Project description:A multi-resistant strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from a tropical estuary in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Genome sequencing was conducted to establish the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance in this organism. The genetic content of this strain revealed it to be a non-virulent lineage that nevertheless possesses several antibiotic resistance determinants.
Project description:Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading bacterial cause of seafood-related gastroenteritis in the world. Here, we report the complete genome sequence and annotation of an environmental strain of V. parahaemolyticus, UCM-V493, with the aim of understanding the differences between the clinical and environmental isolates of the bacteria. We also make some preliminary sequence comparisons with the clinical strain RIMD2210633.
Project description:Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of food-borne illnesses worldwide. Here, we report a draft genome of V. parahaemolyticus strain 10329 of the O4:K12 serotype. It belongs to the main U.S. West Coast clonal complex of V. parahaemolyticus (sequence type 36 [ST36]) causing oyster-associated human illness. It contains the virulence determinants tdh and trh but appears to infect at much lower doses than V. parahaemolyticus strains with these same determinants from other areas, such as the U.S. Gulf and Atlantic coasts.
Project description:The number of inflammatory gastroenteritis outbreaks due to the food-borne pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus is rising sharply worldwide and in the United States in particular. Here we report the complete, annotated genome sequence of the prepandemic V. parahaemolyticus strain BB22OP and make some initial comparisons to the complete genome sequence for pandemic strain RIMD2210633.
Project description:The acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of Penaeus vannamei shrimp is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying toxin genes, pirA and pirB We report the complete genome sequence of the novel V. parahaemolyticus strain R14, which did not display AHPND symptoms in P. vannamei despite containing the binary toxin genes.
Project description:UNLABELLED:In the summer of 2010, Vibrio parahaemolyticus caused an outbreak in Maryland linked to the consumption of oysters. Strains isolated from both stool and oyster samples were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). However, the oysters contained other potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains exhibiting different PFGE patterns. In order to assess the identity, genetic makeup, relatedness, and potential pathogenicity of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, we sequenced 11 such strains (2 clinical strains and 9 oyster strains). We analyzed these genomes by in silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and determined their phylogeny using a whole-genome MLST (wgMLST) analysis. Our in silico MLST analysis identified six different sequence types (STs) (ST8, ST676, ST810, ST811, ST34, and ST768), with both of the clinical and four of the oyster strains being identified as belonging to ST8. Using wgMLST, we showed that the ST8 strains from clinical and oyster samples were nearly indistinguishable and belonged to the same outbreak, confirming that local oysters were the source of the infections. The remaining oyster strains were genetically diverse, differing in >3,000 loci from the Maryland ST8 strains. eBURST analysis comparing these strains with strains of other STs available at the V. parahaemolyticus MLST website showed that the Maryland ST8 strains belonged to a clonal complex endemic to Asia. This indicates that the ST8 isolates from clinical and oyster sources were likely not endemic to Maryland. Finally, this study demonstrates the utility of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and associated analyses for source-tracking investigations. IMPORTANCE:Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen and the leading cause of bacterial infections in the United States associated with the consumption of seafood. In the summer of 2010, Vibrio parahaemolyticus caused an outbreak in Maryland linked to oyster consumption. Strains isolated from stool and oyster samples were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The oysters also contained other potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains with different PFGE patterns. Since their identity, genetic makeup, relatedness, and potential pathogenicity were unknown, their genomes were determined by using next-generation sequencing. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) allowed (i) identification of clinical and oyster strains with matching PFGE profiles as belonging to ST8, (ii) determination of oyster strain diversity, and (iii) identification of the clinical strains as belonging to a clonal complex (CC) described only in Asia. Finally, WGS and associated analyses demonstrated their utility for trace-back investigations.
