Project description:Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) have been shown to be vitamin D3 (VD3) deficient, which is associated with more severe disease and increased polyp size. To gain mechanistic insights into these observational studies, we examined the impact of VD3 deficiency on inflammation and VD3 metabolism in an Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) mouse model of chronic rhinosinusitis (Af-CRS).Balb/c mice were fed control or VD3 deficient diet for 4 weeks. Mice were then sensitized with intraperitoneal Af, and one week later given Af intranasally every three days for four weeks while being maintained on control or VD3 deficient diet. Airway function, sinonasal immune cell infiltrate and sinonasal VD3 metabolism profiles were then examined.Mice with VD3 deficiency had increased Penh and sRaw values as compared to controls as well as exacerbated changes in sRaw when coupled with Af-CRS. As compared to controls, VD3 deficient and Af-CRS mice had reduced sinonasal 1?-hydroxylase and the active VD3 metabolite, 1,25(OH)2D3. Differential analysis of nasal lavage samples showed that VD3 deficiency alone and in combination with Af-CRS profoundly upregulated eosinophil, neutrophil and lymphocyte numbers. VD3 deficiency exacerbated increases in monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC) associated with Af-CRS. Conversely, T-regulatory cells were decreased in both Af-CRS mice and VD3 deficient mice, though coupling VD3 deficiency with Af-CRS did not exacerbate CD4 or T-regulatory cells numbers. Lastly, VD3 deficiency had a modifying or exacerbating impact on nasal lavage levels of IFN-?, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-?, but had no impact on IL-17A.VD3 deficiency causes changes in sinonasal immunity, which in many ways mirrors the changes observed in Af-CRS mice, while selectively exacerbating inflammation. Furthermore, both VD3 deficiency and Af-CRS were associated with altered sinonasal VD3 metabolism causing reductions in local levels of the active VD3 metabolite, 1,25(OH)2D3, even with adequate circulating levels.
Project description:PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors for acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) following endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EnDCR). METHODS: Retrospective single-surgeon interventional case series, including 196 consecutive patients undergoing 203 endonasal DCR, with clinical and radiological evidence of nasolacrimal duct or common canalicular obstruction. Pre-operative lacrimal and sinonasal clinical assessment and imaging, intraoperative endoscopic video recording, and post-operative clinical and endoscopic findings were analysed for cases of ARS occurring within the first 4 weeks following DCR among patients with and without a past history of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Surgical complications and outcomes at 12 months and management of ARS are reported. RESULTS: Three patients (1.5%) developed ARS within the first 5 post-operative days, none of which had experienced peri-operative complications and all had a past history of CRS. The rate of CRS in this cohort of 196 patients was 10.2% (n=20), of which 15% (n=3) developed ARS, although none had symptoms of CRS at the time of surgery; one had undergone previous sinus surgery. Presenting symptoms of ARS included facial pain, tenderness over the affected sinus, and nasal discharge; all patients responded to oral antibiotic therapy. DISCUSSION: The rate of ARS following EnDCR was 1.5%. In those with a prior history of CRS, it was 15% (P=0.009). ARS developed within the first post-operative week among patients with a past history of CRS, who were asymptomatic at the time of surgery, and responded to oral antibiotics. CRS may be a risk factor for the development of post-operative ARS.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bacteria and fungi are believed to influence mucosal inflammation in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However their presence and relationship to disease is debated. This study used multiple detection methods to compare microbial diversity and microbial abundance in healthy and diseased sinonasal mucosa. The utility of contemporary detection methods is also examined. METHODS: Sinonasal mucosa was analyzed from 38 CRS and 6 controls. Bacterial and fungal analysis was performed using conventional culture, molecular diagnostics (polymerase chain reaction coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) and fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS: Microbes were detected in all samples, including controls, and were often polymicrobial. 33 different bacterial species were detected in CRS, 5 in control patients, with frequent recovery of anaerobes. Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes were the most common organisms in CRS and controls, respectively. Using a model organism, FISH had a sensitivity of 78%, and a specificity of 93%. Many species were detected in both CRS and controls however, microbial abundance was associated with disease manifestation. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights some cornerstones of microbial variations in healthy and diseased paranasal sinuses. Whilst the healthy sinus is clearly not sterile, it appears prevalence and abundance of organisms is critical in determining disease. Evidence from high-sensitivity techniques, limits the role of fungi in CRS to a small group of patients. Comparison with molecular analysis suggests that the detection threshold of FISH and culture is related to organism abundance and, furthermore, culture tends to select for rapidly growing organisms.
