Project description:For the initiation of transcription, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) assembles with general transcription factors on promoter DNA to form the pre-initiation complex (PIC). Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PIC and PIC-core Mediator complex at nominal resolutions of 4.7?Å and 5.8?Å, respectively. The structures reveal transcription factor IIH (TFIIH), and suggest how the core and kinase TFIIH modules function in the opening of promoter DNA and the phosphorylation of Pol II, respectively. The TFIIH core subunit Ssl2 (a homologue of human XPB) is positioned on downstream DNA by the 'E-bridge' helix in TFIIE, consistent with TFIIE-stimulated DNA opening. The TFIIH kinase module subunit Tfb3 (MAT1 in human) anchors the kinase Kin28 (CDK7), which is mobile in the PIC but preferentially located between the Mediator hook and shoulder in the PIC-core Mediator complex. Open spaces between the Mediator head and middle modules may allow access of the kinase to its substrate, the C-terminal domain of Pol II.
Project description:Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a major cellular defense mechanism against DNA damage. We have investigated the role of Mms19 in NER in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NER was deficient in the mms19 deletion mutant cell extracts, which was complemented by the NER/transcription factor TFIIH, but not by purified Mms19 protein. In mms19 mutant cells, protein levels of the core TFIIH component Rad3 (XPD homologue) and Ssl2 (XPB homologue) were significantly reduced by up to 3.5- and 2.2-fold, respectively. The other four essential subunits of the core TFIIH, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, and Tfb4, and the TFIIK subunits Tfb3, Kin28, and Ccl1 of the holo TFIIH were not much affected by Mms19. Elevating Rad3 protein concentration by overexpressing the protein from a plasmid under the GAL1 promoter control restored proficient NER in mms19 mutant cells, as indicated by complementation for UV sensitivity. Overexpression of Ssl2 had no effect on repair. Overexpression of Rad3, Ssl2, or both proteins, however, could not correct the temperature-sensitive growth defect of mms19 mutant cells. These results show that Mms19 functions in NER by sustaining an adequate cellular concentration of the TFIIH component Rad3 and suggest that Mms19 has distinct and separable functions in NER and cell growth, thus implicating Mms19 protein as a novel multifunctional regulator in cells.
Project description:Rsp5 is an essential and multi-functional E3 ubiquitin ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We previously isolated the Ala401Glu rsp5 mutant, which is hypersensitive to various stresses. To understand the function of Rsp5 in stress responses, suppressor genes whose overexpression allows rsp5A401E cells to grow at high temperature were screened. The KIN28 and POG1 genes, encoding a subunit of the transcription factor TFIIH and a putative transcriptional activator, respectively, were identified as multicopy suppressors of not only high temperature but also LiCl stresses. The overexpression of Kin28 and Pog1 in rsp5A401E cells caused an increase in the transcriptional level of some stress proteins when exposed to temperature up-shift. DNA microarray analysis under LiCl stress revealed that the transcriptional level of some proteasome components was increased in rsp5A401E cells overexpressing Kin28 or Pog1. These results suggest that the overexpression of Kin28 and Pog1 enhances the protein refolding and degradation pathways in rsp5A401E cells. Experiment Overall Design: Total RNA from S. cerevisiae was isolated by the method of Köhrer and Domdey (1991). Poly A mRNA was enriched from total RNA by Oligotex dT30 mRNA purification kit (Takara Bio). The Affimetrix yeast genome S98 arrays (YGS98 GeneChip, Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) were used as DNA microarray in this study. The biotinyated cRNA (15 μg) probe was hybridized to DNA microarray at 45°C for 18 h according to Affymetrix user’s manual. Experiment Overall Design: The washing and staining of arrays were performed using the GeneChip Fluidics Station 400. Experiment Overall Design: The scanning of arrays was carried out using the GeneArray scanner (Agilent technologies, Palto Alto, CA).
Project description:Rsp5 is an essential and multi-functional E3 ubiquitin ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We previously isolated the Ala401Glu rsp5 mutant, which is hypersensitive to various stresses. To understand the function of Rsp5 in stress responses, suppressor genes whose overexpression allows rsp5A401E cells to grow at high temperature were screened. The KIN28 and POG1 genes, encoding a subunit of the transcription factor TFIIH and a putative transcriptional activator, respectively, were identified as multicopy suppressors of not only high temperature but also LiCl stresses. The overexpression of Kin28 and Pog1 in rsp5A401E cells caused an increase in the transcriptional level of some stress proteins when exposed to temperature up-shift. DNA microarray analysis under LiCl stress revealed that the transcriptional level of some proteasome components was increased in rsp5A401E cells overexpressing Kin28 or Pog1. These results suggest that the overexpression of Kin28 and Pog1 enhances the protein refolding and degradation pathways in rsp5A401E cells. Keywords: mutant analysis, stress response Overall design: Total RNA from S. cerevisiae was isolated by the method of Köhrer and Domdey (1991). Poly A mRNA was enriched from total RNA by Oligotex dT30 mRNA purification kit (Takara Bio). The Affimetrix yeast genome S98 arrays (YGS98 GeneChip, Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) were used as DNA microarray in this study. The biotinyated cRNA (15 μg) probe was hybridized to DNA microarray at 45°C for 18 h according to Affymetrix user’s manual. The washing and staining of arrays were performed using the GeneChip Fluidics Station 400. The scanning of arrays was carried out using the GeneArray scanner (Agilent technologies, Palto Alto, CA).
