Project description:BruUV-seq utilizes UV light to introduce transcription-blocking DNA lesions randomly in the genome prior to bromouridine-labeling and deep sequencing of nascent RNA. By inhibiting transcription elongation, but not initiation, pre-treatment with UV light leads to a redistribution of transcription reads resulting in the enhancement of nascent RNA signal towards the 5'-end of genes promoting the identification of transcription start sites (TSSs). Furthermore, transcripts associated with arrested RNA polymerases are protected from 3'-5' degradation and thus, unstable transcripts such as putative enhancer RNA (eRNA) are dramatically increased. Validation of BruUV-seq against GRO-cap that identifies capped run-on transcripts showed that most BruUV-seq peaks overlapped with GRO-cap signal over both TSSs and enhancer elements. Finally, BruUV-seq identified putative enhancer elements induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) treatment concomitant with expression of nearby TNF-induced genes. Taken together, BruUV-seq is a powerful new approach for identifying TSSs and active enhancer elements genome-wide in intact cells.
Project description:The human body contains thousands of unique cell types, each with specialized functions. Cell identity is governed in large part by gene transcription programs, which are determined by regulatory elements encoded in DNA. To identify regulatory elements active in seven cell lines representative of diverse human cell types, we used DNase-seq and FAIRE-seq (Formaldehyde Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements) to map "open chromatin." Over 870,000 DNaseI or FAIRE sites, which correspond tightly to nucleosome-depleted regions, were identified across the seven cell lines, covering nearly 9% of the genome. The combination of DNaseI and FAIRE is more effective than either assay alone in identifying likely regulatory elements, as judged by coincidence with transcription factor binding locations determined in the same cells. Open chromatin common to all seven cell types tended to be at or near transcription start sites and to be coincident with CTCF binding sites, while open chromatin sites found in only one cell type were typically located away from transcription start sites and contained DNA motifs recognized by regulators of cell-type identity. We show that open chromatin regions bound by CTCF are potent insulators. We identified clusters of open regulatory elements (COREs) that were physically near each other and whose appearance was coordinated among one or more cell types. Gene expression and RNA Pol II binding data support the hypothesis that COREs control gene activity required for the maintenance of cell-type identity. This publicly available atlas of regulatory elements may prove valuable in identifying noncoding DNA sequence variants that are causally linked to human disease.
Project description:Identification of tissue-specific and developmentally active enhancers provides insights into mechanisms that control gene expression during embryogenesis. However, robust detection of these regulatory elements remains challenging, especially in vertebrate genomes. Here, we apply fluorescent-activated nuclei sorting (FANS) followed by Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) to identify developmentally active endothelial enhancers in the zebrafish genome. ATAC-seq of nuclei from Tg(fli1a:egfp)y1 transgenic embryos revealed expected patterns of nucleosomal positioning at transcriptional start sites throughout the genome and association with active histone modifications. Comparison of ATAC-seq from GFP-positive and -negative nuclei identified more than 5,000 open elements specific to endothelial cells. These elements flanked genes functionally important for vascular development and that displayed endothelial-specific gene expression. Importantly, a majority of tested elements drove endothelial gene expression in zebrafish embryos. Thus, FANS-assisted ATAC-seq using transgenic zebrafish embryos provides a robust approach for genome-wide identification of active tissue-specific enhancer elements.
Project description:Human malaria is a devastating disease and a major cause of poverty in resource-limited countries. To develop and adapt within hosts Plasmodium falciparum undergoes drastic switches in gene expression. To identify regulatory regions in the parasite genome, we performed genome-wide profiling of chromatin accessibility in two culture-adapted isogenic subclones at four developmental stages during the intraerythrocytic cycle by using the Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin by sequencing (ATAC-seq). Tn5 transposase hypersensitivity sites (THSSs) localize preferentially at transcriptional start sites (TSSs). Chromatin accessibility by ATAC-seq is predictive of active transcription and of the levels of histone marks H3K9ac and H3K4me3. Our assay allows the identification of novel regulatory regions including TSS and enhancer-like elements. We show that the dynamics in the accessible chromatin profile matches temporal transcription during development. Motif analysis of stage-specific ATAC-seq sites predicts the in vivo binding sites and function of multiple ApiAP2 transcription factors. At last, the alternative expression states of some clonally variant genes (CVGs), including eba, phist, var and clag genes, associate with a differential ATAC-seq signal at their promoters. Altogether, this study identifies genome-wide regulatory regions likely to play an essential function in the developmental transitions and in CVG expression in P. falciparum.
