Project description:DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification involved in regulating gene expression and maintaining genomic integrity. Somatic patterns of DNA methylation are largely static, apart from focal dynamics at gene regulatory elements. To further advance our understanding of the role of DNA methylation in human development and disease, we inactivated all three catalytically active DNA methyltransferases in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Disruption of DNMT3A or DNMT3B individually, as well as of both enzymes in tandem, creates viable, pluripotent cell lines with distinct effects on their DNA methylation landscape as assessed by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. Surprisingly, in contrast to mouse, deletion of DNMT1 resulted in rapid cell death in human ESCs. To overcome the immediate lethality, we generated a doxycycline (DOX) responsive tTA-DNMT1* rescue line and readily obtained homozygous DNMT1 mutant lines. However, DOX-mediated repression of the exogenous DNMT1* initiates rapid, global loss of DNA methylation, followed by extensive cell death, demonstrating that DNA methylation is essential for human ESCs cultured in standard conditions. In summary, our data provide a comprehensive characterization of DNMT mutant ESCs, including single base genome-wide maps of their targets. RRBS profiling of mouse ESCs (wild type and DNMT KOs)
Project description:DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification involved in regulating gene expression and maintaining genomic integrity. Somatic patterns of DNA methylation are largely static, apart from focal dynamics at gene regulatory elements. To further advance our understanding of the role of DNA methylation in human development and disease, we inactivated all three catalytically active DNA methyltransferases in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Disruption of DNMT3A or DNMT3B individually, as well as of both enzymes in tandem, creates viable, pluripotent cell lines with distinct effects on their DNA methylation landscape as assessed by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. Surprisingly, in contrast to mouse, deletion of DNMT1 resulted in rapid cell death in human ESCs. To overcome the immediate lethality, we generated a doxycycline (DOX) responsive tTA-DNMT1* rescue line and readily obtained homozygous DNMT1 mutant lines. However, DOX-mediated repression of the exogenous DNMT1* initiates rapid, global loss of DNA methylation, followed by extensive cell death, demonstrating that DNA methylation is essential for human ESCs cultured in standard conditions. In summary, our data provide a comprehensive characterization of DNMT mutant ESCs, including single base genome-wide maps of their targets. RRBS methylation profiling of DNMT3A/3B DKO human ES cells
Project description:In this study, we mapped modification of lysine 4 and lysine 27 of histone H3 genome-wide in a series of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) varying in DNA methylation levels based on knock-out and reconstitution of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). We extend previous studies showing cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modifications by examining a breadth of histone modifications, causal relationships, and direct effects. Our data shows a causal regulation of H3K27me3 at gene promoters as well as H3K27ac and H3K27me3 at tissue-specific enhancers. We also identify isoform differences between DNMT family members. This study provides a comprehensive resource for the study of the complex interplay between DNA methylation and histone modification landscape. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) performed on wild-type, Dnmt triple knock-out (Dnmt1/3a/3b; TKO), Dnmt double knock-out (Dnmt3a/3b; DKO), and respective reconstitution mouse embryonic stem cell lines.
Project description:Copy number variation is an important dimension of genetic diversity and has implications in development and disease. As an important model organism, the mouse is a prime candidate for copy number variant (CNV) characterization, but this has yet to be completed for a large sample size. Here we report CNV analysis of publicly available, high-density microarray data files for 351 mouse tail samples, including 290 mice that had not been characterized for CNVs previously.We found 9634 putative autosomal CNVs across the samples affecting 6.87% of the mouse reference genome. We find significant differences in the degree of CNV uniqueness (single sample occurrence) and the nature of CNV-gene overlap between wild-caught mice and classical laboratory strains. CNV-gene overlap was associated with lipid metabolism, pheromone response and olfaction compared to immunity, carbohydrate metabolism and amino-acid metabolism for wild-caught mice and classical laboratory strains, respectively. Using two subspecies of wild-caught Mus musculus, we identified putative CNVs unique to those subspecies and show this diversity is better captured by wild-derived laboratory strains than by the classical laboratory strains. A total of 9 genic copy number variable regions (CNVRs) were selected for experimental confirmation by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).The analysis we present is a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of CNVs in Mus musculus, which increases the number of known variants in the species and will accelerate the identification of novel variants in future studies.
Project description:Defects in epigenetic mechanisms are well-recognized in multiple neurodevelopmental disorders including Schizophrenia (SZ). In addition to aberrant epigenetic marks, dysregulated epigenetic machinery was also identified among the contributory factors in SZ patients. Among these, overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) was the first to be identified. In this context, Dnmt1tet/tet (Tet/Tet), a mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) line that overexpresses DNMT1 in ESCs and neurons, was developed to study abnormal neurogenesis. In an attempt to understand whether DNMT1 overexpression is associated with aberrant DNA methylation, we compared the genome-wide methylation levels of R1 (wild-type) and Tet/Tet ESCs and their neuronal derivatives by RRBS. The RRBS data (GSE152817) showed an average mappability of ?59% and an average coverage of 40X per locus. The data was processed to determine the methylation percentages of target genes and was visualized using the UCSC genome browser. The observed methylation differences were validated by Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA). The methylome data described here can be used to study the relationship between DNMT1 overexpression, alterations in methylation levels and dysregulation of SZ-associated genes.
