep17/pRUM, rep2/pRE25, rep14/EFNP1 and rep20/pLG1 and E. faecalis by rep9/pCF10, rep2/pRE25 and rep7. Tn916-elements conferring tetracycline resistance (tetM) were found in all E. faecalis strains, but only in two E. faecium strains. A significant higher prevalence of IS256-, IS3-, ISL3-, IS200/IS605-, IS110-, IS982-, and IS4-transposases were detected in E. faecium, and of IS110-, IS982- and IS1182-transposases in E. faecalis ST6 compared to ST40. Notably, the transposases of IS981, ISEfm1 and IS1678 which have only been reported in few enterococcal isolates, were well represented in the E. faecium strains. E. faecalis ST40 strains harboured possible functional CRISPR-Cas systems, and still resistance and prophage sequences were generally well represented. Gene targets defined as the enterococcal mobilome, including plasmids, IS elements and transposons, resistance determinants, prophage sequences and CRISPR-Cas systems were highly prevalent, underlining their potential importance in the evolution of hospital associated STs. An association between axe-txe to the RepA_N-family and ω-ε-ζ to the Inc18-family, implicates the contribution of TA-systems in stable plasmid maintenance carrying virulence and resistance determinants in enterococci. The concurrent presence of defined MGE and their associated resistance markers was generally confirmed and illustrates the importance of horizontal gene transfer in the development of multidrug resistant enterococci. All together 272 DNA targets representing mobile genetic elements and antimicrobial resistance determinants associated with enterococci were spotted on a CustomArray 4x2K microarray from CustomArray Inc. Each fourplex microarray slide contain four identical sectors that were stripped and re-hybridized up to six times. Each target was represented by 1-5 probes each. The total of 1250 probes were Tm balanced by altering their lenght between 35 and 40 nucleotides. Total DNA of 41 samples were hybridized and a control strain, the fully sequenced E. faecalis V585, was included in one of the four sectors on each slide in each set of hybridization to monitor the overall array and hybridization quality.