Project description:Here, we describe the metagenome and functional composition of a microbial community in a historically metal-contaminated tropical freshwater stream sediment. The sediment was collected from the Mina Stream located in the Iron Quadrangle (Brazil), one of the world's largest mining regions. Environmental DNA was extracted and was sequenced using SOLiD technology, and a total of 7.9 Gbp was produced. A taxonomic profile that was obtained by comparison to the Greengenes database revealed a complex microbial community with a dominance of Proteobacteria and Parvarcheota. Contigs were recruited by bacterial and archaeal genomes, especially Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii and Nitrosopumilus maritimus, and their presence implicated them in the process of N cycling in the Mina Stream sediment (MSS). Functional reconstruction revealed a large, diverse set of genes for ammonium assimilation and ammonification. These processes have been implicated in the maintenance of the N cycle and the health of the sediment. SEED subsystems functional annotation unveiled a high degree of diversity of metal resistance genes, suggesting that the prokaryotic community is adapted to metal contamination. Furthermore, a high metabolic diversity was detected in the MSS, suggesting that the historical arsenic contamination is no longer affecting the prokaryotic community. These results expand the current knowledge of the microbial taxonomic and functional composition of tropical metal-contaminated freshwater sediments.
Project description:A metagenomic library of sea sediment metagenome containing 245,000 recombinant clones representing ~ 2.45 Gb of sea sediment microbial DNA was constructed. Two unique arsenic resistance clones, A7 and A12, were identified by selection on sodium arsenite containing medium. Clone A7 showed a six-fold higher resistance to arsenate [As(V)], a three-fold higher resistance to arsenite [As(III)] and significantly increased resistance to antimony [Sb(III)], while clone A12 showed increased resistance only to sodium arsenite and not to the other two metalloids. The clones harbored inserts of 8.848 Kb and 6.771 Kb, respectively. Both the clones possess A + T rich nucleotide sequence with similarity to sequences from marine psychrophilic bacteria. Sequence and transposon-mutagenesis based analysis revealed the presence of a putative arsenate reductase (ArsC), a putative arsenite efflux pump (ArsB/ACR) and a putative NADPH-dependent FMN reductase (ArsH) in both the clones and also a putative transcriptional regulatory protein (ArsR) in pA7. The increased resistance of clone A7 to As(V), As(III) and Sb(III) indicates functional expression of ArsC and ArsB proteins from pA7. The absence of increased As(V) resistance in clone A12 may be due to the expression of a possible inactive ArsC, as conserved Arg60 residue in this protein was replaced by Glu60, while the absence of Sb(III) resistance may be due to the presence of an ACR3p-type arsenite pump, which is known to lack antimony transport ability.
Project description:L-Carnosine is a natural biologically active dipeptide with critical physiological functions, such as antioxidant, antiglycation, and cytoplasmic buffering properties. Direct enzymatic synthesis is a promising way for L-carnosine production. In this study, a new aminopeptidase (gene_236976) with synthetic activity toward L-carnosine was identified by a metagenome mining approach from deep-sea sediment and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme shared a low identity of 14.3% with reported L-carnosine dipeptidase (SmPepD) from Serratia marcescens. β-Alanine methyl ester was proven to be the best substrate for the synthesis, and no ATP was needed for the enzymatic reaction. The enzyme activity was increased by structure-guided rational design. Only the mutant of G310 site gave positive results, and G310A mutant showed the best performance among the site-direct saturation mutagenesis, indicating that the additional CH<sub>3</sub> group of mutant G310A was the main factor affecting the enzymatic activity. The engineered enzyme produced about 10 mM L-carnosine was produced from substrates of 50 mM β-alanine methyl ester and 50 mM L-histidine, under a tentatively optimized condition. This study enriched the enzyme resources for developing the microbial synthesis process of L-carnosine production.
Project description:Beneficial microbes are all around us and it remains to be seen, whether all diseases and disorders can be prevented or treated with beneficial microbes. In this study, the presence of various beneficial bacteria were identified from the sediments of Indian major Rivers Ganga and Yamuna from nine different sites using a metagenomic approach. The metagenome sequence analysis using the Kaiju Web server revealed the presence of 69 beneficial bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis among these bacterial species revealed that they were highly diverse. Relative abundance analysis of these bacterial species is highly correlated with different pollution levels among the sampling sites. The PCA analysis revealed that Lactobacillus spp. group of beneficial bacteria are more associated with sediment sampling sites, KAN-2 and ND-3; whereas Bacillus spp. are more associated with sites, FAR-2 and ND-2. This is the first report revealing the richness of beneficial bacteria in the Indian rivers, Ganga and Yamuna. The study might be useful in isolating different important beneficial microorganisms from these river sediments, for possible industrial applications.
