Project description:As part of a recent workshop entitled "Imagining Tomorrow's University", we were asked to visualize the future of universities as research becomes increasingly data- and computation-driven, and identify a set of principles characterizing pertinent opportunities and obstacles presented by this shift. In order to establish a holistic view, we take a multilevel approach and examine the impact of open science on individual scholars and how this impacts as well as on the university as a whole. At the university level, open science presents a double-edged sword: when well executed, open science can accelerate the rate of scientific inquiry across the institution and beyond; however, haphazard or half-hearted efforts are likely to squander valuable resources, diminish university productivity and prestige, and potentially do more harm than good. We present our perspective on the role of open science at the university.
Project description:We have created an inventory to characterize the teaching practices used in science and mathematics courses. This inventory can aid instructors and departments in reflecting on their teaching. It has been tested with several hundred university instructors and courses from mathematics and four science disciplines. Most instructors complete the inventory in 10 min or less, and the results allow meaningful comparisons of the teaching used for the different courses and instructors within a department and across different departments. We also show how the inventory results can be used to gauge the extent of use of research-based teaching practices, and we illustrate this with the inventory results for five departments. These results show the high degree of discrimination provided by the inventory, as well as its effectiveness in tracking the increase in the use of research-based teaching practices.
Project description:Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.This paper describes how the University of Nairobi leveraged resources from the Medical Education Partnership to develop an institutional program that provides training and mentoring in implementation science, builds relationships between researchers and implementers, and identifies local research priorities for implementation science.The curriculum content includes core material in implementation science theory, methods, and experiences. The program adopts a team mentoring and supervision approach, in which fellows are matched with mentors at the University of Nairobi and partnering institutions: University of Washington, Seattle, and University of Maryland, Baltimore. A survey of program participants showed a high degree satisfaction with most aspects of the program, including the content, duration, and attachment sites. A key strength of the fellowship program is the partnership approach, which leverages innovative use of information technology to offer diverse perspectives, and a team model for mentorship and supervision.As health care systems and training institutions seek new approaches to increase capacity in implementation science, the University of Nairobi Implementation Science Fellowship program can be a model for health educators and administrators who wish to develop their program and curricula.
Project description:Genetically edited food utilizes new techniques that may decrease all of the risks associated with genetically modified food, or "GMO" food. Safety and labeling regulations for genetically edited food are still new, and it is challenging for the consumer to differentiate it from conventional food. Although genetically edited food has the potential for reducing the risks associated with the gene introduction process, consumer perceptions toward it are still unclear. The research has compared the regulations governing GMO food and genetically edited food in Japan, Europe, and the United States. We found that the genetically edited food regulations in Japan are the most science-based, in the meaning that genetically edited food products are allowed to be sold without any safety evaluation. Based on the difference among regions, we further studied the potential acceptance level for such products among Japanese consumers, where regulation seemed science-based as policy. To understand the factors that may affect the adoption of genetically edited food among youth in Japan, we utilized the structural equation modeling (SEM) method with 180 surveys of Japanese university students to measure six factors: Knowledge, Attitude Towards Technology, Perceived Benefits, Perceived Risks, Trust, and Willingness to Purchase. The survey was conducted twice with an intervention in the middle to measure the effect of science communication, and we found significant differences when comparing the two datasets. The results of this survey indicate the importance of increasing knowledge and the positive role of science communication in increasing the adoption and trust of biotechnology products, such as genetically edited food.
Project description:A common feature of many citizen science projects is the collection of data by unpaid contributors with the expectation that the data will be used in research. Here we report a teaching strategy that combined citizen science with inquiry-based learning to offer first year university students an authentic research experience. A six-year partnership with the Australian phenology citizen science program ClimateWatch has enabled biology students from the University of Western Australia to contribute phenological data on plants and animals, and to conduct the first research on unvalidated species datasets contributed by public and university participants. Students wrote scientific articles on their findings, peer-reviewed each other's work and the best articles were published online in a student journal. Surveys of more than 1500 students showed that their environmental engagement increased significantly after participating in data collection and data analysis. However, only 31% of students agreed with the statement that "data collected by citizen scientists are reliable" at the end of the project, whereas the rate of agreement was initially 79%. This change in perception was likely due to students discovering erroneous records when they mapped data points and analysed submitted photographs. A positive consequence was that students subsequently reported being more careful to avoid errors in their own data collection, and making greater efforts to contribute records that were useful for future scientific research. Evaluation of our project has shown that by embedding a research process within citizen science participation, university students are given cause to improve their contributions to environmental datasets. If true for citizen scientists in general, enabling participants as well as scientists to analyse data could enhance data quality, and so address a key constraint of broad-scale citizen science programs.
