Project description:We report the transcriptomic landscape of MAIT cell development by examining thymic immature stage 1 and mature stage 3 MAIT cells from mouse thymus, and thymic immature stage 1, stage 2 mature stage 3 MAIT cells from human thymus using RNAseq. Overall design: We bulk-sorted (100 cell) each MAIT cell subset by flow cytometry and compared the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between subsets.
Project description:We report the transcriptomic landscape of MAIT cell development by examining thymic immature stage 1 and mature stage 3 MAIT cells from mouse thymus, and thymic immature stage 1, stage 2 mature stage 3 MAIT cells from human thymus using RNAseq. Overall design: We bulk-sorted (100 cell) each MAIT cell subset by flow cytometry and compared the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between subsets. In addition, we single-cell sorted mouse mature MAIT cell subsets, performed single cell RNAseq comparison of mature thymic MAIT cell populations via clustering analysis to obtain in-depth information about the heterogeneity of functionally diverse mouse MAIT cells.
Project description:Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells display two evolutionarily conserved features: an invariant T cell receptor (TCR)alpha (iTCRalpha) chain and restriction by the nonpolymorphic class Ib major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, MHC-related molecule 1 (MR1). MR1 expression on thymus epithelial cells is not necessary for MAIT cell development but their accumulation in the gut requires MR1 expressing B cells and commensal flora. MAIT cell development is poorly known, as these cells have not been found in the thymus so far. Herein, complementary human and mouse experiments using an anti-humanValpha7.2 antibody and MAIT cell-specific iTCRalpha and TCRbeta transgenic mice in different genetic backgrounds show that MAIT cell development is a stepwise process, with an intra-thymic selection followed by peripheral expansion. Mouse MAIT cells are selected in an MR1-dependent manner both in fetal thymic organ culture and in double iTCRalpha and TCRbeta transgenic RAG knockout mice. In the latter mice, MAIT cells do not expand in the periphery unless B cells are added back by adoptive transfer, showing that B cells are not required for the initial thymic selection step but for the peripheral accumulation. In humans, contrary to natural killer T (NKT) cells, MAIT cells display a naïve phenotype in the thymus as well as in cord blood where they are in low numbers. After birth, MAIT cells acquire a memory phenotype and expand dramatically, up to 1%-4% of blood T cells. Finally, in contrast with NKT cells, human MAIT cell development is independent of the molecular adaptor SAP. Interestingly, mouse MAIT cells display a naïve phenotype and do not express the ZBTB16 transcription factor, which, in contrast, is expressed by NKT cells and the memory human MAIT cells found in the periphery after birth. In conclusion, MAIT cells are selected by MR1 in the thymus on a non-B non-T hematopoietic cell, and acquire a memory phenotype and expand in the periphery in a process dependent both upon B cells and the bacterial flora. Thus, their development follows a unique pattern at the crossroad of NKT and gammadelta T cells.
Project description:Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are abundant T cells with unique specificity for microbial metabolites. MAIT conservation along evolution indicates important functions, but their low frequency in mice has hampered their detailed characterization. Here, we performed the first transcriptomic analysis of murine MAIT cells. MAIT1 (ROR?tneg) and MAIT17 (ROR?t+) subsets were markedly distinct from mainstream T cells, but quasi-identical to NKT1 and NKT17 subsets. The expression of similar programs was further supported by strong correlations of MAIT and NKT frequencies in various organs. In both mice and humans, MAIT subsets expressed gene signatures associated with tissue residency. Accordingly, parabiosis experiments demonstrated that MAIT and NKT cells are resident in the spleen, liver, and lungs, with LFA1/ICAM1 interactions controlling MAIT1 and NKT1 retention in spleen and liver. The transcriptional program associated with tissue residency was already expressed in thymus, as confirmed by adoptive transfer experiments. Altogether, shared thymic differentiation processes generate "preset" NKT and MAIT subsets with defined effector functions, associated with specific positioning into tissues.