Project description:Khirganga, a pristine hot spring that lies in the Parvati Valley within the Northern Himalayas characterised with unique white colour microbial mat and divine water with healing abilities. Here, we report 41 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) reconstructed from the microbial mat, sediment and water samples of hot spring passed through Genome Standards Consortium (GSC) and Minimum Information of Metagenome-assembled Genome (MIMAG).
Project description:Sediment accumulation in drinking water storage facilities may lead to water quality degradation, including biological growth and disinfectant decay. The current research evaluated the microbiome present in a sediment after sequential exposure to monochloramine, free chlorine, and monochloramine. Chemical profiles within the sediment based on microelectrodes showed evidence of nitrification, and monochloramine slowly penetrated the sediment but was not measurable at lower depths. A metagenomic approach was used to characterize the microbial communities and functional potential of top (0-1 cm) and bottom (1-2 cm) layers in sediment cores. Differential abundance analysis revealed both an enrichment and depletion associated with depth of microbial populations. We assembled 30 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) representing bacterial and archaeal microorganisms. Most metabolic functions were represented in both layers, suggesting the capability of the microbiomes to respond to environmental fluctuations. However, niche-specific abundance differences were identified in biotransformation processes (e.g., nitrogen). Metagenome-level analyses indicated that nitrification and denitrification can potentially occur simultaneously in the sediments, but the exact location of their occurrence within the sediment will depend on the localized physicochemical conditions. Even though monochloramine was maintained in the bulk water there was limited penetration into the sediment, and the microbial community remained functionally diverse and active.
Project description:Bacterial diversity and archaeal diversity in metagenome of the Lonar soda lake sediment were assessed by bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). Metagenome comprised 5093 sequences with 2,531,282 bp and 53 ± 2% G + C content. Metagenome sequence data are available at NCBI under the Bioproject database with accession no. PRJNA218849. Metagenome sequence represented the presence of 83.1% bacterial and 10.5% archaeal origin. A total of 14 different bacteria demonstrating 57 species were recorded with dominating species like Coxiella burnetii (17%), Fibrobacter intestinalis (12%) and Candidatus Cloacamonas acidaminovorans (11%). Occurrence of two archaeal phyla representing 24 species, among them Methanosaeta harundinacea (35%), Methanoculleus chikugoensis (12%) and Methanolinea tarda (11%) were dominating species. Significant presence of 11% sequences as an unclassified indicated the possibilities for unknown novel prokaryotes from the metagenome.
Project description:Tidal marsh and estuarine marine microbial sediment metagenomes from the Great Bay Estuary of New Hampshire were sequenced and found to be dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Both types of sediment contained many unclassified bacterial sequences, including the mollusk pathogen Perkinsus marinus, and detectable xenobiotic degradation and nitrogen transformation genes.
Project description:We sequenced two metagenomes from upper sediment layers (0 to 5 and 6 to 10?cm) from the Kanawha River, West Virginia. The watershed includes inputs from the forested Appalachian Mountains, surface coal mining, municipal residues, and extensive chemical manufacturing. The dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi Xenobiotic degradation pathways were present.
Project description:Mangrove ecosystems, where litter and organic components are degraded and converted into detrital materials, support rich coastal fisheries resources. Sesarmid (Grapsidae) crabs, which feed on mangrove litter, play a crucial role in material flow in carbon-rich and nitrogen-limited mangrove ecosystems; however, the process of assimilation and conversion into detritus has not been well studied. In this study, we performed microbiome analyses of intestinal bacteria from three species of mangrove crab and five sediment positions in the mud lobster mounds, including the crab burrow wall, to study the interactive roles of crabs and sediment in metabolism. Metagenome analysis revealed species-dependent intestinal profiles, especially in Neosarmatium smithi, while the sediment microbiome was similar in all positions, albeit with some regional dependency. The microbiome profiles of crab intestines and sediments were significantly different in the MDS analysis based on OTU similarity; however, 579 OTUs (about 70% of reads in the crab intestinal microbiome) were identical between the intestinal and sediment bacteria. In the phenotype prediction, cellulose degradation was observed in the crab intestine. Cellulase activity was detected in both crab intestine and sediment. This could be mainly ascribed to Demequinaceae, which was predominantly found in the crab intestines and burrow walls. Nitrogen fixation was also enriched in both the crab intestines and sediments, and was supported by the nitrogenase assay. Similar to earlier reports, sulfur-related families were highly enriched in the sediment, presumably degrading organic compounds as terminal electron acceptors under anaerobic conditions. These results suggest that mangrove crabs and habitat sediment both contribute to carbon and nitrogen cycling in the mangrove ecosystem via these two key reactions.