Project description:Different cell types can form patterns within fungal communities; for example, colonies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form two sharply defined layers of sporulating cells separated by an intervening layer of unsporulated cells. Because colony sporulation patterns have only been investigated in a single laboratory strain background (W303), in this report we examined these patterns in other strain backgrounds. Two other laboratory strain backgrounds (SK1 and Sigma1278b) that differ from W303 with respect to colony morphology, invasive growth, and sporulation efficiency nevertheless displayed the same colony sporulation pattern as W303. This pattern was also observed in colonies of wild isolates of S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus. The wild yeast colonies sporulated on a much wider range of carbon sources than did the lab yeast and displayed a similar layered sporulation pattern when grown on either acetate or glucose medium and on either rich or synthetic medium. SK1, Sigma1278b and wild yeast colonies invaded the agar surface. The region of invasion varied between strains with respect to the organization and appearance of cells, but this invasion was always accompanied by sporulation. Thus, sporulation patterns are a general property of S. cerevisiae, and sporulation in colonies can be coordinated with invasive growth.
Project description:The Elongator complex promotes formation of 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5) and 5-carbamoylmethyl (ncm5) side-chains on uridines at the wobble position of cytosolic eukaryotic tRNAs. In all eukaryotic organisms tested to date, the inactivation of Elongator not only leads to the lack of mcm5/ncm5 groups in tRNAs, but also a wide variety of additional phenotypes. Although the phenotypes are most likely caused by a translational defect induced by reduced functionality of the hypomodified tRNAs, the mechanism(s) underlying individual phenotypes are poorly understood. In this study, we show that the genetic background modulates the phenotypes induced by the lack of mcm5/ncm5 groups in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that the stress-induced growth defects of Elongator mutants are stronger in the W303 than in the closely related S288C genetic background and that the phenotypic differences are caused by the known polymorphism at the locus for the mRNA binding protein Ssd1. Moreover, the mutant ssd1 allele found in W303 cells is required for the reported histone H3 acetylation and telomeric gene silencing defects of Elongator mutants. The difference at the SSD1 locus also partially explains why the simultaneous lack of mcm5 and 2-thio groups at wobble uridines is lethal in the W303 but not in the S288C background. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the SSD1 locus modulates phenotypes induced by the lack of Elongator-dependent tRNA modifications.
Project description:The mitochondrial genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains contain up to 13 introns. An intronless recombinant genome introduced into the nuclear background of S. cerevisiae strain W303 gave the S. cerevisiae CW252 strain, which is used to model mitochondrial respiratory pathologies. The complete sequence of this mitochondrial genome was obtained using a hybrid assembling methodology.
Project description:The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has emerged as a superior model organism. Selection of distinct laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae with unique phenotypic properties, such as superior mating or sporulation efficiencies, has facilitated advancements in research. W303 is one such laboratory strain that is closely related to the first completely sequenced yeast strain, S288C. In this work, we provide a high-quality, annotated genome sequence for W303 for utilization in comparative analyses and genome-wide studies. Approximately 9500 variations exist between S288C and W303, affecting the protein sequences of ∼700 genes. A listing of the polymorphisms and divergent genes is provided for researchers interested in identifying the genetic basis for phenotypic differences between W303 and S288C. Several divergent functional gene families were identified, including flocculation and sporulation genes, likely representing selection for desirable laboratory phenotypes. Interestingly, remnants of ancestor wine strains were found on several chromosomes. Finally, as a test of the utility of the high-quality reference genome, variant mapping revealed more accurate identification of accumulated mutations in passaged mismatch repair-defective strains.
Project description:DCP (2-4-dichlorophenol; 0,3mM) and POELE (polyoxyethylen-9-laurylether; 0,1mM)treatment on Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A wild-type cells. Further investigation of the involvement of the transcripton factors Pdr1 and Pdr3 in DCP treated cells. Cells were growing in early exponential phase in rich medium.
