Project description:BACKGROUND: Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons make up a large fraction of the typical mammalian genome. They comprise about 8% of the human genome and approximately 10% of the mouse genome. On account of their abundance, LTR retrotransposons are believed to hold major significance for genome structure and function. Recent advances in genome sequencing of a variety of model organisms has provided an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate better the diversity of LTR retrotransposons resident in eukaryotic genomes. RESULTS: Using a new data-mining program, LTR_STRUC, in conjunction with conventional techniques, we have mined the GenBank mouse (Mus musculus) database and the more complete Ensembl mouse dataset for LTR retrotransposons. We report here that the M. musculus genome contains at least 21 separate families of LTR retrotransposons; 13 of these families are described here for the first time. CONCLUSIONS: All families of mouse LTR retrotransposons are members of the gypsy-like superfamily of retroviral-like elements. Several different families of unrelated non-autonomous elements were identified, suggesting that the evolution of non-autonomy may be a common event. High sequence similarity between several LTR retrotransposons identified in this study and those found in distantly-related species suggests that horizontal transfer has been a significant factor in the evolution of mouse LTR retrotransposons.
Project description:Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells, which is related to the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, might lead to variations in the differentiation capacities of the pluripotent stem cells. In this context, induced pluripotent stem cells from human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells might be more suitable for hematopoietic differentiation than the commonly used fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. To investigate the influence of an epigenetic memory on the ex vivo expansion of induced pluripotent stem cells into erythroid cells, we compared induced pluripotent stem cells from human neural stem cells and human cord blood-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells and evaluated their potential for differentiation into hematopoietic progenitor and mature red blood cells. Although genome-wide DNA methylation profiling at all promoter regions demonstrates that the epigenetic memory of induced pluripotent stem cells is influenced by the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, we found a similar hematopoietic induction potential and erythroid differentiation pattern of induced pluripotent stem cells of different somatic cell origin. All human induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed terminal maturation into normoblasts and enucleated reticulocytes, producing predominantly fetal hemoglobin. Differences were only observed in the growth rate of erythroid cells, which was slightly higher in the induced pluripotent stem cells derived from CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. More detailed methylation analysis of the hematopoietic and erythroid promoters identified similar CpG methylation levels in the induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from CD34(+) cells and those derived from neural stem cells, which confirms their comparable erythroid differentiation potential.
Project description:A transcriptome study in mouse hematopoietic stem cells was performed using a sensitive SAGE method, in an attempt to detect medium and low abundant transcripts expressed in these cells. Among a total of 31,380 unique transcript, 17,326 (55%) known genes were detected, 14,054 (45%) low-copy transcripts that have no matches to currently known genes. 3,899 (23%) were alternatively spliced transcripts of the known genes and 3,754 (22%) represent anti-sense transcripts from known genes. Overall design: Mouse hematopoietic stem cells were purified from bone marrow cells using negative and positive selection with a Magnetic-Activated Cell Sorter (MACS). total RNA and mRNA were purified from the purified cells using Trizol reagent and magnetic oligo dT beads. Double strand cDNAs were synthesized using a cDNA synthesis kit and anchored oligo dT primers. After NlaIII digestion, 3’ cDNAs were isolated and amplified through 16-cycle PCR. SAGE tags were released from the 3’ cDNA after linker ligation. Ditags were formed, concatemerized and cloned into a pZERO vector. Sequencing reactions were performed with the ET sequencing terminator kit. Sequences were collected using a Megabase 1000 sequencer. SAGE tag sequences were extracted using SAGE 2000 software.
Project description:Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are a heterogeneous collection of non-Hodgkin lymphomas that arise from skin-tropic memory T lymphocytes. Among them, mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) are the most common malignancies. Diagnosis requires the combination of clinical, pathologic, and molecular features. Significant advances have been made in understanding the genetic and epigenetic aberrations in SS and to some extent in MF. Several prognostic factors have been identified. The goal of treatment is to minimize morbidity and limit disease progression. However, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, considered for patients with advanced stages, is the only therapy with curative intent.
Project description:Transcription factor-mediated reprogramming can reset the epigenetics of somatic cells into a pluripotency compatible state. Recent studies show that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) always inherit starting cell-specific characteristics, called epigenetic memory, which may be advantageous, as directed differentiation into specific cell types is still challenging; however, it also may be unpredictable when uncontrollable differentiation occurs. In consideration of biosafety in disease modeling and personalized medicine, the availability of high-quality iPSCs which lack a biased differentiation capacity and somatic memory could be indispensable.Herein, we evaluate the hematopoietic differentiation capacity and somatic memory state of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cell (HPC/HSC)-derived-iPSCs (HPC/HSC-iPSCs) using a previously established sequential reprogramming system.We found that HPC/HSCs are amenable to being reprogrammed into iPSCs with unbiased differentiation capacity to hematopoietic progenitors and mature hematopoietic cells. Genome-wide analyses revealed that no global epigenetic memory was detectable in HPC/HSC-iPSCs, but only a minor transcriptional memory of HPC/HSCs existed in a specific tetraploid complementation (4 N)-incompetent HPC/HSC-iPSC line. However, the observed minor transcriptional memory had no influence on the hematopoietic differentiation capacity, indicating the reprogramming of the HPC/HSCs was nearly complete. Further analysis revealed the correlation of minor transcriptional memory with the aberrant distribution of H3K27me3.This work provides a comprehensive framework for obtaining high-quality iPSCs from HPC/HSCs with unbiased hematopoietic differentiation capacity and minor transcriptional memory.
