Project description:PromA plasmids are broad host range (BHR) plasmids, which are often cryptic and hence have an uncertain ecological role. We present three novel PromA ? plasmids which carry genes associated with degradation of the phenylurea herbicide linuron, two of which originated from unrelated Hydrogenophaga hosts isolated from different environments (pPBL-H3-2 and pBPS33-2), and one (pEN1) which was exogenously captured from an on-farm biopurification system (BPS). Hydrogenophaga sp. plasmid pBPS33-2 carries all three necessary gene clusters (hylA, dca, ccd) determining the three main steps for conversion of linuron to Krebs cycle intermediates, while pEN1 only determines the initial linuron hydrolysis step. Hydrogenophaga sp. plasmid pPBL-H3-2 exists as two variants, both containing ccd but with the hylA and dca gene modules interchanged between each other at exactly the same location. Linuron catabolic gene clusters that determine the same step were identical on all plasmids, encompassed in differently arranged constellations and characterized by the presence of multiple IS1071 elements. In all plasmids except pEN1, the insertion spot of the catabolic genes in the PromA ? plasmids was the same. Highly similar PromA plasmids carrying the linuron degrading gene cargo at the same insertion spot were previously identified in linuron degrading Variovorax sp. Interestingly, in both Hydrogenophaga populations not every PromA plasmid copy carries catabolic genes. The results indicate that PromA plasmids are important vehicles of linuron catabolic gene dissemination, rather than being cryptic and only important for the mobilization of other plasmids.
Project description:We report here the draft genome sequences of Hydrogenophaga sp. strains IBVHS1 and IBVHS2, two bacteria assembled from the metagenomes of surface samples from freshwater lakes. The genomes are >95% complete and may represent new species within the Hydrogenophaga genus, indicating a larger diversity than currently identified.
Project description:We improved upon the previously reported draft genome of Hydrogenophaga intermedia strain PBC, a 4-aminobenzenesulfonate-degrading bacterium, by supplementing the assembly with Nanopore long reads which enabled the reconstruction of the genome as a single contig. From the complete genome, major genes responsible for the catabolism of 4-aminobenzenesulfonate in strain PBC are clustered in two distinct genomic regions. Although the catabolic genes for 4-sulfocatechol, the deaminated product of 4-aminobenzenesulfonate, are only found in H. intermedia, the sad operon responsible for the first deamination step of 4-aminobenzenesulfonate is conserved in various Hydrogenophaga strains. The absence of pabB gene in the complete genome of H. intermedia PBC is consistent with its p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) auxotrophy but surprisingly comparative genomics analysis of 14 Hydrogenophaga genomes indicate that pABA auxotrophy is not an uncommon feature among members of this genus. Of even more interest, several Hydrogenophaga strains do not possess the genomic potential for hydrogen oxidation, calling for a revision to the taxonomic description of Hydrogenophaga as "hydrogen eating bacteria."
Project description:We report the whole genome sequences of Hydrogenophaga intermedia S1 and Agrobacterium radiobacter S2, the first reported bacterial co-culture capable of degrading 4-aminobenzenesulfonate (4-ABS), a recalcitrant industrial waste product. To gain insights into the genetic basis for the syntrophic interaction between this symbiotic pair and also another recently reported Hydrogenophaga associated co-culture, Hydrogenophaga sp. PBC and Ralstonia sp. PBA, we performed detailed genetic analysis of these four strains focusing on the metabolic pathways associated with biotin, para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA), and protocatechuate metabolism. Both assembled Hydrogenophaga draft genomes are missing a majority of the genetic components associated in the biosynthetic pathway of pABA and biotin. Interestingly, a fused pABA synthase was found in R. sp PBA but not in A. radiobacter S2. Furthermore, using whole genome data, the taxonomic classification of R. sp. PBA and A. radiobacter S2 (both previously inferred from 16S rRNA gene) was re-investigated, providing new evidence to propose for their re-classification at the genus and species level, respectively.
Project description:Viruses and plasmids can introduce novel DNA into bacterial cells, thereby creating an opportunity for genome expansion; conversely, CRISPR, the prokaryotic adaptive immune system, which targets and eliminates foreign DNAs, may impair genome expansions. Recent studies presented conflicting results over the impact of CRISPR on genome expansion. In this study, we constructed a comprehensive dataset of prokaryotic genomes and identified their associations with viruses and plasmids. We found that genomes associated with viruses and/or plasmids were significantly larger than those without, indicating that both viruses and plasmids contribute to genome expansion. Genomes were increasingly larger with increasing numbers of associated viruses or plasmids. Conversely, genomes with CRISPR systems were significantly smaller than those without, indicating that CRISPR has a negative impact on genome size. These results confirmed that on evolutionary timescales, viruses and plasmids facilitate genome expansion, while CRISPR impairs such a process in prokaryotes. Furthermore, our results also revealed that CRISPR systems show a preference for targeting viruses over plasmids.
