Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Antimicrobial resistance is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries. International travel contributes substantially to the global spread of intestinal multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Hundreds of millions of annual visitors to low-income and middle-income countries are all exposed to intestinal multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria resulting in 30-70% of them being colonised at their return. The colonisation process in high-exposure environments is poorly documented because data have only been derived from before travel and after travel sampling. We characterised colonisation dynamics by exploring daily stool samples while visiting a low-income and middle-income countries.<h4>Methods</h4>In this prospective, daily, real-time sampling study 20 European visitors to Laos volunteered to provide daily stool samples and completed daily questionnaires for 22 days. Samples were initially assessed at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, for acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) Gram-negative bacteria followed by whole-genome sequencing of isolates at MicrobesNG, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. The primary outcome of the study was to obtain data on the dynamics of intestinal multidrug-resistant bacteria acquisition.<h4>Findings</h4>Between Sept 18 and Sept 20, 2015, 23 volunteers were recruited, of whom 20 (87%) European volunteers were included in the final study population. Although colonisation rates were 70% at the end of the study, daily sampling revealed that all participants had acquired ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria at some point during the study period; the colonisation status varied day by day. Whole-genome sequencing analysis ascribed the transient pattern of colonisation to sequential acquisition of new strains, resulting in a loss of detectable colonisation by the initial multidrug-resistant Gram-negative strains. 19 (95%) participants acquired two to seven strains. Of the 83 unique strains identified (53 <i>Escherichia coli</i>, 10 <i>Klebsiella</i> spp, and 20 other ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria), some were shared by as many as four (20%) participants.<h4>Interpretation</h4>To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterise in real-time the dynamics of acquiring multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial colonisation during travel. Our data show multiple transient colonisation events indicative of constant microbial competition and suggest that travellers are exposed to a greater burden of multidrug-resistant bacteria than previously thought. The data emphasise the need for preventing travellers' diarrhoea and limiting antibiotic use, addressing the two major factors predisposing colonisation.<h4>Funding</h4>The Finnish Governmental Subsidy for Health Science Research, The Scandinavian Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, the Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council; Wellcome Trust, Medical Research Council; The Royal Society; Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance, and European Research Council.
Project description:A Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from houseflies in a trash disposal truck in the United States was resistant to colistin, a last-resort drug for treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Complete genome sequencing resulted in a total genome size of 5,337,408?bp for this isolate with a plasmid of 224,442?bp.
Project description:The substantial rise in multidrug-resistant bacterial infections is a current global imperative. Cumulative efforts to characterize antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has demonstrated the spread of six families of multidrug efflux pumps, of which resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) is the major mechanism of multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. RND is composed of a tripartite protein assembly and confers resistance to a range of unrelated compounds. In the major enteric pathogen <i>Campylobacter jejuni</i>, the three protein components of RND are posttranslationally modified with <i>N-</i>linked glycans. The direct role of <i>N-</i>linked glycans in <i>C. jejuni</i> and other bacteria has long been elusive. Here, we present the first detailed account of the role of <i>N-</i>linked glycans and the link between <i>N-</i>glycosylation and antimicrobial resistance in <i>C. jejuni</i> We demonstrate the multifunctional role of <i>N-</i>linked glycans in enhancing protein thermostability, stabilizing protein complexes and the promotion of protein-protein interaction, thus mediating antimicrobial resistance via enhancing multidrug efflux pump activity. This affirms that glycosylation is critical for multidrug efflux pump assembly. We present a generalized strategy that could be used to investigate general glycosylation system in <i>Campylobacter</i> genus and a potential target to develop antimicrobials against multidrug-resistant pathogens.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Nearly all bacterial species have at least a single glycosylation system, but the direct effects of these posttranslational protein modifications are unresolved. Glycoproteome-wide analysis of several bacterial pathogens has revealed general glycan modifications of virulence factors and protein assemblies. Using <i>Campylobacter jejuni</i> as a model organism, we have studied the role of general <i>N-</i>linked glycans in the multidrug efflux pump commonly found in Gram-negative bacteria. We show, for the first time, the direct link between <i>N</i>-linked glycans and multidrug efflux pump activity. At the protein level, we demonstrate that <i>N</i>-linked glycans play a role in enhancing protein thermostability and mediating the assembly of the multidrug efflux pump to promote antimicrobial resistance, highlighting the importance of this posttranslational modification in bacterial physiology. Similar roles for glycans are expected to be found in other Gram-negative pathogens that possess general protein glycosylation systems.
Project description:Patients with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) frequently receive broad-spectrum antibiotics. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictive factors of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria in patients with cUTI.This is a multicenter, retrospective cohort study in south and eastern Europe, Turkey and Israel including consecutive patients with cUTIs hospitalised between January 2013 and December 2014. Multidrug-resistance was defined as non-susceptibility to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to determine predictive factors of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria cUTI.From 948 patients and 1074 microbiological isolates, Escherichia coli was the most frequent microorganism (559/1074), showing a 14.5% multidrug-resistance rate. Klebsiella pneumoniae was second (168/1074) and exhibited the highest multidrug-resistance rate (54.2%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (97/1074) with a 38.1% multidrug-resistance rate. Predictors of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria were male gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.29), acquisition of cUTI in a medical care facility (OR, 2.59; 95%CI, 1.80-3.71), presence of indwelling urinary catheter (OR, 1.44; 95%CI, 0.99-2.10), having had urinary tract infection within the previous year (OR, 1.89; 95%CI, 1.28-2.79) and antibiotic treatment within the previous 30 days (OR, 1.68; 95%CI, 1.13-2.50).The current high rate of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria infections among hospitalised patients with cUTIs in the studied area is alarming. Our predictive model could be useful to avoid inappropriate antibiotic treatment and implement antibiotic stewardship policies that enhance the use of carbapenem-sparing regimens in patients at low risk of multidrug-resistance.
