Project description:Natural antisense transcripts (NAT) are a class of endogenous coding or non-protein-coding RNAs with sequence complementarity to other transcripts. Several lines of evidence have shown that cis- and trans-NATs may participate in a broad range of gene regulatory events. Genome-wide identification of cis-NATs in human, mouse and rice has revealed their widespread occurrence in eukaryotes. However, little is known about cis-NATs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.We developed a new computational method to predict and identify cis-encoded NATs in Arabidopsis and found 1,340 potential NAT pairs. The expression of both sense and antisense transcripts of 957 NAT pairs was confirmed using Arabidopsis full-length cDNAs and public massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) data. Three known or putative Arabidopsis imprinted genes have cis-antisense transcripts. Sequences and the genomic arrangement of two Arabidopsis NAT pairs are conserved in rice.We combined information from full-length cDNAs and Arabidopsis genome annotation in our NAT prediction work and reported cis-NAT pairs that could not otherwise be identified by using one of the two datasets only. Analysis of MPSS data suggested that for most Arabidopsis cis-NAT pairs, there is predominant expression of one of the two transcripts in a tissue-specific manner.
Project description:Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are endogenous transcripts that can form double-stranded RNA structures. Many protein-coding genes (PCs) and non-protein-coding genes (NPCs) tend to form cis-NATs and trans-NATs, respectively. In this work, we identified 4,080 cis-NATs and 2,491 trans-NATs genome-widely in Arabidopsis. Of these, 5,385 NAT-siRNAs were detected from the small RNA sequencing data. NAT-siRNAs are typically 21nt, and are processed by Dicer-like 1 (DCL1)/DCL2 and RDR6 and function in epigenetically activated situations, or 24nt, suggesting these are processed by DCL3 and RDR2 and function in environment stress. NAT-siRNAs are significantly derived from PC/PC pairs of trans-NATs and NPC/NPC pairs of cis-NATs. Furthermore, NAT pair genes typically have similar pattern of epigenetic status. Cis-NATs tend to be marked by euchromatic modifications, whereas trans-NATs tend to be marked by heterochromatic modifications.
Project description:Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are coding or non-coding RNAs with sequence complementarity to other transcripts (sense transcripts). These RNAs could potentially regulate the expression of their sense partner(s) at either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Experimental and computational methods have demonstrated the widespread occurrence of NATs in eukaryotes. However, most previous studies only focused on cis-NATs with little attention being paid to NATs that originate in trans.We have performed a genome-wide screen of trans-NATs in Arabidopsis thaliana and identified 1,320 putative trans-NAT pairs. An RNA annealing program predicted that most trans-NATs could form extended double-stranded RNA duplexes with their sense partners. Among trans-NATs with available expression data, more than 85% were found in the same tissue as their sense partners; of these, 67% were found in the same cell as their sense partners at comparable expression levels. For about 60% of Arabidopsis trans-NATs, orthologs of at least one transcript of the pair also had trans-NAT partners in either Populus trichocarpa or Oryza sativa. The observation that 430 transcripts had both putative cis- and trans-NATs implicates multiple regulations by antisense transcripts. The potential roles of trans-NATs in inducing post-transcriptional gene silencing and in regulating alternative splicing were also examined.The Arabidopsis transcriptome contains a fairly large number of trans-NATs, whose possible functions include silencing of the corresponding sense transcripts or altering their splicing patterns. The interlaced relationships observed in some cis- and trans-NAT pairs suggest that antisense transcripts could be involved in complex regulatory networks in eukaryotes.