Project description:House mice (Mus musculus) emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which are surprisingly complex and have features of bird song, but their functions are not well understood. Previous studies have reported mixed evidence on whether there are sex differences in USV emission, though vocalization rate or other features may depend upon whether potential receivers are of the same or opposite sex. We recorded the USVs of wild-derived adult house mice (F1 of wild-caught Mus musculus musculus), and we compared the vocalizations of males and females in response to a stimulus mouse of the same- or opposite-sex. To detect and quantify vocalizations, we used an algorithm that automatically detects USVs (Automatic Mouse Ultrasound Detector or A-MUD). We found high individual variation in USV emission rates (4 to 2083 elements/10 min trial) and a skewed distribution, with most mice (60%) emitting few (?50) elements. We found no differences in the rates of calling between the sexes overall, but mice of both sexes emitted vocalizations at a higher rate and higher frequencies during opposite- compared to same-sex interactions. We also observed a trend toward higher amplitudes by males when presented with a male compared to a female stimulus. Our results suggest that mice modulate the rate and frequency of vocalizations depending upon the sex of potential receivers.
Project description:The laboratory mouse is the workhorse of immunology, used as a model of mammalian immune function, but how well immune responses of laboratory mice reflect those of free-living animals is unknown. Here we comprehensively characterize serological, cellular and functional immune parameters of wild mice and compare them with laboratory mice, finding that wild mouse cellular immune systems are, comparatively, in a highly activated (primed) state. Associations between immune parameters and infection suggest that high level pathogen exposure drives this activation. Moreover, wild mice have a population of highly activated myeloid cells not present in laboratory mice. By contrast, in vitro cytokine responses to pathogen-associated ligands are generally lower in cells from wild mice, probably reflecting the importance of maintaining immune homeostasis in the face of intense antigenic challenge in the wild. These data provide a comprehensive basis for validating (or not) laboratory mice as a useful and relevant immunological model system.
Project description:The immune state of wild animals is largely unknown. Knowing this and what affects it is important in understanding how infection and disease affects wild animals. The immune state of wild animals is also important in understanding the biology of their pathogens, which is directly relevant to explaining pathogen spillover among species, including to humans. The paucity of knowledge about wild animals' immune state is in stark contrast to our exquisitely detailed understanding of the immunobiology of laboratory animals. Making an immune response is costly, and many factors (such as age, sex, infection status, and body condition) have individually been shown to constrain or promote immune responses. But, whether or not these factors affect immune responses and immune state in wild animals, their relative importance, and how they interact (or do not) are unknown. Here, we have investigated the immune ecology of wild house mice-the same species as the laboratory mouse-as an example of a wild mammal, characterising their adaptive humoral, adaptive cellular, and innate immune state. Firstly, we show how immune variation is structured among mouse populations, finding that there can be extensive immune discordance among neighbouring populations. Secondly, we identify the principal factors that underlie the immunological differences among mice, showing that body condition promotes and age constrains individuals' immune state, while factors such as microparasite infection and season are comparatively unimportant. By applying a multifactorial analysis to an immune system-wide analysis, our results bring a new and unified understanding of the immunobiology of a wild mammal.
Project description:Mouse t haplotypes are variants of chromosome 17, consisting of four inversions. Despite the homozygous lethality and pleiotropic effect on embryonic development, sperm production, and recombination, they have widely spread in natural populations of the house mouse (10-40% in frequency) because of the meiotic drive advantage. We sequenced 14 Tcp-1 (t-complex polypeptide 1) genes from four t haplotypes, nine wild mice, and a rat as a reference. From a comparison of intron sequences of 610 base pairs, we dated the origin of t haplotypes to 2.9 +/- 0.7 million years ago, which predates the splitting of Mus musculus subspecies (approximately 1 million years ago). However, the Tcp-1 intron sequences of t haplotypes from different M. musculus subspecies from various parts of the world show no divergence, indicating the recent introgression (no earlier than 0.8 million years ago) of a single ancestral type. Nucleotide changes in coding regions are also consistent with this conclusion. Hence, polymorphisms among t haplotypes including lethality factors have accumulated during this short time period independently in each M. musculus subspecies.
Project description:The role of mitochondria dynamics and its molecular regulators remains largely unknown during naïve-to-primed pluripotent cell interconversion. Here we report that mitochondrial MTCH2 is a regulator of mitochondrial fusion, essential for the naïve-to-primed interconversion of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). During this interconversion, wild-type ESCs elongate their mitochondria and slightly alter their glutamine utilization. In contrast, MTCH2-/- ESCs fail to elongate their mitochondria and to alter their metabolism, maintaining high levels of histone acetylation and expression of naïve pluripotency markers. Importantly, enforced mitochondria elongation by the pro-fusion protein Mitofusin (MFN) 2 or by a dominant negative form of the pro-fission protein dynamin-related protein (DRP) 1 is sufficient to drive the exit from naïve pluripotency of both MTCH2-/- and wild-type ESCs. Taken together, our data indicate that mitochondria elongation, governed by MTCH2, plays a critical role and constitutes an early driving force in the naïve-to-primed pluripotency interconversion of murine ESCs. Overall design: Examination of WT and MTCH2 KO ESC and EpiLC mouse embryonic stem cells transcriptome