Project description:BACKGROUND:The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. RESULTS:Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71) from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric 'African Slope' of "Evolution Canyon") formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22) were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2%) than among populations (45.8%). Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121-128 and 121-134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123-128,125-128, and 123-125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin), Dof (DNA binding with one finger), and light. CONCLUSIONS:Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important determinants in the observed sequence variation of HvABCG31 promoter. Abiotic stresses may be involved in the HvABCG31 gene transcription regulations, generating more protective cuticles in plants under stresses.
2012-01-01 | S-EPMC3544613 | BioStudies
Project description:Genomic Evolution of Drought Adaptive Stomata of Wild Cereals
Project description:The replicative spread of retrotransposons in the genome creates new insertional polymorphisms, increasing retrotransposon numbers and potentially both their share of the genome and genome size. The BARE-1 retrotransposon constitutes a major, dispersed, active component of Hordeum genomes, and BARE-1 number is positively correlated with genome size. We have examined genome size and BARE-1 insertion patterns and number in wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, in Evolution Canyon, Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel, along a transect presenting sharply differing microclimates. BARE-1 has been sufficiently active for its insertional pattern to resolve individuals in a way consonant with their ecogeographical distribution in the canyon and to distinguish them from provenances outside the canyon. On both slopes, but especially on the drier south-facing slope, a simultaneous increase in the BARE-1 copy number and a decrease in the relative number lost through recombination, as measured by the abundance of solo long terminal repeats, appear to have driven the BARE-1 share of the genome upward with the height and dryness of the slope. The lower recombinational loss would favor maintenance of more full-length copies, enhancing the ability of the BARE-1 family to contribute to genome size growth. These local data are consistent with regional trends for BARE-1 in H. spontaneum across Israel and therefore may reflect adaptive selection for increasing genome size through retrotransposon activity.
Project description:Roots adaptation to drought stress was analyzed using transcriptome and metabolomics profiles in two wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) genotypes: Y12-3 (drought resistance) and A24-39 (drought susceptible). Overall design: Roots samples of Y12-3 and A24-39 genotypes grown under well-watered (control) and water-stressed (7 days of withholding water) were collected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix wheat microarrays chip.
Project description:Wild barley Hordeum spontaneum (L.) shows a wide geographic distribution and ecological diversity. A key question concerns the spatial scale at which genetic differentiation occurs and to what extent it is driven by natural selection. The Levant region exhibits a strong ecological gradient along the North-South axis, with numerous small canyons in an East-West direction and with small-scale environmental gradients on the opposing North- and South-facing slopes. We sequenced 34 short genomic regions in 54 accessions of wild barley collected throughout Israel and from the opposing slopes of two canyons. The nucleotide diversity of the total sample is 0.0042, which is about two-thirds of a sample from the whole species range (0.0060). Thirty accessions collected at 'Evolution Canyon' (EC) at Nahal Oren, close to Haifa, have a nucleotide diversity of 0.0036, and therefore harbor a large proportion of the genetic diversity. There is a high level of genetic clustering throughout Israel and within EC, which roughly differentiates the slopes. Accessions from the hot and dry South-facing slope have significantly reduced genetic diversity and are genetically more distinct from accessions from the North-facing slope, which are more similar to accessions from other regions in Northern Israel. Statistical population models indicate that wild barley within the EC consist of three separate genetic clusters with substantial gene flow. The data indicate a high level of population structure at large and small geographic scales that shows isolation-by-distance, and is also consistent with ongoing natural selection contributing to genetic differentiation at a small geographic scale.
Project description:Wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is the wild relative of Triticum turgidum, the progenitor of durum and bread wheat, and maintains a rich allelic diversity among its wild populations. The lack of adequate genetic and genomic resources, however, restricts its exploitation in wheat improvement. Here, we report next-generation sequencing of the flow-sorted chromosome 5B of T. dicoccoides to shed light into its genome structure, function and organization by exploring the repetitive elements, protein-encoding genes and putative microRNA and tRNA coding sequences. Comparative analyses with its counterparts in modern and wild wheats suggest clues into the B-genome evolution. Syntenic relationships of chromosome 5B with the model grasses can facilitate further efforts for fine-mapping of traits of interest. Mapping of 5B sequences onto the root transcriptomes of two additional T. dicoccoides genotypes, with contrasting drought tolerances, revealed several thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 584 shared polymorphisms on 228 transcripts were specific to the drought-tolerant genotype. To our knowledge, this study presents the largest genomics resource currently available for T. dicoccoides, which, we believe, will encourage the exploitation of its genetic and genomic potential for wheat improvement to meet the increasing demand to feed the world.