Project description:In spite of large intergenic spaces in plant and animal genomes, 7% to 30% of genes in the genomes encode overlapping cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs). The widespread occurrence of cis-NATs suggests an evolutionary advantage for this type of genomic arrangement. Experimental evidence for the regulation of two cis-NAT gene pairs by natural antisense transcripts-generated small interfering RNAs (nat-siRNAs) via the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway has been reported in Arabidopsis. However, the extent of siRNA-mediated regulation of cis-NAT genes is still unclear in any genome.The hallmarks of RNAi regulation of NATs are 1) inverse regulation of two genes in a cis-NAT pair by environmental and developmental cues and 2) generation of siRNAs by cis-NAT genes. We examined Arabidopsis transcript profiling data from public microarray databases to identify cis-NAT pairs whose sense and antisense transcripts show opposite expression changes. A subset of the cis-NAT genes displayed negatively correlated expression profiles as well as inverse differential expression changes under at least one of the examined developmental stages or treatment conditions. By searching the Arabidopsis Small RNA Project (ASRP) and Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) small RNA databases as well as our stress-treated small RNA dataset, we found small RNAs that matched at least one gene in 646 pairs out of 1008 (64%) protein-coding cis-NAT pairs, which suggests that siRNAs may regulate the expression of many cis-NAT genes. 209 putative siRNAs have the potential to target more than one gene and half of these small RNAs could target multiple members of a gene family. Furthermore, the majority of the putative siRNAs within the overlapping regions tend to target only one transcript of a given NAT pair, which is consistent with our previous finding on salt- and bacteria-induced nat-siRNAs. In addition, we found that genes encoding plastid- or mitochondrion-targeted proteins are over-represented in the Arabidopsis cis-NATs and that 19% of sense and antisense partner genes of cis-NATs share at least one common Gene Ontology term, which suggests that they encode proteins with possible functional connection.The negatively correlated expression patterns of sense and antisense genes as well as the presence of siRNAs in many of the cis-NATs suggest that siRNA regulation of cis-NATs via the RNAi pathway is an important gene regulatory mechanism for at least a subgroup of cis-NATs in Arabidopsis.
Project description:We systematically identified long noncoding natural antisense transcripts (lncNATs), defined as lncRNAs transcribed from the opposite DNA strand of coding or noncoding genes. We identified in total 37,238 sense-antisense transcript pairs and found 70% mRNAs are associated with antisense transcripts in Arabidopsis. To investigate the role of NATs in response to white light treatment, we designed an Agilent custom array, ATH NAT array, and analyzed WT seedlings grown in the dark (0h) and seedlings undergoing de-etiolation in continuous white light for 1h and 6h. To obtain information on organ-specific transcriptome profiles, we further dissected seedlings into cotyledons, hypocotyls and roots. We examined the abundance of NATs in etiolated seedlings and seedlings undergoing de-etiolation in continuous white light for 1/6h. Seedlings were further dissected into cotyledons, hypocotyls and roots. RNAs from 3 biological replicates of each of the 3 organs were separately hybridized to ATH NAT arrays to profile light-regulated NAT pairs.
Project description:Background: cis-NATs (cis-natural antisense transcripts ) are transcribed from opposite strands of adjacent genes and have been shown to regulate gene expression by generating small RNAs from the overlapping region. cis-NATs are important for plant development and resistance to pathogens and stress. Several genome-wide investigations identified a number of cis-NAT pairs, but these investigations predicted cis-NATS using expression data from bulk samples that included lots of cell types. Some cis-NAT pairs identified from those investigations might not be functional, because both transcripts of cis-NAT pairs need to be co-expressed in the same cell. Pollen only contains two cell types, two sperm and one vegetative cell, which makes cell-specific investigation of cis-NATs possible. Methods: We investigated potential protein-coding cis-NATs in pollen and sperm using pollen RNA-seq data and TAIR10 gene models using the Integrated Genome Browser. We then used sperm microarray data and sRNAs in sperm and pollen to determine possibly functional cis-NATs in the sperm or vegetative cell, respectively. Results: We identified 1471 potential protein-coding cis-NAT pairs, including 131 novel pairs that were not present in TAIR10 gene models. In pollen, 872 possibly functional pairs were identified. 