Project description:A current goal of molecular biology is to identify transcriptional networks that regulate cell differentiation. However, identifying functional gene regulatory elements has been challenging in the context of developing tissues where material is limited and cell types are mixed. To identify regulatory sites during sex determination, we subjected Sertoli cells from mouse fetal testes to DNaseI-seq and ChIP-seq for H3K27ac. DNaseI-seq identified putative regulatory sites around genes enriched in Sertoli and pregranulosa cells; however, active enhancers marked by H3K27ac were enriched proximal to only Sertoli-enriched genes. Sequence analysis identified putative binding sites of known and novel transcription factors likely controlling Sertoli cell differentiation. As a validation of this approach, we identified a novel Sertoli cell enhancer upstream of Wt1, and used it to drive expression of a transgenic reporter in Sertoli cells. This work furthers our understanding of the complex genetic network that underlies sex determination and identifies regions that potentially harbor non-coding mutations underlying disorders of sexual development.
Project description:The precise nature of how cell type specific chromatin structures at enhancer sites affect gene expression is largely unknown. Here we identified cell type specific enhancers coupled with gene expression in two different types of breast epithelial cells, HMEC (normal breast epithelial cells) and MDAMB231 (triple negative breast cancer cell line).Enhancers were defined by modified neighboring histones [using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq)] and nucleosome depletion [using formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements followed by sequencing (FAIRE-seq)]. Histone modifications at enhancers were related to the expression levels of nearby genes up to 750 kb away. These expression levels were correlated with enhancer status (poised or active), defined by surrounding histone marks. Furthermore, about fifty percent of poised and active enhancers contained nucleosome-depleted regions. We also identified response element motifs enriched at these enhancer sites that revealed key transcription factors (e.g. TP63) likely involved in regulating breast epithelial enhancer-mediated gene expression. By utilizing expression data, potential target genes of more than 600 active enhancers were identified. These genes were involved in proteolysis, epidermis development, cell adhesion, mitosis, cell cycle, and DNA replication.These findings facilitate the understanding of epigenetic regulation specifically, such as the relationships between regulatory elements and gene expression and generally, how breast epithelial cellular phenotypes are determined by cell type specific enhancers.
Project description:The Mediator coactivator complex directs gene-specific expression by binding distal enhancer-bound transcription factors through its Med1 subunit while bridging to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) at gene promoters. In addition, Mediator scaffolds epigenetic modifying enzymes that determine local DNA accessibility. Previously, we found that deletion of Med1 in cardiomyocytes deregulates more than 5,000 genes and promotes acute heart failure. Therefore, we hypothesized that Med1 deficiency disrupts enhancer-promoter coupling. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-coupled deep sequencing (ChIP-seq; n = 3/ChIP assay), we found that the Pol II pausing index is increased in Med1 knockout versus floxed control mouse hearts primarily due to a decrease in Pol II occupancy at the majority of transcriptional start sites without a corresponding increase in elongating species. Parallel ChIP-seq assays reveal that Med1-dependent gene expression correlates strongly with histone H3 K27 acetylation, which is indicative of open and active chromatin at transcriptional start sites, whereas H3 K27 trimethylated levels, representing condensed and repressed DNA, are broadly increased and inversely correlate with absolute expression levels. Furthermore, Med1 deletion leads to dynamic changes in acetyl-K27 associated superenhancer regions and their enriched transcription factor-binding motifs that are consistent with altered gene expression. Our findings suggest that Med1 is important in establishing enhancer-promoter coupling in the heart and supports the proposed role of Mediator in establishing preinitiation complex formation. We also found that Med1 determines chromatin accessibility within genes and enhancer regions and propose that the composition of transcription factors associated with superenhancer changes to direct gene-specific expression. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Based on our previous findings that transcriptional homeostasis and cardiac function are disturbed by cardiomyocyte deletion of the Mediator coactivator Med1 subunit, we investigated potential underlying changes in RNA polymerase II localization and global chromatin accessibility. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, we found that disrupted transcription arises from a deficit in RNA polymerase II recruitment to gene promoters. Furthermore, active versus repressive chromatin marks are redistributed within gene loci and at enhancer regions correlated with gene expression changes.