Project description:Ten years have passed since the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-more precisely, the S288c strain-was completely sequenced. However, experimental work in yeast is commonly performed using strains that are of unknown genetic relationship to S288c. Here, we characterized the nucleotide-level similarity between S288c and seven commonly used lab strains (A364A, W303, FL100, CEN.PK, summation 1278b, SK1 and BY4716) using 25mer oligonucleotide microarrays that provide complete and redundant coverage of the approximately 12 Mb Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Using these data, we assessed the frequency and distribution of nucleotide variation in comparison to the sequenced reference genome. These data allow us to infer the relationships between experimentally important strains of yeast and provide insight for experimental designs that are sensitive to sequence variation. We propose a rational approach for near complete sequencing of strains related to the reference using these data and directed re-sequencing. These data and new visualization tools are accessible online in a new resource: the Yeast SNPs Browser (YSB; http://gbrowse.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/gbrowse/yeast_strains_snps) that is available to all researchers.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303 is a widely used model organism. However, little is known about its genetic origins, as it was created in the 1970s from crossing yeast strains of uncertain genealogy. To obtain insights into its ancestry and physiology, we sequenced the genome of its variant W303-K6001, a yeast model of ageing research. The combination of two next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies (Illumina and Roche/454 sequencing) yielded an 11.8 Mb genome assembly at an N50 contig length of 262 kb. Although sequencing was substantially more precise and sensitive than whole-genome tiling arrays, both NGS platforms produced a number of false positives. At a 378× average coverage, only 74 per cent of called differences to the S288c reference genome were confirmed by both techniques. The consensus W303-K6001 genome differs in 8133 positions from S288c, predicting altered amino acid sequence in 799 proteins, including factors of ageing and stress resistance. The W303-K6001 (85.4%) genome is virtually identical (less than equal to 0.5 variations per kb) to S288c, and thus originates in the same ancestor. Non-S288c regions distribute unequally over the genome, with chromosome XVI the most (99.6%) and chromosome XI the least (54.5%) S288c-like. Several of these clusters are shared with ?1278B, another widely used S288c-related model, indicating that these strains share a second ancestor. Thus, the W303-K6001 genome pictures details of complex genetic relationships between the model strains that date back to the early days of experimental yeast genetics. Moreover, this study underlines the necessity of combining multiple NGS and genome-assembling techniques for achieving accurate variant calling in genomic studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genomic data have become major resources to understand complex mechanisms at fine-scale temporal and spatial resolution in functional and evolutionary genetic studies, including human diseases, such as cancers. Recently, a large number of whole genomes of evolving populations of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303 strain) were sequenced in a time-dependent manner to identify temporal evolutionary patterns. For this type of study, a chromosome-level sequence assembly of the strain or population at time zero is required to compare with the genomes derived later. However, there is no fully automated computational approach in experimental evolution studies to establish the chromosome-level genome assembly using unique features of sequencing data. METHODS AND RESULTS:In this study, we developed a new software pipeline, the integrative meta-assembly pipeline (IMAP), to build chromosome-level genome sequence assemblies by generating and combining multiple initial assemblies using three de novo assemblers from short-read sequencing data. We significantly improved the continuity and accuracy of the genome assembly using a large collection of sequencing data and hybrid assembly approaches. We validated our pipeline by generating chromosome-level assemblies of yeast strains W303 and SK1, and compared our results with assemblies built using long-read sequencing and various assembly evaluation metrics. We also constructed chromosome-level sequence assemblies of S. cerevisiae strain Sigma1278b, and three commonly used fungal strains: Aspergillus nidulans A713, Neurospora crassa 73, and Thielavia terrestris CBS 492.74, for which long-read sequencing data are not yet available. Finally, we examined the effect of IMAP parameters, such as reference and resolution, on the quality of the final assembly of the yeast strains W303 and SK1. CONCLUSIONS:We developed a cost-effective pipeline to generate chromosome-level sequence assemblies using only short-read sequencing data. Our pipeline combines the strengths of reference-guided and meta-assembly approaches. Our pipeline is available online at http://github.com/jkimlab/IMAP including a Docker image, as well as a Perl script, to help users install the IMAP package, including several prerequisite programs. Users can use IMAP to easily build the chromosome-level assembly for the genome of their interest.