Project description:A transcriptome study in mouse hematopoietic stem cells was performed using a sensitive SAGE method, in an attempt to detect medium and low abundant transcripts expressed in these cells. Among a total of 31,380 unique transcript, 17,326 (55%) known genes were detected, 14,054 (45%) low-copy transcripts that have no matches to currently known genes. 3,899 (23%) were alternatively spliced transcripts of the known genes and 3,754 (22%) represent anti-sense transcripts from known genes. Mouse hematopoietic stem cells were purified from bone marrow cells using negative and positive selection with a Magnetic-Activated Cell Sorter (MACS). total RNA and mRNA were purified from the purified cells using Trizol reagent and magnetic oligo dT beads. Double strand cDNAs were synthesized using a cDNA synthesis kit and anchored oligo dT primers. After NlaIII digestion, 3’ cDNAs were isolated and amplified through 16-cycle PCR. SAGE tags were released from the 3’ cDNA after linker ligation. Ditags were formed, concatemerized and cloned into a pZERO vector. Sequencing reactions were performed with the ET sequencing terminator kit. Sequences were collected using a Megabase 1000 sequencer. SAGE tag sequences were extracted using SAGE 2000 software.
Project description:Subversion of transcription factor (TF) activity in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) leads to the development of therapy-resistant leukemic stem cells (LSCs) that drive fulminant acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using a conditional mouse model where zinc-finger TF Gata2 was deleted specifically in hematopoietic cells, we show that knockout of Gata2 leads to rapid and complete cell-autonomous loss of adult hematopoietic stem cells. By using short hairpin RNAi to target GATA2, we also identify a requirement for GATA2 in human HSPCs. In Meis1a/Hoxa9-driven AML, deletion of Gata2 impedes maintenance and self-renewal of LSCs. Ablation of Gata2 enforces an LSC-specific program of enhanced apoptosis, exemplified by attenuation of anti-apoptotic factor BCL2, and re-instigation of myeloid differentiation--which is characteristically blocked in AML. Thus, GATA2 acts as a critical regulator of normal and leukemic stem cells and mediates transcriptional networks that may be exploited therapeutically to target key facets of LSC behavior in AML.
Project description:Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) maintain during the first few culture passages a set of epigenetic marks and metabolites characteristic of their somatic cell of origin, a concept defined as epigenetic donor memory. These residual somatic features are lost over time after extensive culture passaging. Therefore, epigenetic donor memory may be responsible for the higher differentiation efficiency toward the tissue of origin observed in low passage iPSCs versus high passage iPSC or iPSCs derived from a different tissue source. Remarkably, there are no studies on the relevance of microRNA (miRNA) memory following reprogramming, despite the established role of these molecules in the context of pluripotency and differentiation. Using hematopoietic progenitors cells as a model, we demonstrated that miRNAs play a central role in somatic memory retention in iPSCs. Moreover, the comparison of the miRNA expression profiles among iPSCs from different sources allowed for the detection of a set of candidate miRNAs responsible for the higher differentiation efficiency rates toward blood progenitors observed in low passage iPSCs. Combining bioinformatic predictive algorithms with biological target validation, we identified miR-155 as a key player for the in vitro differentiation of iPSC toward hematopoietic progenitors. In summary, this study reveals that during the initial passages following reprogramming, iPSCs maintained the expression of a miRNA set exclusive to the original somatic population. Hence the use of these miRNAs might hold a direct application toward our understanding of the differentiation process of iPSCs toward hematopoietic progenitor cells.
Project description:Populations of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors are quite heterogeneous and consist of multiple cell subsets with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics. Some of these subsets also appear to be interconvertible and oscillate between functionally distinct states. The multipotent hematopoietic cell line EML has emerged as a unique model to study the heterogeneity and interconvertibility of multipotent hematopoietic cells. Here we describe extensive phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of EML cells which stems from the coexistence of multiple cell subsets. Each of these subsets is phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous, and displays distinct multilineage differentiation potential, cell cycle profile, proliferation kinetics, and expression pattern of HSC markers and some of the key lineage-associated transcription factors. Analysis of their maintenance revealed that on a population level all EML cell subsets exhibit cell-autonomous interconvertible properties, with the capacity to generate all other subsets and re-establish complete parental EML cell population. Moreover, all EML cell subsets generated during multiple cell generations maintain their distinct phenotypic and functional signatures and interconvertible properties. The model of EML cell line suggests that interconvertible multipotent hematopoietic cell subsets coexist in a homeostatically maintained dynamic equilibrium which is regulated by currently unknown cell-intrinsic mechanisms.