72 and 56 pairs were potentially functional in sperm and vegetative cells, respectively. sRNAs were detected at 794 genes, belonging to 739 pairs. Conclusion: These potential candidates in sperm and the vegetative cell are tools for understanding gene expression mechanisms in pollen.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cold stress causes dynamic changes in gene expression that are partially caused by small non-coding RNAs since they regulate protein coding transcripts and act in epigenetic gene silencing pathways. Thus, a detailed analysis of transcriptional changes of small RNAs (sRNAs) belonging to all known sRNA classes such as microRNAs (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNAs) in response to cold contributes to an understanding of cold-related transcriptome changes. RESULT:We subjected A. thaliana plants to cold acclimation conditions (4?°C) and analyzed the sRNA transcriptomes after 3?h, 6?h and 2 d. We found 93 cold responsive differentially expressed miRNAs and only 14 of these were previously shown to be cold responsive. We performed miRNA target prediction for all differentially expressed miRNAs and a GO analysis revealed the overrepresentation of miRNA-targeted transcripts that code for proteins acting in transcriptional regulation. We also identified a large number of differentially expressed cis- and trans-nat-siRNAs, as well as sRNAs that are derived from long non-coding RNAs. By combining the results of sRNA and mRNA profiling with miRNA target predictions and publicly available information on transcription factors, we reconstructed a cold-specific, miRNA and transcription factor dependent gene regulatory network. We verified the validity of links in the network by testing its ability to predict target gene expression under cold acclimation. CONCLUSION:In A. thaliana, miRNAs and sRNAs derived from cis- and trans-NAT gene pairs and sRNAs derived from lncRNAs play an important role in regulating gene expression in cold acclimation conditions. This study provides a fundamental database to deepen our knowledge and understanding of regulatory networks in cold acclimation.
Project description:It has been reported that Arabidopsis phytochrome (phy) A and phyB are crucial photoreceptors that display synergistic and antagonistic action during seedling de-etiolation in multiple light signaling pathways. However, the functional relationship between phyA and phyB is not fully understood under different kinds of light and in response to different intensities of such light. In this work, we compared hypocotyl elongation of the phyA-211 phyB-9 double mutant with the wild type, the phyA-211 and phyB-9 single mutants under different intensities of far-red (FR), red (R), blue (B) and white (W) light. We confirmed that phyA and phyB synergistically promote seedling de-etiolation in B-, B plus R-, W- and high R-light conditions. The correlation of endogenous ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) protein levels with the trend of hypocotyl elongation of all lines indicate that both phyA and phyB promote seedling photomorphogenesis in a synergistic manner in high-irradiance white light. Gene expression analyses of RBCS members and HY5 suggest that phyB and phyA act antagonistically on seedling development under FR light.
Project description:Pairs of RNA molecules transcribed from partially or entirely complementary loci are called cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs), and they play key roles in the regulation of gene expression in many organisms. A promising experimental tool for profiling sense and antisense transcription is strand-specific RNA sequencing (ssRNA-seq). To identify cis-NATs using ssRNA-seq, we developed a new computational method based on a model comparison framework that incorporates the inherent variable efficiency of generating perfectly strand-specific libraries. Applying the method to new ssRNA-seq data from whole-root and cell-type-specific Arabidopsis libraries confirmed most of the known cis-NAT pairs and identified 918 additional cis-NAT pairs. Newly identified cis-NAT pairs are supported by polyadenylation data, alternative splicing patterns, and RT-PCR validation. We found 209 cis-NAT pairs that have opposite expression levels in neighboring cell types, implying cell-type-specific roles for cis-NATs. By integrating a genome-wide epigenetic profile of Arabidopsis, we identified a unique chromatin signature of cis-NATs, suggesting a connection between cis-NAT transcription and chromatin modification in plants. An analysis of small-RNA sequencing data showed that ?4% of cis-NAT pairs produce putative cis-NAT-induced siRNAs. Taken together, our data and analyses illustrate the potential for multifaceted regulatory roles of plant cis-NATs.