Project description:Chinese pepper, mainly including Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Zanthoxylum armatum, is an economically important crop popular in Asian countries due to its unique taste characteristics and potential medical uses. Numerous cultivars of Chinese pepper have been developed in China through long-term domestication. To better understand the population structure, demographic history, and speciation of Chinese pepper, we performed a comprehensive analysis at a genome-wide level by analyzing 38,395 genomic SNPs that were identified in 112 cultivated and wild accessions using a high-throughput genome-wide genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach. Our analysis provides genetic evidence of multiple splitting events occurring between and within species, resulting in at least four clades in Z. bungeanum and two clades in Z. armatum. Despite no evidence of recent admixture between species, we detected substantial gene flow within species. Estimates of demographic dynamics and species distribution modeling suggest that climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene (including the Penultimate Glaciation and the Last Glacial Maximum) and recent domestication events together shaped the demography and evolution of Chinese pepper. Our analyses also suggest that southeastern Gansu province is the most likely origin of Z. bungeanum in China. These findings provide comprehensive insights into genetic diversity, population structure, demography, and adaptation in Zanthoxylum.
Project description:Zanthoxylum bungeanum, a spice and medicinal plant, is cultivated in many parts of China and some countries in Southeast Asia; however, data on its genome are lacking. In the present study, we performed a whole-genome survey and developed novel genomic-SSR markers of Z. bungeanum. Clean data (?197.16 Gb) were obtained and assembled into 11185221 scaffolds with an N50 of 183 bp. K-mer analysis revealed that Z. bungeanum has an estimated genome size of 3971.92 Mb, and the GC content, heterozygous rate, and repeat sequence rate are 37.21%, 1.73%, and 86.04%, respectively. These results indicate that the genome of Z. bungeanum is complex. Furthermore, 27153 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were identified from 57288 scaffolds with a minimum length > 1 kb. Mononucleotide repeats (19706) were the most abundant type, followed by dinucleotide repeats (5154). The most common motifs were A/T, followed by AT/AT; these SSRs accounted for 71.42% and 11.84% of all repeats, respectively. A total of 21243 non-repeating primer pairs were designed, and 100 were randomly selected and validated by PCR analysis using DNA from 10 Z. bungeanum individuals and 5 Zanthoxylum armatum individuals. Finally, 36 polymorphic SSR markers were developed with polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranging from 0.16 to 0.75. Cluster analysis revealed that Z. bungeanum and Z. armatum could be divided into two major clusters, suggesting that these newly developed SSR markers are useful for genetic diversity and germplasm resource identification in Z. bungeanum and Z. armatum.
Project description:Zanthoxylum, an ancient economic crop in Asia, has a satisfying aromatic taste and immense medicinal values. A lack of genomic information and genetic markers has limited the evolutionary analysis and genetic improvement of Zanthoxylum species and their close relatives. To better understand the evolution, domestication, and divergence of Zanthoxylum, we present a de novo transcriptome analysis of an elite cultivar of Z. bungeanum using Illumina sequencing; we then developed simple sequence repeat markers for identification of Zanthoxylum. In total, we predicted 45,057 unigenes and 22,212 protein coding sequences, approximately 90% of which showed significant similarities to known proteins in databases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Zanthoxylum is relatively recent and estimated to have diverged from Citrus ca. 36.5-37.7 million years ago. We also detected a whole-genome duplication event in Zanthoxylum that occurred 14 million years ago. We found no protein coding sequences that were significantly under positive selection by Ka/Ks. Simple sequence repeat analysis divided 31 Zanthoxylum cultivars and landraces into three major groups. This Zanthoxylum reference transcriptome provides crucial information for the evolutionary study of the Zanthoxylum genus and the Rutaceae family, and facilitates the establishment of more effective Zanthoxylum breeding programs.
Project description:The husks and fruits of Zanthoxylum species (Rutaceae) are the popular pungent and spicy ingredients of foods and the traditional medicines in many countries. Three Zanthoxylum species, Z. bungeanum, Z. schinifolium, and Z. piperitum, are distributed and intermixed with each other as "Zanthoxyli Pericarpium" in Korean markets. In the present study, we analyzed the ethyl acetate-soluble and nonpolar fractions of Zanthoxylum samples by 1H NMR spectrometry and performed a multivariate analysis for finding the discriminant markers between three species. Xanthoxylin was identified as the metabolic marker for the discrimination of Zanthoxylum species and quantified by the qNMR approach.