Project description:Topical treatments with nasal saline irrigation, topical steroid sprays, or corticosteroid rinses can improve sinonasal symptoms in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, the impact of these therapies on commensals (Corynebacterium) and on biofilm pathogens associated with CRS (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas) is not well characterized.Paired nasal and sinus swabs were collected endoscopically from 28 controls and 14 CRS patients with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) who had not received systemic antibiotics or corticosteroids in the previous 8 weeks. Total DNA from swab eluents were extracted and analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. A total of 359,077 reads were obtained and classified taxonomically. The association of use of topical therapies with sinonasal microbiota composition was assessed by factor/vector-fitting. The proportional abundances of sinonasal bacteria between topical therapy users and nonusers were further compared by 2-tailed Kolmogorov-Smirnov test among controls and among CRSwNP participants.Nasal saline irrigation, with or without added budesonide, was not associated with significantly distinct sinonasal microbiota composition or significantly decreased Pseudomonas or S. aureus abundances among either controls or CRSwNP participants. Corynebacterium was slightly lower in controls that reported using saline irrigation than those who did not. No significant association was found between nasal saline irrigation and the proportional abundances of Pseudomonas, S. aureus, and Corynebacterium in CRSwNP participants. However, male CRSwNP patients were noted to have significantly higher Corynebacterium proportional abundances than their female counterparts. The use of topical steroid sprays was associated with a distinct microbiota in control subjects, characterized by higher proportional abundances of Dolosigranulum and Simonsiella and a lower proportional abundance of Campylobacter.Nasal saline irrigation is not associated with a distinct alteration in the proportional abundance of commensal bacteria or biofilm-forming pathogens in CRSwNP patients. However, use of topical intranasal corticosteroid sprays in control subjects is associated with a distinct sinonasal microbiota.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare microbiological culture-based and culture-independent (16S rRNA gene sequencing) methodologies for pathogen identification in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients. We hypothesized that bacterial culture and DNA sequencing would yield largely concurrent results, although sequencing would detect greater bacterial diversity, and the sinonasal microbiomes of CRS patients would differ in composition and diversity compared with non-CRS controls.Cross-sectional observational study.Middle meatus swabs from CRS patients collected during endoscopic sinus surgery were analyzed by both clinical culture and broad-range analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences.A total of 21 swab samples from 15 CRS patients and five non-CRS controls were analyzed. One CRS patient was also swabbed 3 weeks postoperatively due to evidence of purulence during a clinical visit. All subjects had positive bacterial cultures, with a mean of 2.8 isolates per subject. The most prevalent cultivars were coagulase-negative staphylococci (15/20 specimens, 75%), Staphylococcus aureus (10/20, 50%), and Propionibacterium acnes (6/20, 30%). Among 57,407 pyrosequences generated, the most prevalent were from coagulase-negative staphylococci (21/21 specimens, 100%), Corynebacterium spp (18/21, 85.7%), P acnes (16/21, 76.2%), and S aureus (14/21, 66.7%). Bacterial diversity correlated with recent antibiotic use, asthma, prior sinus surgery, and relative abundance of S aureus.DNA pyrosequencing revealed greater biodiversity than culture, although in most cases culture results represented a subset of the abundant DNA sequence types. CRS patients were characterized by altered microbial composition (P = .02) and greater abundance of S aureus (P = .03).