Project description:Anodic microbial communities in acetate-fed microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were analyzed using stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results revealed that Geobacter sulfurreducens and Hydrogenophaga sp. predominated in the anodic biofilm. Although the predominance of Geobacter sp. as acetoclastic exoelectrogens in acetate-fed MFC systems has been often reported, the ecophysiological role of Hydrogenophaga sp. is unknown. Therefore, we isolated and characterized a bacterium closely related to Hydrogenophaga sp. (designated strain AR20). The newly isolated strain AR20 could use molecular hydrogen (H2), but not acetate, with carbon electrode as the electron acceptor, indicating that the strain AR20 was a hydrogenotrophic exoelectrogen. This evidence raises a hypothesis that acetate was oxidized by G. sulfurreducens in syntrophic cooperation with the strain AR20 as a hydrogen-consuming partner in the acetate-fed MFC. To prove this hypothesis, G. sulfurreducens strain PCA was cocultivated with the strain AR20 in the acetate-fed MFC without any dissolved electron acceptors. In the coculture MFC of G. sulfurreducens and strain AR20, current generation and acetate degradation were the highest, and the growth of strain AR20 was observed. No current generation, acetate degradation and cell growth occurred in the strain AR20 pure culture MFC. These results show for the first time that G. sulfurreducens can oxidize acetate in syntrophic cooperation with the isolated Hydrogenophaga sp. strain AR20, with electrode as the electron acceptor.
Project description:Phages and plasmids play important roles in bacterial evolution and diversification. Although many draft genomes have been generated, phage and plasmid genomes are usually fragmented, limiting our understanding of their dynamics. Here, we performed a systematic analysis of 239 draft genomes and 7 complete genomes of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli O145:H28, the major virulence factors of which are encoded by prophages (PPs) or plasmids. The results indicated that PPs are more stably maintained than plasmids. A set of ancestrally acquired PPs was well conserved, while various PPs, including Stx phages, were acquired by multiple sublineages. In contrast, gains and losses of a wide range of plasmids have frequently occurred across the O145:H28 lineage, and only the virulence plasmid was well conserved. The different dynamics of PPs and plasmids have differentially impacted the pangenome of O145:H28, with high proportions of PP- and plasmid-associated genes in the variably present and rare gene fractions, respectively. The dynamics of PPs and plasmids have also strongly impacted virulence gene repertoires, such as the highly variable distribution of stx genes and the high conservation of a set of type III secretion effectors, which probably represents the core effectors of O145:H28 and the genes on the virulence plasmid in the entire O145:H28 population. These results provide detailed insights into the dynamics of PPs and plasmids, and show the application of genomic analyses using a large set of draft genomes and appropriately selected complete genomes.
Project description:Sulfur-oxidizing bacterial diversity at the surface of cattle manure was characterized throughout the composting process using a sulfur oxidation gene (soxB) clone library approach. In the mesophilic phase, clones related to the genera Hydrogenophaga and Hydrogenophilus were characteristically detected. In the thermophilic phase, clones related to the genera Hydrogenophaga and Thiohalobacter were predominant. In the cooling phase, the predominant soxB sequences were related to the genus Pseudaminobacter and a new sulfur-oxidizing bacterium belonging to the class Alphaproteobacteria. The present study showed changes in the community composition of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria at the surface of compost throughout the composting process.
Project description:IncFIIK plasmids are associated with the acquisition and dissemination of multiple-antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae and often encountered in clinical isolates of this species. Since the phylogeny and evolution of IncFIIK plasmids remain unclear, here we performed large-scale in silico typing and comparative analysis of these plasmids in publicly available bacterial/plasmid genomes. IncFIIK plasmids are prevalent in K. pneumoniae, being found in 69% of sequenced genomes, covering 66% of sequenced STs (sequence types), but sparse in other Enterobacteriaceae IncFIIK replicons have three lineages. One IncFIIK allele could be found in distinct K. pneumoniae STs, highlighting the lateral genetic flow of IncFIIK plasmids. A set of 77 IncFIIK plasmids with full sequences were further analyzed. A pool of 327 antibiotic resistance genes or remnants were annotated in 75.3% of these plasmids. Plasmid genome comparison reiterated that they often contain other replicons belonging to IncFIA, IncFIB, IncFIIYp, IncFIIpCRY, IncR, IncL, and IncN groups and that they share a conserved backbone featuring an F-like conjugation module that has divergent components responsible for regulation and mating pair stabilization. Further epidemiological studies of IncFIIK plasmids are required due to the sample bias of K. pneumoniae genomes in public databases. This study provides insights into the evolution and structures of IncFIIK plasmids.
Project description:Plasmids are genetic parasites of microorganisms. The genomes of naturally occurring plasmids are expected to be polished via natural selection to achieve long-term persistence in the microbial cell population. However, plasmid genomes are extremely diverse, and the rules governing plasmid genomes are not fully understood. Therefore, computationally designing plasmid genomes optimized for model and nonmodel organisms remains challenging. Here, we summarize current knowledge of the plasmid genome organization and the factors that can affect plasmid persistence, with the aim of constructing synthetic plasmids for use in gram-negative bacteria. Then, we introduce publicly available resources, plasmid data, and bioinformatics tools that are useful for computational plasmid design.