Project description:Recently, a new type of hybrid resulting from the hybridization between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii was described. These strains exhibit physiological properties of potential biotechnological interest. A preliminary characterization of these hybrids showed a trend to reduce the S. kudriavzevii fraction of the hybrid genome. We characterized the genomic constitution of several wine S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii strains by using a combined approach based on the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of gene regions, comparative genome hybridizations with S. cerevisiae DNA arrays, ploidy analysis, and gene dose determination by quantitative real-time PCR. The high similarity in the genome structures of the S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids under study indicates that they originated from a single hybridization event. After hybridization, the hybrid genome underwent extensive chromosomal rearrangements, including chromosome losses and the generation of chimeric chromosomes by the nonreciprocal recombination between homeologous chromosomes. These nonreciprocal recombinations between homeologous chromosomes occurred in highly conserved regions, such as Ty long terminal repeats (LTRs), rRNA regions, and conserved protein-coding genes. This study supports the hypothesis that chimeric chromosomes may have been generated by a mechanism similar to the recombination-mediated chromosome loss acting during meiosis in Saccharomyces hybrids. As a result of the selective processes acting during fermentation, hybrid genomes maintained the S. cerevisiae genome but reduced the S. kudriavzevii fraction.
Project description:TFIIH is a general transcription factor with kinase and helicase activities. The kinase activity resides in the Kin28 subunit of TFIIH. The role of Kin28 kinase in the early steps of transcription is well established. Here we report a novel role of Kin28 in the termination of transcription. We show that RNAPII reads through a termination signal upon kinase inhibition. Furthermore, the recruitment of termination factors towards the 3' end of a gene was compromised in the kinase mutant, thus confirming the termination defect. A concomitant decrease in crosslinking of termination factors near the 5' end of genes was also observed in the kinase-defective mutant. Simultaneous presence of termination factors towards both the ends of a gene is indicative of gene looping; while the loss of termination factor occupancy from the distal ends suggest the abolition of a looped gene conformation. Accordingly, CCC analysis revealed that the looped architecture of genes was severely compromised in the Kin28 kinase mutant. In a looping defective sua7-1 mutant, even the enzymatically active Kin28 kinase could not rescue the termination defect. These results strongly suggest a crucial role of Kin28 kinase-dependent gene looping in the termination of transcription in budding yeast.
Project description:During transcription initiation, the TFIIH-kinase Kin28/Cdk7 marks RNA polymerase II (Pol II) by phosphorylating the C-terminal domain (CTD) of its largest subunit. Here we describe a structure-guided chemical approach to covalently and specifically inactivate Kin28 kinase activity in vivo. This method of irreversible inactivation recapitulates both the lethal phenotype and the key molecular signatures that result from genetically disrupting Kin28 function in vivo. Inactivating Kin28 impacts promoter release to differing degrees and reveals a â??checkpointâ?? during the transition to productive elongation. While promoter-proximal pausing is not observed in budding yeast, inhibition of Kin28 attenuates elongation-licensing signals, resulting in Pol II accumulation at the +2 nucleosome and reduced transition to productive elongation. Furthermore, upon inhibition, global stabilization of mRNA masks different degrees of reduction in nascent transcription. This study resolves long-standing controversies on the role of Kin28 in transcription and provides a rational approach to irreversibly inhibit other kinases in vivo. Total RNA was collected from wild-type and analog-sensitive Kin28 strains treated with reversible inhibitor 1-NAPP-1, irreversible inhibitor CMK, and solvent control DMSO. Equivalent ratios of S. pombe : S. cerevisiae cells were added to each sample before RNA extraction for normalization of read counts after sequencing. Nascent RNA was purified from total RNA by 4-thiouracil labeling, biotinylation, and streptavidin-pulldown. As a negative control, nascent RNA was also extracted from total RNA from cells that had not been treated with 4-thiouracil.
Project description:The use of non-Saccharomyces yeast for wine making is becoming a common trend in many innovative wineries. The application is normally aimed at increasing aromas, glycerol, reducing acidity, and other improvements. This manuscript focuses on the reproduction of the native microbiota from the vineyard in the inoculum. Thus, native selected yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Starmerella bacillaris species and three different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were inoculated sequentially, or only S. cerevisiae (three native strains together or one commercial) was used. Inoculations were performed both in laboratory conditions with synthetic must (400 mL) as well as in industrial conditions (2000 kg of grapes) in red winemaking in two different varieties, Grenache and Carignan. The results showed that all the inoculated S. cerevisiae strains were found at the end of the vinifications, and when non-Saccharomyces yeasts were inoculated, they were found in appreciable populations at mid-fermentation. The final wines produced could be clearly differentiated by sensory analysis and were of similar quality, in terms of sensory analysis panelists' appreciation.
Project description:A multispecies-based taxonomic microarray targeting coding sequences of diverged orthologous genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces paradoxus, Saccharomyces mikatae, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Naumovia castellii, Lachancea kluyveri and Candida glabrata was designed to allow identification of isolates of these species and their interspecies hybrids. Analysis of isolates of several Saccharomyces species and interspecies hybrids demonstrated the ability of the microarray to differentiate these yeasts on the basis of their specific hybridization patterns. Subsequent analysis of 183 supposed S. cerevisiae isolates of various ecological and geographical backgrounds revealed one misclassified S. bayanus or Saccharomyces uvarum isolate and four aneuploid interspecies hybrids, one between S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus and three between S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. Furthermore, this microarray design allowed the detection of multiple introgressed S. paradoxus DNA fragments in the genomes of three different S. cerevisiae isolates. These results show the power of multispecies-based microarrays as taxonomic tools for the identification of species and interspecies hybrids, and their ability to provide a more detailed characterization of interspecies hybrids and recombinants.
Project description:The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.