Project description:Sinonasal biofilms have been demonstrated in specimens collected from chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients. Mounting evidence suggests that biofilms contribute to therapeutically recalcitrant CRS. Recently, the bitter taste receptor T2R38 has been implicated in the regulation of the sinonasal mucosal innate immune response. TAS2R38 gene polymorphisms affect receptor functionality and contribute to variations seen in sinonasal innate defense as well as taste perception reflected in gustatory sensitivity to the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). In a population of CRS patients with active infection or inflammation, we sought to determine if a correlation between T2R38 phenotype and in vitro biofilm formation existed.Endoscopically guided sinonasal swabs were obtained prospectively from CRS (±polyp) patients with evidence of persistent inflammation or mucopurulence. In vitro biofilm formation was assessed with a modified Calgary Biofilm Detection Assay. Patients' phenotypic (functional) expression of the bitter taste receptor T2R38 was evaluated with a taste test including the compound PTC. Linear regression was used to determine the level of significance between mean in vitro biofilm formation levels and mean PTC taste test intensity ratings across CRS patients.Sinonasal swabs were obtained from 59 patients, with 42 of the 59 samples demonstrating in vitro biofilm formation. Analysis revealed an inverse linear association between in vitro biofilm formation and PTC taste intensity ratings (p = 0.019) for all patients. This association was exclusively driven by nonpolypoid CRS patients (p = 0.0026).In vitro biofilm formation from sinonasal clinical isolates is inversely correlated with PTC taste sensitivity in nonpolypoid CRS patients.
Project description:Airborne fungi are associated with upper and lower airway inflammatory diseases. Alternaria is commonly found in nasal secretions and induces the production of chemical mediators from sinonasal mucosa. This study aimed to establish an Alternaria-induced chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) mouse model and determine the influence of host allergic background on the immunopathological characteristics of CRS. BALB/c mice were used for establishing the CRS model. Alternaria was intranasally instilled for 8 or 16 weeks with or without ovalbumin (OVA) presensitization. Total serum IgE and Alternaria-specific IgE levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-?, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and splenocytes were measured by ELISA and their mRNAs and levels of associated transcription factors in sinonasal mucosa were determined with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hematoxylin-eosin staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining were performed to evaluate histological changes. Total serum IgE was increased in both allergic and non-allergic CRS. IL-4 was strongly expressed in NLF in both allergic and non-allergic CRS at 16 weeks and not only eosinophils but also neutrophils were increased in NLF of non-allergic CRS mice. The levels of Th1, Th2, and Treg cytokines and transcription factor mRNAs were significantly increased in sinonasal mucosa of non-allergic CRS mice. Both inflammatory cell infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia were increased in CRS mice. Repeated intranasal instillation of Alternaria results in sinonasal inflammation with inflammatory cell infiltration. The sinonasal mucosal immune responses against Alternaria were shown to differ depending on the host allergic background.
Project description:Background:Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) describes an inflammatory condition affecting the sinonasal mucosa. As the immune system players such as immunoglobulins play prominent roles in the development of CRS, we aimed to investigate the expression of IgA subclasses and factors involved in IgA class switching in the sinonasal mucosa of CRS patients. Methods:Specimens were collected from the sinonasal mucosa of the healthy controls and CRS patients. Histological assessments were performed by H&E and immunohistochemistry. Real-time PCR and ELISA methods were applied to measure gene expression and protein levels extracted from tissue samples, respectively. Results:We observed that total IgA and subclass-positive cells were higher in the patient groups than controls. There was a significant correlation between the number of eosinophils and total IgA and subclasses-positive cells (Pv?<?0.0001). The expression of CXCL13, BAFF, AID, and germline transcripts were increased in CRSwNP patients. In contrast to IgA2 levels, IgA1 levels were significantly increased in the sinonasal tissue of CRSwNP patients (Pv?<?0.01). TGF-? was significantly elevated in the sinonasal tissue of patients with CRSsNP. Conclusions:Increased protein levels of IgA subclasses and related antibody-producing cells were associated with elevated eosinophils in CRSwNP patients which may result in eosinophil pathological functions. Several therapeutic approaches might be developed to modulate the IgA production to ameliorate the inflammatory mechanisms in CRSwNP patients.