Project description:Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common food-borne pathogen that is normally associated with seafood. In 1996, a pandemic O3:K6 strain abruptly appeared and caused the first pandemic of this pathogen to spread throughout many Asian countries, America, Europe, and Africa. The role of temperate bacteriophages in the evolution of this pathogen is of great interest. In this work, a new temperate phage, VP882, from a pandemic O3:K6 strain of V. parahaemolyticus was purified and characterized after mitomycin C induction. VP882 was a Myoviridae bacteriophage with a polyhedral head and a long rigid tail with a sheath-like structure. It infected and lysed high proportions of V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae strains. The genome of phage VP882 was sequenced and was 38,197 bp long, and 71 putative open reading frames were identified, of which 27 were putative functional phage or bacterial genes. VP882 had a linear plasmid-like genome with a putative protelomerase gene and cohesive ends. The genome does not integrate into the host chromosome but was maintained as a plasmid in the lysogen. Analysis of the reaction sites of the protelomerases in different plasmid-like phages revealed that VP882 and PhiHAP-1 were highly similar, while N15, PhiKO2, and PY54 made up another closely related group. The presence of DNA adenine methylase and quorum-sensing transcriptional regulators in VP882 may play a specific role in this phage or regulate physiological or virulence-associated traits of the hosts. These genes may also be remnants from the bacterial chromosome following transduction.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is abundant in the aquatic environment particularly in warmer waters and is the leading cause of seafood borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Prior to 1995, numerous V. parahaemolyticus serogroups were associated with disease, however, in that year an O3:K6 serogroup emerged in Southeast Asia causing large outbreaks and rapid hospitalizations. This new highly virulent strain is now globally disseminated. RESULTS: We performed a four-way BLAST analysis on the genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633, an O3:K6 isolate from Japan recovered in 1996, versus the genomes of four published Vibrio species and constructed genome BLAST atlases. We identified 24 regions, gaps in the genome atlas, of greater than 10 kb that were unique to RIMD2210633. These 24 regions included an integron, f237 phage, 2 type III secretion systems (T3SS), a type VI secretion system (T6SS) and 7 Vibrio parahaemolyticus genomic islands (VPaI-1 to VPaI-7). Comparative genomic analysis of our fifth genome, V. parahaemolyticus AQ3810, an O3:K6 isolate recovered in 1983, identified four regions unique to each V. parahaemolyticus strain. Interestingly, AQ3810 did not encode 8 of the 24 regions unique to RMID, including a T6SS, which suggests an additional virulence mechanism in RIMD2210633. The distribution of only the VPaI regions was highly variable among a collection of 42 isolates and phylogenetic analysis of these isolates show that these regions are confined to a pathogenic clade. CONCLUSION: Our data show that there is considerable genomic flux in this species and that the new highly virulent clone arose from an O3:K6 isolate that acquired at least seven novel regions, which included both a T3SS and a T6SS.
Project description:Vibrio parahaemolyticus an emerging pathogen that is a causative agent of foodborne gastroenteritis when raw or undercooked seafood is consumed. Previous microarray data using a Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 chip has shown the master quorum-sensing regulator OpaR controls virulence, type III and type VI secretion systems, and flagellar and capsule production genes. In a parallel study, RNA-Seq was used to comparatively study the transcriptome changes of wild type Vibrio parahaemolyticus BB22 and a ΔopaR strain directly. Differences in mRNA expression were analyzed using next generation Illumina sequencing and bioinformatics techniques to align and count reads. A comparison with the previous microarray data showed good correlation between the shared genes. The RNA-Seq offered an insight into control of genes specific to the Vibrio parahaemolyticus BB22 strain as well as a new look at the sRNAs that are expressed. Eleven transcriptional regulators with greater than 4 fold regulation in the previous microarray study and 2 fold regulation in the RNA-Seq analysis, were chosen to validate the data using qRT-PCR and further characterized with electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) to determine if they are direct targets of OpaR. The transcription factors chosen play key roles in virulence, surface motility, cell to cell interactions, and cell surface characteristics. One small RNA was identified in the RNA-Seq data to be quorum-sensing controlled and unidentified by other programs. The RNA-Seq data has aided in understanding and elucidating the hierarchy of quorum-sensing control of OpaR in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The wild type Vibrio parahaemolyticus BB22 strain LM5312 and an opaR deletion strain LM5674 were analyzed for mRNA expression using RNA-Seq.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Foodborne illness can occur due to various pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and can cause severe gastroenteritis symptoms. In this study, we completed the genome sequence of a foodborne pathogen V. parahaemolyticus FORC_014, which was isolated from suspected contaminated toothfish from South Korea. Additionally, we extended our knowledge of genomic characteristics of the FORC_014 strain through comparative analysis using the complete sequences of other V. parahaemolyticus strains whose complete genomes have previously been reported. RESULTS:The complete genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus FORC_014 was generated using the PacBio RS platform with single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing. The FORC_014 strain consists of two circular chromosomes (3,241,330 bp for chromosome 1 and 1,997,247 bp for chromosome 2), one plasmid (51,383 bp), and one putative phage sequence (96,896 bp). The genome contains a total of 4274 putative protein coding sequences, 126 tRNA genes and 34 rRNA genes. Furthermore, we found 33 type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) related proteins and 15 type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) related proteins on chromosome 1. This is the first reported result of Type III secretion system 2 located on chromosome 1 of V. parahaemolyticus without thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin (trh). CONCLUSIONS:Through investigation of the complete genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus FORC_014, which differs from previously reported strains, we revealed two type III secretion systems (T3SS1, T3SS2) located on chromosome 1 which do not include tdh and trh genes. We also identified several virulence factors carried by our strain, including iron uptake system, hemolysin and secretion system. This result suggests that the FORC_014 strain may be one pathogen responsible for foodborne illness outbreak. Our results provide significant genomic clues which will assist in future understanding of virulence at the genomic level and help distinguish between clinical and non-clinical isolates.