Project description:In mice, contrary to conventional T cells, MAIT cells acquire a memory phenotype in the thymus in relation with Zbtb16 expression (Savage et al., 2008 ; Koay et al., 2016). To define phenotypic transcriptional signatures of MAIT subsets in the thymus, we analyzed by microarray the transcriptome of MAIT1 (MR1tet+RORgt+) and MAIT17 (MR1tet+RORgt+) as compared to conventional mature (TCRb+CD24lo) CD4+ and CD8+ single positive cells.
Project description:MHC-related protein 1 (MR1) is a highly conserved MHC class I-like molecule. Human and murine mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are restricted by MR1 and express an invariant T cell receptor. Even though MR1 protein expression on the cell surface has not been demonstrated in vivo or ex vivo, it is assumed that MR1 presents a bacterial antigen from the intestinal lumen to MAIT cells because MAIT cells are present in the lamina propria and their expansion is dependent on the presence of intestinal micro flora. The existence of bovine MAIT cells and MR1 has been demonstrated recently although ovine MAIT cells and MR1 have not yet been described. We cloned bovine and ovine MR1 transcripts, including splice variants, and identified an anti human MR1 antibody that recognizes cells transfected with the bovine homolog. Using this antibody, no MR1 staining was detected using cells freshly isolated from blood, thymus, spleen, colon, ileum, and lymph node. MAIT cells are known to be enriched in the CD4/CD8 double negative peripheral blood T cell population, but their relative abundance in different tissues is not known. Comparison of the amount of MAIT cell-specific TCR transcript to the amount of constant alpha chain transcript revealed that numbers of MAIT cells are low in neonates and increase by 3-weeks of age. In 3-month old animals, MAIT cells are abundant in spleen and less so in ileum, peripheral blood, lymph node, colon, and thymus.
Project description:Innate-like, evolutionarily conserved MR1-restricted mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells represent a large antimicrobial T-cell subset in humans. Here, we investigate the development of these cells in second trimester human fetal tissues. MAIT cells are rare and immature in the fetal thymus, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. In contrast, mature IL-18R?(+) CD8?? MAIT cells are enriched in the fetal small intestine, liver and lung. Independently of localization, MAIT cells express CD127 and Ki67 in vivo and readily proliferate in response to Escherichia coli in vitro. Maturation is accompanied by the gradual post-thymic acquisition of the PLZF transcription factor and the ability to produce IFN? and IL-22 in response to bacteria in mucosa. Thus, MAIT cells acquire innate-like antimicrobial responsiveness in mucosa before exposure to environmental microbes and the commensal microflora. Establishment of this arm of immunity before birth may help protect the newborn from a range of pathogenic microbes.
Project description:Mucosal Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells can sense intracellular infection by a broad array of pathogens. These cells are activated upon encountering microbial antigen(s) displayed by MR1 on the surface of an infected cell. Human MR1 undergoes alternative splicing. The full-length isoform, MR1A, can activate MAIT cells, while the function of the isoforms, MR1B and MR1C, are incompletely understood. In this report, we sought to characterize the expression and function of these splice variants. Using a transcriptomic analysis in conjunction with qPCR, we find that that MR1A and MR1B transcripts are widely expressed. However only MR1A can present mycobacterial antigen to MAIT cells. Coexpression of MR1B with MR1A decreases MAIT cell activation following bacterial infection. Additionally, expression of MR1B prior to MR1A lowers total MR1A abundance, suggesting competition between MR1A and MR1B for either ligands or chaperones required for folding and/or trafficking. Finally, we evaluated CD4/CD8 double positive thymocytes expressing surface MR1. Here, we find that relative expression of MR1A/MR1B transcript is associated with the prevalence of MR1?+?CD4/CD8 cells in the thymus. Our results suggest alternative splicing of MR1 represents a means of regulating MAIT activation in response to microbial ligand(s).