Project description:Rev-Erba and Rev-Erbb are nuclear receptors that regulate the expression of genes involved in the control of circadian rhythm, metabolism, and inflammatory responses. Rev-Erbs function as transcriptional repressors by recruiting NCoR/HDAC3 co-repressor complexes to Rev-Erb response elements in enhancers and promoters of target genes, but the molecular basis for cell-specific programs of repression is not known. Here, we present evidence that in macrophages, Rev-Erbs regulate target gene expression by inhibiting the functions of distal enhancers that are selected by macrophage lineage-determining factors, thereby establishing a macrophage-specific program of repression. Remarkably, the repressive functions of Rev-Erbs are associated with their ability to inhibit the transcription of enhancer-derived RNAs (eRNAs). Furthermore, targeted degradation of eRNAs at two enhancers subject to negative regulation by Rev-Erbs resulted in reduced expression of nearby mRNAs, implying a direct role of these eRNAs in enhancer function. By precisely defining eRNA start sites using a method that quantifies nascent 5' ends (5'-GRO-Seq), we show that transfer of full enhancer activity to a target promoter requires both the sequences mediating transcription factor binding and the specific sequences encoding the eRNA transcript. These studies provide evidence for direct roles of eRNAs in contributing to enhancer functions and suggest that Rev-Erbs act to suppress gene expression at a distance by repressing eRNA transcription. Using ChIPseq, GRO-seq, and 5'GRO-seq to determine mechanism of RevErb in transcriptional regulation in macrophages
Project description:BruUV-seq utilizes UV light to introduce transcription-blocking DNA lesions randomly in the genome prior to bromouridine-labeling and deep sequencing of nascent RNA. By inhibiting transcription elongation, but not initiation, pre-treatment with UV light leads to a redistribution of transcription reads resulting in the enhancement of nascent RNA signal towards the 5′-end of genes promoting the identification of transcription start sites (TSSs). Furthermore, transcripts associated with arrested RNA polymerases are protected from 3′–5′ degradation and thus, unstable transcripts such as putative enhancer RNA (eRNA) are dramatically increased. Validation of BruUV-seq against GRO-cap that identifies capped run-on transcripts showed that most BruUV-seq peaks overlapped with GRO-cap signal over both TSSs and enhancer elements. Finally, BruUV-seq identified putative enhancer elements induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) treatment concomitant with expression of nearby TNF-induced genes. Taken together, BruUV-seq is a powerful new approach for identifying TSSs and active enhancer elements genome-wide in intact cells. Two cell lines were used. K562 cells were mock-irradiated (control) or UVC-irradiated at two different doses (25 and 100 J/m^2). HF1 cells were UVC-irradiated (20 J/m^2) in three independent experiments (nfUV4,nfUV3a, and nfUV3b). In one experiment, HF1 cells were also treated with TNF (10 ng/mL) 1 h prior to UV irradiation (tnfpreUV2, paired with nfUV4).
Project description:Genome-wide mapping of transcriptional regulatory elements are essential tools for the understanding of the molecular events orchestrating self-renewal, commitment and differentiation of stem cells. We combined high-throughput identification of nascent, Pol-II-transcribed RNAs by Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE-Seq) with genome-wide profiling of histones modifications by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) to map active promoters and enhancers in a model of human neural commitment, represented by embryonic stem cells (ESCs) induced to differentiate into self-renewing neuroepithelial-like stem cells (NESC). We integrated CAGE-seq, ChIP-seq and gene expression profiles to discover shared or cell-specific regulatory elements, transcription start sites and transcripts associated to the transition from pluripotent to neural-restricted stem cell. Our analysis showed that >90% of the promoters are in common between the two cell types, while approximately half of the enhancers are cell-specific and account for most of the epigenetic changes occurring during neural induction, and most likely for the modulation of the promoters to generate cell-specific gene expression programs. Interestingly, the majority of the promoters activated or up-regulated during neural induction have a “bivalent” histone modification signature in ESCs, suggesting that developmentally-regulated promoters are already poised for transcription in ESCs, which are apparently pre-committed to neuroectodermal differentiation. Overall, our study provide a collection of differentially used enhancers, promoters, transcription starts sites, protein-coding and non-coding RNAs in human ESCs and ESC-derived NESCs, and a broad, genome-wide description of promoter and enhancer usage and gene expression programs occurring in the transition from a pluripotent to a neural-restricted cell fate. Genome-wide mapping of H3K4me1 and H3K4me3 in NESCs ChIP-seq for H3K4me1 and H3K4me3 in NESCs