Project description:Purpose:Resistance to antibiotics is a major problem of public health. One of the alternative therapies is silver - more and more popular because of nanotechnology development and new possibilities of usage. As a component of colloid, powder, cream, bandages, etc., nanosilver is often recommended to treat the multidrug-resistant pathogens and we can observe its overuse also outside of the clinic where different physicochemical forms of silver nanoformulations (e.g. size, shape, compounds, surface area) are introduced. In this research, we described the consequences of long-term bacteria exposure to silver nanoformulations with different physicochemical properties, including changes in genome and changes of bacterial sensitivity to silver nanoformulations and/or antibiotics. Moreover, the prevalence of exogenous resistance to silver among multidrug-resistant bacteria was determined. Materials and Methods:Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria strains are described as sensitive and multidrug-resistant strains. The sensitivity of the tested bacterial strains to antibiotics was carried out with disc diffusion methods. The sensitivity of bacteria to silver nanoformulations and development of bacterial resistance to silver nanoformulations has been verified via determination of the minimal inhibitory concentrations. The presence of sil genes was verified via PCR reaction and DNA electrophoresis. The genomic and phenotypic changes have been verified via genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Results:Bacteria after long-term exposure to silver nanoformulations may change their sensitivity to silver forms and/or antibiotics, depending on the physicochemical properties of silver nanoformulations, resulting from phenotypic or genetic changes in the bacterial cell. Finally, adaptants and mutants may become more sensitive or resistant to some antibiotics than wild types. Conclusion:Application of silver nanoformulations in the case of multiple resistance or multidrug-resistant bacterial infection can enhance or decrease their resistance to antibiotics. The usage of nanosilver in a clinic and outside of the clinic should be determined and should be under strong control. Moreover, each silver nanomaterial should be considered as a separate agent with a potential different mode of antibacterial action.
Project description:Hospital-acquired infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are a significant challenge to patient safety. Numerous clinical isolates resistant to almost all commercially available antibiotics have emerged. Thus, novel antimicrobial agents, specifically those for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, are urgently needed. In the current study, we report the isolation, structure elucidation, and preliminary biological characterization of a new cationic lipopeptide antibiotic, battacin or octapeptin B5, produced from a Paenibacillus tianmuensis soil isolate. Battacin kills bacteria in vitro and has potent activity against Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant and extremely drug-resistant clinical isolates. Hospital strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the pathogens most sensitive to battacin, with MICs of 2 to 4 μg/ml. The ability of battacin to disrupt the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is comparable to that of polymyxin B, the last-line therapy for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, the capacity of battacin to permeate bacterial plasma membranes is less extensive than that of polymyxin B. The bactericidal kinetics of battacin correlate with the depolarization of the cell membrane, suggesting that battacin kills bacteria by disrupting the cytoplasmic membrane. Other studies indicate that battacin is less acutely toxic than polymyxin B and has potent in vivo biological activity against E. coli. Based on the findings of the current study, battacin may be considered a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii is a pathogenic species of bacteria, identified as an aerobic gram-negative bacterium, that is resistant to most antibiotics. In this study, the MDR-TJ strain was isolated at the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, China, and was found to be resistant to penicillin, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, quinolones, and also imipenem. The genome sequence of Acinetobacter baumannii strain MDR-TJ was determined by using a combination of 454 pyrosequencing and paired-end sequencing performed with the Roche Genome Sequencer FLX system to generate a scaffolded assembly.
Project description:Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa NRD619, assembled via long- and short-read hybrid assembly. P. aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that is a significant public health burden. NRD619 was isolated from a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) draining sinus tract.
Project description:The infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria pose serious threats to humankind. It has been suggested that an antibiotic targeting LpxC of the lipid A biosynthetic pathway in Gram-negative bacteria is a promising strategy for curing Gram-negative bacterial infections. However, experimental proof of this concept is lacking. Here, we describe our discovery and characterization of a biphenylacetylene-based inhibitor of LpxC, an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of the lipid A component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The compound LPC-069 has no known adverse effects in mice and is effective in vitro against a broad panel of Gram-negative clinical isolates, including several multiresistant and extremely drug-resistant strains involved in nosocomial infections. Furthermore, LPC-069 is curative in a murine model of one of the most severe human diseases, bubonic plague, which is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis Our results demonstrate the safety and efficacy of LpxC inhibitors as a new class of antibiotic against fatal infections caused by extremely virulent pathogens. The present findings also highlight the potential of LpxC inhibitors for clinical development as therapeutics for infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.IMPORTANCE The rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative bacilli highlights the urgent need for new antibiotics. Here, we describe a new class of antibiotics lacking cross-resistance with conventional antibiotics. The compounds inhibit LpxC, a key enzyme in the lipid A biosynthetic pathway in Gram-negative bacteria, and are active in vitro against a broad panel of clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli involved in nosocomial and community infections. The present study also constitutes the first demonstration of the curative treatment of bubonic plague by a novel, broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting LpxC. Hence, the data highlight the therapeutic potential of LpxC inhibitors against a wide variety of Gram-negative bacterial infections, including the most severe ones caused by Y. pestis and by multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant carbapenemase-producing strains.