Project description:Microorganisms are ubiquitous in the biosphere, playing a crucial role in both biogeochemistry of the planet and human health. However, identifying these microorganisms and defining their function are challenging. Widely used approaches in comparative metagenomics, 16S amplicon sequencing and whole genome shotgun sequencing (WGS), have provided access to DNA sequencing analysis to identify microorganisms and evaluate diversity and abundance in various environments. However, advances in parallel high-throughput DNA sequencing in the past decade have introduced major hurdles, namely standardization of methods, data storage, reproducible interoperability of results, and data sharing. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), established by the National Science Foundation, enables all researchers to address queries on a regional to continental scale around a variety of environmental challenges and provide high-quality, integrated, and standardized data from field sites across the U.S. As the amount of metagenomic data continues to grow, standardized procedures that allow results across projects to be assessed and compared is becoming increasingly important in the field of metagenomics. We demonstrate the feasibility of using publicly available NEON soil metagenomic sequencing datasets in combination with open access Metagenomics Rapid Annotation using the Subsystem Technology (MG-RAST) server to illustrate advantages of WGS compared to 16S amplicon sequencing. Four WGS and four 16S amplicon sequence datasets, from surface soil samples prepared by NEON investigators, were selected for comparison, using standardized protocols collected at the same locations in Colorado between April-July 2014. The dominant bacterial phyla detected across samples agreed between sequencing methodologies. However, WGS yielded greater microbial resolution, increased accuracy, and allowed identification of more genera of bacteria, archaea, viruses, and eukaryota, and putative functional genes that would have gone undetected using 16S amplicon sequencing. NEON open data will be useful for future studies characterizing and quantifying complex ecological processes associated with changing aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.
Project description:The Chinese pepper (<i>Zanthoxylum simulans</i>) is a flowering plant in the family Rutaceae, native to eastern China and Taiwan. Like many other members of the Rutaceae, it is an economically important aromatic crop known for its volatile oil and nutrition. We determined the complete chloroplast genome sequences for <i>Z. simulans</i> using IIumina sequencing. The <i>Z. simulans</i> chloroplast has a total length of 158,461?bp; it consists of a large single copy (LSC) region of 85,568?bp, a small single copy region (SSC) length of 17,603?bp, and an inverted region (IR) of 27,645?bp. The genome encodes 132 annotated genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA, and 8 rRNA. The overall GC content of the <i>Z. simulans</i> chloroplast genome was 38.5%. A phylogenomic analysis revealed that <i>Z. simulans</i> are clustered with <i>Z. bungeanum</i> within the genus <i>Zanthoxylum</i>.
Project description:Brassicales species rich in glucosinolates are used for biofumigation, a process based on releasing enzymatically toxic isothiocyanates into the soil. These hydrolysis products are volatile and often reactive compounds. Moreover, glucosinolates can be degraded also without the presence of the hydrolytic enzyme myrosinase which might contribute to bioactive effects. Thus, in the present study the stability of Brassicaceae plant-derived and pure glucosinolates hydrolysis products was studied using three different soils (model biofumigation). In addition, the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate was investigated with special regard to the formation of volatile breakdown products. Finally, the influence of pure glucosinolate degradation on the bacterial community composition was evaluated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene amplified from total community DNA. The model biofumigation study revealed that the structure of the hydrolysis products had a significant impact on their stability in the soil but not the soil type. Following the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate in the soils, the nitrile as well as the isothiocyanate can be the main degradation products, depending on the soil type. Furthermore, the degradation was shown to be both chemically as well as biologically mediated as autoclaving reduced degradation. The nitrile was the major product of the chemical degradation and its formation increased with iron content of the soil. Additionally, the bacterial community composition was significantly affected by adding pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate, the effect being more pronounced than in treatments with myrosinase added to the glucosinolate. Therefore, glucosinolates can have a greater effect on soil bacterial community composition than their hydrolysis products.
Project description:Biofumigation, although a well-known method, is still controversially debated as a management strategy for plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN). Its controlling effect is attributed to the production of isothiocyanates (ITCs) following the action of myrosinase on glucosinolates (GSLs). Different ITCs are formed from different GSLs, depending on the plant species. To better understand the potential of ITCs, eight cultivars from three Brassicaceae species were investigated as biofumigation crops to control the root knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla. Since results were inconsistent, the nematicidal effect of selected ITCs were further evaluated in vitro. Based on its nematicidal potential, allyl ITC (AITC) was specifically investigated under different soil:sand compositions. A significantly lower nematicidal activity was observed in soil compared to sand. AITC was also evaluated as an additive to the biofumigation in a greenhouse trial. Its supplementation to the biofumigation process with Brassica juncea cv. Terrafit controlled M. hapla, while no control was observed using Raphanus sativus cv. Defender. Thus, the success of biofumigation seems to be strongly dependent on the soil characteristics and the ITC produced during the biofumigation process. Therefore, the supplementation of AITC in combination with the right cover crop can improve the biofumigation process to control M. hapla.
Project description:Four new unsaturated aliphatic acid amides, named zanthoamides A-D (1-4), and eight known ones-tetrahydrobungeanool (5), ZP-amide A (6), ZP-amide B (7), ZP-amide C (8), ZP-amide D (9), ZP-amide E (10), bugeanumamide A (11), and (2E,7E,9E)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-6,11-dioxo-2,7,9-dodecatrienamide (12)-were isolated from the pericarps of Zanthoxylum bungeanum. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive use of spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses and comparison with previously reported data. Compound 4 contained a rare C? fatty acid unit with an acetal group. Results revealed that compounds 1, 5, 6, and 12 showed inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, with IC50values of 48.7 ± 0.32, 27.1 ± 1.15, 49.8 ± 0.38, and 39.4 ± 0.63 µM, respectively, while the other compounds were inactive (IC50 > 60 ?M). They could contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects of Z. bungeanum by suppression of NO production.