Project description:Symptoms burden in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may be assessed by interviews or by means of validated tools such as the 22-item SinoNasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22). However, when only the total SNOT-22 scores are used, the pattern of symptom distribution and heterogeneity in patient symptoms is lost.To use a standardized symptom assessment tool (SNOT-22) on preoperative symptoms to understand symptom heterogeneity in CRS and to aid in characterization of distinguishing clinical features between subgroups.This was a retrospective review of 97 surgical patients with CRS. Symptom-based clusters were derived on the basis of presurgical SNOT-22 scores using unsupervised analysis and network graphs. Comparison between clusters was performed for clinical and demographic parameters, postsurgical symptom scores, and presence or absence of a history of aspirin sensitivity.Unsupervised analysis reveals coclustering of specific symptoms in the SNOT-22 tool. Using symptom-based clustering, patients with CRS were stratified into severe overall (mean total score, 90.8), severe sinonasal (score, 62), moderate sinonasal (score, 40), moderate nonsinonasal (score, 37) and mild sinonasal (score, 16) clusters. The last 2 clusters were associated with lack of history of aspirin sensitivity. The first cluster had a rapid relapse in symptoms postoperatively, and the last cluster demonstrated minimal symptomatic improvement after surgery.Symptom-based clusters in CRS reveal a distinct grouping of symptom burden that may relate to aspirin sensitivity and treatment outcomes.
Project description:Objectives:The concept of disease control incorporates independent disease characteristics that are longitudinally reflective of disease status and which can be used to make treatment decisions. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic condition for which the determination of disease control by both the patient and the treating physician is important. Our objectives were to determine CRS disease characteristics that are associated with patient-reported and physician-rated CRS disease control. Study Type:Cross-sectional. Methods:A total of 209 participants were prospectively recruited. Participants were asked to rate their global level of CRS control as "not at all," "a little," "somewhat," "very," and "completely." All participants completed a 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) and also reported the number of sinus infections, CRS-related antibiotic courses taken, CRS-related oral corticosteroid courses taken, and missed days of work or school due to CRS, all in the last 3 months. Clinical and demographic characteristics were also collected from each participant. A Lund-Kennedy endoscopy score was calculated for each participant from nasal endoscopy. Two rhinologists were then given each participant's SNOT-22 score (as well as SNOT-22 nasal, sleep, otologic/facial pain, and emotional subdomain scores), endoscopy score, and the number of sinus infections, CRS-related antibiotics, CRS-related oral corticosteroid courses and missed days of work or school due to CRS in the preceding 3 months as reported by the patient. The two rhinologists were blinded to all other participant characteristics and each rhinologist independently rated every participant's global control level as "not at all," "a little," "somewhat," "very," and "completely." Associations were sought between CRS disease characteristics (SNOT-22 score, endoscopy score, sinus infections, CRS-related antibiotic usage, CRS-related oral corticosteroid usage, and lost productivity due to CRS) and patient-reported CRS control as well as mean physician-rated CRS control. Results:Patient-reported global CRS control was associated only with SNOT-22 (adjusted relative risk [RR]?=?0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99, P?<?.001) but no other CRS disease characteristic. Patient-reported CRS control was specifically associated only with nasal symptoms and not extra-nasal symptoms of CRS. Physician-rated CRS control was associated with SNOT-22 score (adjusted RR [for each 1-unit increase of SNOT-22]?=?0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99, P?<?.001), number of acute bacterial CRS exacerbations-reflected by number of antibiotic courses taken (or sinus infections)-in the last 3 months (adjusted RR?=?0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.98, P?=?.014) and the number of CRS-related oral corticosteroid courses taken in the last 3 months (adjusted RR?=?0.87, 95% CI: 0.78-0.97, P?=?.012). Nasal, sleep, and otologic/facial pain symptoms were all associated with physician-rated CRS control. Having used at least one course of antibiotics or oral corticosteroids in the last 3 months was the optimal threshold for detecting poorly controlled CRS. Conclusions:Patients and physicians use different criteria to determine the level of CRS control. While both rely on the burden of CRS symptomatology, patients consider primarily nasal symptoms while physicians include nasal and extra-nasal symptoms of CRS in determining CRS control. Physicians also independently consider CRS-related antibiotic use, as a reflection of acute bacterial CRS exacerbations, and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use in the determination of global CRS control. Level of Evidence:2c.