Project description:This study aimed to compare the perception of the academic learning environment between medical laboratory science students and nursing students at Saint Louis University, Baguio City, Philippines.A cross-sectional survey research design was used to measure the perceptions of the participants. A total of 341 students from the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Natural Sciences, and the School of Nursing answered the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) instrument from April to May 2016. Responses were compared according to course of study, gender, and year level.The total mean DREEM scores of the medical laboratory science students and nursing students did not differ significantly when grouped according to course of study, gender, or year level. Medical laboratory science students had significantly lower mean scores in the sub-domains 'perception of learning' and 'perception of teaching.' Male medical laboratory science students had significantly lower mean scores in the sub-domain 'perception of learning' among second year students. Medical laboratory science students had significantly lower mean scores in the sub-domain 'perception of learning.' Nursing students identified 7 problem areas, most of which were related to their instructors.Medical laboratory science and nursing students viewed their academic learning environment as 'more positive than negative.' However, the relationship of the nursing instructors to their students needs improvement.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite the growing interest in screening for food insecurity in the clinical setting, little evidence exists regarding screening formats that maximize disclosure and caregiver comfort. METHODS:In this randomized trial, we asked English-speaking adult caregivers of pediatric patients in the emergency department at an urban, freestanding children's hospital to complete a validated, 2-question screen for food insecurity. Respondents were assigned via block randomization to complete the survey by either verbal interview or electronic tablet. Caregivers reported the perceived importance of the screening questions, comfort level with screening in the emergency department or in their child's primary care site, and their preferred screening modality. RESULTS:Of the 1818 participants, 20.6% screened positive for food insecurity. There was a significantly higher rate of reported food insecurity for those screened by tablet (23.6%) compared to those screened verbally (17.7%) (P?=?.002). Of those who had a preference of screening modality, 83.2% of all participants and 84.5% of patients reporting food insecurity preferred the tablet-based screen over verbal interview. Overall, more participants reported comfort completing the screen in the emergency department compared to their child's doctor's office; however, comfort in both of these setting was rated highly (86.1% vs 80.2%; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Although both verbal interview and tablet-based screening modalities were effective in identifying food insecurity, tablet-based screening had a higher disclosure rate and was the participants' preferred screening method. There is a high level of comfort with screening regardless of clinical setting; it is possible that an added level of anonymity in the emergency department enhanced participants' comfort levels.
Project description:Recent years have seen increasing encouragement by research institutions and funding bodies for scientists to actively engage with the public, who ultimately finance their work. Animal behaviour as a discipline possesses several features, including its inherent accessibility and appeal to the public, that may help it occupy a particularly successful niche within these developments. It has also established a repertoire of quantitative behavioural methodologies that can be used to document the public's responses to engagement initiatives. This kind of assessment is becoming increasingly important considering the enormous effort now being put into public engagement projects, whose effects are more often assumed than demonstrated. Here we report our first attempts to quantify relevant aspects of the behaviour of a sample of the hundreds of thousands of visitors who pass through the 'Living Links to Human Evolution Research Centre' in Edinburgh Zoo. This University research centre actively encourages the public to view ongoing primate research and associated science engagement activities. Focal follows of visitors and scan sampling showed substantial 'dwell times' in the Centre by common zoo standards and the addition of new engagement elements in a second year was accompanied by significantly increased overall dwell times, tripling for the most committed two thirds of visitors. Larger groups of visitors were found to spend more time in the Centre than smaller ones. Viewing live, active science was the most effective activity, shown to be enhanced by novel presentations of carefully constructed explanatory materials. The findings emphasise the importance and potential of zoos as public engagement centres for the biological sciences.
Project description:The current global population is nearly 6 billion; due to this rapid population growth, there is a need to produce food in a more efficient, safe, and sustainable way, and it should be safe from the adverse effects of pathogenic organisms. A large proportion of population living in developing countries face daily food shortages as a result of environmental impacts or some other reasons like political instability, etc., while in the developed countries, food is surplus. For developing countries, the objective is to develop drought- and pest-resistant crops, with maximized yield. In developed countries, the food industry depends on consumer’s demand for fresher and healthier foodstuffs. The present chapter describes the use of nanoparticles in food science.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intestinal infection is still an important public health problem in low-income countries. Food handlers may be infected by a wide range of enteropathogens and have been implicated in the transmission of many infections to the public. Therefore, the aim of this review was to produce the pooled prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers working at higher public University student's cafeterias and public food establishments in Ethiopia. METHODS:Articles published in PubMed/Medline, Hinari, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were used using a search strategy. Observational studies (cross-sectional) revealing the prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections at higher public University student's cafeterias and public food establishments were incorporated. Meta-analysis was computed using STATA version 14 statistical software. Heterogeneity of the study was assessed using Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test. The pooled prevalence of the intestinal parasitic infection and associated factors among food handlers was calculated by the random-effect model. RESULTS:Out of 138 reviewed studies, 18 studies were included to estimate the pooled prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers in Ethiopia. All the eighteen articles were included in the analysis. This study revealed that the pooled prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 28.5% (95% CI: 27.4, 29.7). E. hystolitica /E. dispar complex 6.38 (95% Cl: 5.73, 7.04), A.lumbricodes 4.12 (95% Cl: 3.56, 4.67), and G. lamblia 3.12(95% Cl: 2.65, 3.60) were the most common intestinal parasitic infections in this study. Untrimmed fingernail 3.04 (95% CI: 2.19, 4.22), do not washing hands after defecation 2.71 (95% CI: 1.93, 3.82), do not washing hands after touching any body parts 2.41 (95% CI: 1.64, 3.56), do not made medical checkup 2.26 (95% CI: 1.57, 3.25), and do not receive food safety training 1.79 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.45) were factors significantly and positively associated with intestinal parasitic infections. CONCLUSION:Parasitic infections among food handlers were significantly high. Untrimmed fingernail, do not washing hands after defecation, do not washing hands after touching any body parts, do not made regular medical checkup and do not receive food safety training were factors that increase the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections.