Project description:Highly precise diagnostics and forensic assays can be developed through a combination of evolutionary analysis and the exhaustive examination of genomic sequences. In Bacillus anthracis, whole-genome sequencing efforts revealed ca. 3,500 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among eight different strains and evolutionary analysis provides the identification of canonical SNPs. We have previously shown that SNPs are highly evolutionarily stable, and the clonal nature of B. anthracis makes them ideal signatures for subtyping this pathogen. Here we identified SNPs that define the lineage of B. anthracis that contains the Ames strain, the strain used in the 2001 bioterrorist attacks in the United States. Sequencing and real-time PCR were used to validate these SNPs across B. anthracis strains, including (i) 88 globally and genetically diverse isolates; (ii) isolates that were shown to be genetic relatives of the Ames strain by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA); and (iii) several different lab stocks of the Ames strain, including a clinical isolate from the 2001 letter attack. Six SNPs were found to be highly specific for the Ames strain; four on the chromosome, one on the pX01 plasmid, and one on the pX02 plasmid. All six SNPs differentiated the B. anthracis Ames strain from the 88 unique B. anthracis strains, while five of the six separated Ames from its close genetic relatives. The use of these SNPs coupled with real-time PCR allows specific and sensitive (<100 fg of template DNA) identification of the Ames strain. This evolutionary and genomics-based approach provides an effective means for the discovery of strain-specific SNPs in B. anthracis.
Project description:Soil was collected in July 2013 at a site where a cow infected with anthrax had been the month before. Selective culturing yielded Bacillus anthracis strain Tangail-1. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this Bacillus anthracis isolate that belongs to the canonical A.Br.001/002 clade.
Project description:Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax, is susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics, but few cases of naturally occurring penicillin-resistant strains have been reported. We report the genome sequence of penicillin-resistant strain Bacillus anthracis PCr, isolated from imported bone powder in 1978 in Japan.
Project description:Bacillus anthracis strain SPV842_15 was isolated from bovine fetus, while B. anthracis strain Brazilian vaccinal was recovered from a commercial vaccine. We report here the genome sequences of both strains. The SPV842_15 genome is composed of a single circular chromosome with a length of 5,228,664 base pairs, and comprises 5911 coding sequences. In turn, the Brazilian vaccinal genome remains in 201 contigs with 5733 coding sequences. Both genomes have an overall C+G content of 35.4%, and 11 genes encoding the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) 5S, 16S and 23S. Only the plasmid pX01 sequence, which carries genes for toxins synthesis, was detected and completely assembled for both strains. These plasmids have a length of 181,684 base pairs and a C+G content of 32.5%. These genomic data generate insights about vaccinal B. anthracis virulence.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Anthrax is a disease with an age old history in Africa caused by the Gram-positive endospore forming soil bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Epizootics of wild ungulates occur annually in the enzootic region of Pafuri, Kruger National Park (KNP) in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Rigorous routine surveillance and diagnostics in KNP, has not revealed these rare isolates since the 1990s, despite unabated annual outbreaks. In 2011 a cheetah was diagnosed as anthrax positive from a private game reserve in Limpopo Province and reported to State Veterinary Services for further investigation. Isolation, molecular diagnostics, whole genome sequencing and comparative genomics were carried out for B. anthracis KC2011. RESULTS:Bacteriological and molecular diagnostics confirmed the isolate as B. anthracis. Subsequent typing and whole genome single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis indicated it clustered alongside B. anthracis SA A0091 in the B.Br.010 SNP branch. Unlike B. anthracis KrugerB strain, KC2011 strain has unique SNPs and represents a new branch in the B-clade. The isolation and genotypic characterisation of KC2011 demonstrates a gap in the reporting of anthrax outbreaks in the greater Limpopo province area. The identification of vulnerable and susceptible cheetah mortalities due to this strain has implications for conservation measures and disease control.
Project description:Bacillus anthracis is a zoonotic agent causing anthrax, a notifiable disease in animals. The last anthrax outbreak among cattle in Germany occurred in April 2014 in Saxony-Anhalt. Here we report a high-quality genome sequence of the Bacillus anthracis strain 14RA5914 Dobichau isolated from the spleen of a dead cow.
Project description:Investigation of whole genome expression level changes in Bacillus anthracis Sterne deltaClpX mutant compared to the wild-type strain after growth in nutrient rich media. The deltaClpX mutant used in this study is described in McGillivray et al. 2009. ClpX Protease Contributes to Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance and Virulence Phenotypes of Bacillus anthracis. Journal of Innate Immunity 1(5): 494-506. Overall design: A six chip study using total RNA recovered from three separate cultures of the wild-type Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain and three separate cultures of the deltaClpX mutant strain. Each chip measures the expression level of 5287 chromosomal genes from Bacillus anthracis Sterne.
Project description:Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax, is characteristically susceptible to penicillin despite containing two chromosomal ?-lactamase genes. Few naturally occurring penicillin-resistant B. anthracis isolates have been reported. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for three penicillin-resistant B. anthracis strains, strain 32, UT308, and SK57.
Project description:Susceptibility to penicillin and other beta-lactam-containing compounds is a common trait of Bacillus anthracis. Beta-lactam agents, particularly penicillin, have been used worldwide to treat anthrax in humans. Nonetheless, surveys of clinical and soil-derived strains reveal penicillin G resistance in 2 to 16% of isolates tested. Bacterial resistance to beta-lactam agents is often mediated by production of one or more types of beta-lactamases that hydrolyze the beta-lactam ring, inactivating the antimicrobial agent. Here, we report the presence of two beta-lactamase (bla) genes in the penicillin-susceptible Sterne strain of B. anthracis. We identified bla1 by functional cloning with Escherichia coli. bla1 is a 927-nucleotide (nt) gene predicted to encode a protein with 93.8% identity to the type I beta-lactamase gene of Bacillus cereus. A second gene, bla2, was identified by searching the unfinished B. anthracis chromosome sequence database of The Institute for Genome Research for open reading frames (ORFs) predicted to encode beta-lactamases. We found a partial ORF predicted to encode a protein with significant similarity to the carboxy-terminal end of the type II beta-lactamase of B. cereus. DNA adjacent to the 5' end of the partial ORF was cloned using inverse PCR. bla2 is a 768-nt gene predicted to encode a protein with 92% identity to the B. cereus type II enzyme. The bla1 and bla2 genes confer ampicillin resistance to E. coli and Bacillus subtilis when cloned individually in these species. The MICs of various antimicrobial agents for the E. coli clones indicate that the two beta-lactamase genes confer different susceptibility profiles to E. coli; bla1 is a penicillinase, while bla2 appears to be a cephalosporinase. The beta-galactosidase activities of B. cereus group species harboring bla promoter-lacZ transcriptional fusions indicate that bla1 is poorly transcribed in B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis. The bla2 gene is strongly expressed in B. cereus and B. thuringiensis and weakly expressed in B. anthracis. Taken together, these data indicate that the bla1 and bla2 genes of the B. anthracis Sterne strain encode functional beta-lactamases of different types, but gene expression is usually not sufficient to confer resistance to beta-lactam agents.
Project description:The Bacillus anthracis strain STI is a Soviet vaccine strain that lacks the pXO2 plasmid. Previous data indicate that this isolate forms a new branch within the B. anthracis sub-group originally identified as A. Br.008/009.