Project description:Fusarium crown rot (FCR), caused by various Fusarium species, is a chronic disease of cereals in many semi-arid regions worldwide. To clarify what effects drought-stress may have on FCR development, visual assessment, histological analysis and quantitative PCR were used to analyse the infection process of F. pseudograminearum in barley. This study observed for the first time that the severity of FCR symptom reflects the quantity of pathogens in infected tissues of barley under both drought-stressed and well-watered conditions. Drought-stress prolongs the initial infection phase but enhances the proliferation and spread of Fusarium pathogens after the initial infection phase. Under drought-stressed conditions, the invading hyphae were frequently observed to re-emerge from stomata and invade again the surrounding epidermis cells. Under the well-watered conditions, however, very few hyphae re-emerged from stomata and most infection was caused by hyphae intracellularly grown. It was also observed that drought-stress increased the length and density of trichomes dramatically especially in the susceptible genotypes, and that the length and density of trichomes were positively related to fungal biomass of F. pseudograminearum in plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Drought and nitrogen (N) deficiency are two major limiting factors for forest productivity in many ecosystems. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying the influence of soil N availability on drought responses of tree species is crucial to improve tree growth under drought. RESULTS:The root proliferation under drought was enhanced by adequate N application. Vessel frequency in xylem increased upon drought, with more significant increase under adequate N conditions compared with that under low N conditions, possibly leading to increased hydraulic safety. Nitrogen application under drought increased indole acetic acid (IAA), which contributed to the adaptive changes of xylem. Nitrogen application increased leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, therefore regulated stomata adjustment, and promoted intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi). Moreover, N application promoted antioxidant defense in leaves by showing increased level of free proline and carotenoid, which improved drought tolerance and growth performance of poplars. CONCLUSIONS:Anatomical and physiological responses of Populus to drought were suppressed by N deficiency. Adequate N application promoted adaptive changes of root and xylem under drought and increased hydraulic safety. Nitrogen addition under drought also increased leaf ABA level which may regulate stomata adjustment and promote WUEi. Moreover, nitrogen application improved antioxidant defense in leaves with increased levels of antioxidants. These positive regulations improved drought tolerance and growth performance of poplars.
Project description:Ecological divergence at a microsite suggests adaptive evolution, and this study examined two abutting wild barley populations, each 100 m across, differentially adapted to drought tolerance on two contrasting soil types, Terra Rossa and basalt at the Tabigha Evolution Slope, Israel. We resequenced the genomes of seven and six wild barley genotypes inhabiting the Terra Rossa and basalt soils, respectively, and identified a total of 69,192,653 single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/deletions in comparison with a reference barley genome. Comparative genomic analysis between these abutting wild barley populations involved 19,615,087 high-quality SNVs. The results revealed dramatically different selection sweep regions relevant to drought tolerance driven by edaphic natural selection within 2,577 selected genes in these regions, including key drought-responsive genes associated with ABA synthesis and degradation (such as Cytochrome P450 protein) and ABA receptor complex (such as PYL2, SNF1-related kinase). The genetic diversity of the wild barley population inhabiting Terra Rossa soil is much higher than that from the basalt soil. Additionally, we identified different sets of genes for drought adaptation in the wild barley populations from Terra Rossa soil and from wild barley populations from Evolution Canyon I at Mount Carmel. These genes are associated with abscisic acid signaling, signaling and metabolism of reactive oxygen species, detoxification and antioxidative systems, rapid osmotic adjustment, and deep root morphology. The unique mechanisms for drought adaptation of the wild barley from the Tabigha Evolution Slope may be useful for crop improvement, particularly for breeding of barley cultivars with high drought tolerance.