Although protein expression is regulated both temporally and spatially, most proteins have an intrinsic, "typical" range of functionally effective abundance levels. These extend from a few molecules per cell for signaling proteins, to millions of molecules for structural proteins. When addressing fundamental questions related to protein evolution, translation and folding, but also in routine laboratory work, a simple rough estimate of the average wild type abundance of each detectable protein in ...[more]
Project description:Nanoparticle (NP) delivery to solid tumors has recently been questioned. To better understand the magnitude of NP tumor delivery, we reanalyzed published murine NP tumor pharmacokinetic (PK) data used in the Wilhelm et al. study. Studies included in their analysis reporting matched tumor and blood concentration versus time data were evaluated using classical PK endpoints and compared to the unestablished percent injected dose (%ID) in tumor metric from the Wilhelm et al. study. The %ID in tumor was poorly correlated with standard PK metrics that describe NP tumor delivery (AUCtumor/AUCblood ratio) and only moderately associated with maximal tumor concentration. The relative tumor delivery of NPs was ~100-fold greater as assessed by the standard AUCtumor/AUCblood ratio than by %ID in tumor. These results strongly suggest that PK metrics and calculations can influence the interpretation of NP tumor delivery and stress the need to properly validate novel PK metrics against traditional approaches.
Project description:Ludwig's angina was first detailed by the German surgeon Wilhelm Friedrich von Ludwig in 1836. We present a case which needed awake fibreoptic intubation due to severe trismus and a prolonged period intubated in the Intensive Care Unit after incision and drainage of neck spaces and removal of his lower wisdom teeth. He was finally discharged a week after admission and followed up in the outpatient clinic. The case is presented with clinical photographs and a video of the fibreoptic intubation to illustrate the airway.
Project description:In this paper, we present the academic genealogy of presidents of the Psychometric Society by constructing a genealogical tree, in which Ph.D. students are encoded as descendants of their advisors. Results show that most of the presidents belong to five distinct lineages that can be traced to Wilhelm Wundt, James Angell, William James, Albert Michotte or Carl Friedrich Gauss. Important psychometricians Lee Cronbach and Charles Spearman play only a marginal role. The genealogy systematizes important historical knowledge that can be used to inform studies on the history of psychometrics and exposes the rich and multidisciplinary background of the Psychometric Society.
Project description:Berlin neurologist and neurohistologist Max Bielschowsky counts among the most innovative microanatomical researchers at the beginning of the twentieth century. Although being quite underrated in the history of neurology today, Bielschowsky contributed substantially to the understanding of neurohereditary pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsonism, and Huntington's chorea, as well as the assessment of structural changes in several movement disorders. Working with other leading research neurologists, such as Oskar and Cecile Vogt or Korbinian Brodmann at the newly founded Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in Berlin-Buch, he also pioneered neurohistological work on de- and regeneration processes in the Central Nervous System along with new morphological definitions of "nervous trauma."
Project description:The element lithium has been discovered 200 years ago. Due to its unique properties it has emerged to play a vital role in industry, esp. for energy storage, and lithium-based products and processes support sustainable technological developments. In addition to the many uses of lithium in its inorganic forms, lithium has a rich organometallic chemistry. The development of organometallic chemistry has been hindered by synthetic problems from the start. When Wilhelm Schlenk developed the basic principles to handle and synthesize air- and moisture-sensitive compounds, the road was open to further developments. After more information was available about the stability and solubility of such compounds, they started to play an essential role in other fields of chemistry as alkyl or aryl transfer reagents.
Project description:In 1901, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen won the Nobel prize in Physics for his discovery of the Röntgen rays or, as he himself called them, X-rays. In 1966, Dr Charles Brenton Higgins won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his breakthroughs concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer. After 31 years, in 1997, the first prospective randomised trials of the combination of hormonal therapy and radiation therapy were published, showing increased survival when compared to radiation therapy alone for patients with prostate cancer. Since 1997, many investigators have published trials combining hormonal and radiation therapy for prostate cancer. This minireview will address the largest and most influential of these trials, and attempt to guide physicians in selecting the appropriate patients for this combined approach.