Transcription profiling of Drosophila x-ray sensitive and resistant embryos after exposure to x-rays
ABSTRACT: stage 9-11 embryos are sensitive to x-ray induced cell death, while stage 13-15 embryos are highly resistant. The gene expression changes induced by x-ray in sensitve vs resistant embryos appear to be qualitatively different.
Project description:aCGH of human melanoma cell lines comparing parental (drug sensitve) vs isogenic drug resistant-derived subline Two condition experiment: two BRAF-V600E mutant cell lines (drug sensitive - parental baseline) vs two derived sublines after chronic exposure to the MEK inhibitor trametinib (drug resistant) are compared
Project description:Drosophila embryos are highly sensitive to gamma-ray-induced apoptosis at early but not later, more differentiated stages during development. Two proapoptotic genes, reaper and hid, are upregulated rapidly following irradiation. However, in post-stage-12 embryos, in which most cells have begun differentiation, neither proapoptotic gene can be induced by high doses of irradiation. Our study indicates that the sensitive-to-resistant transition is due to epigenetic blocking of the irradiation-responsive enhancer region (IRER), which is located upstream of reaper but is also required for the induction of hid in response to irradiation. This IRER, but not the transcribed regions of reaper/hid, becomes enriched for trimethylated H3K27/H3K9 and forms a heterochromatin-like structure during the sensitive-to-resistant transition. The functions of histone-modifying enzymes Hdac1(rpd3) and Su(var)3-9 and PcG proteins Su(z)12 and Polycomb are required for this process. Thus, direct epigenetic regulation of two proapoptotic genes controls cellular sensitivity to cytotoxic stimuli.
Project description:Here, male and female B6C3F1 mice were given single or fractionated whole-body exposure(s) to a monoenergetic carbon ion radiotherapy beam at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan, matching the radiation quality delivered to the normal tissue ahead of the tumour volume. These mice were then monitored for the remainder of their lifespan and a large number of T cell lymphomas were analysed, alongside those arising in mice exposed to equivalent doses of standard Cs137 gamma ray-irradiation. Using genome-wide DNA copy number analysis to identify genomic loci involved in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis and subsequent detailed analysis of Notch1, Ikaros, Pten, Trp53 and Bcl11b genes we compared the genetic profile of the carbon ion- and gamma ray-induced tumours. The canonical set of genes previously associated with radiation-induced T cell lymphoma was identified in both radiation groups. While the pattern of disruption of the various pathways was somewhat different between the radiation types, most notably Pten mutation frequency and loss of heterozygosity flanking Bcl11b, the most striking finding was the observation of large interstitial deletions at various sites across the genome in carbon ion-induced tumours, which were only seen infrequently in the gamma ray-induced tumours analysed. 32 unique tumours (12 gamma ray-induced, 20 carbon ion-induced) each with sex-matched reference DNA
Project description:Recent developments in laser-wakefield accelerators have led to compact ultrashort X/?-ray sources that can deliver peak brilliance comparable with conventional synchrotron sources. Such sources normally have low efficiencies and are limited to 107-8 photons/shot in the keV to MeV range. We present a novel scheme to efficiently produce collimated ultrabright ?-ray beams with photon energies tunable up to GeV by focusing a multi-petawatt laser pulse into a two-stage wakefield accelerator. This high-intensity laser enables efficient generation of a multi-GeV electron beam with a high density and tens-nC charge in the first stage. Subsequently, both the laser and electron beams enter into a higher-density plasma region in the second stage. Numerical simulations demonstrate that more than 1012 ?-ray photons/shot are produced with energy conversion efficiency above 10% for photons above 1 MeV, and the peak brilliance is above 1026 photons s-1 mm-2 mrad-2 per 0.1% bandwidth at 1 MeV. This offers new opportunities for both fundamental and applied research.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A long-standing conventional view of radiation-induced apoptosis is that increased exposure results in augmented apoptosis in a biological system, with a threshold below which radiation doses do not cause any significant increase in cell death. The consequences of this belief impact the extent to which malignant diseases and non-malignant conditions are therapeutically treated and how radiation is used in combination with other therapies. Our research challenges the current dogma of dose-dependent induction of apoptosis and establishes a new parallel paradigm to the photoelectric effect in biological systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored how the energy of individual X-ray photons and exposure time, both factors that determine the total dose, influence the occurrence of cell death in early Xenopus embryo. Three different experimental scenarios were analyzed and morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis were evaluated. Initially, we examined cell death events in embryos exposed to increasing incident energies when the exposure time was preset. Then, we evaluated the embryo's response when the exposure time was augmented while the energy value remained constant. Lastly, we studied the incidence of apoptosis in embryos exposed to an equal total dose of radiation that resulted from increasing the incoming energy while lowering the exposure time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our data establish that the energy of the incident photon is a major contributor to the outcome of the biological system. In particular, for embryos exposed under identical conditions and delivered the same absorbed dose of radiation, the response is significantly increased when shorter bursts of more energetic photons are used. These results suggest that biological organisms display properties similar to the photoelectric effect in physical systems and provide new insights into how radiation-mediated apoptosis should be understood and utilized for therapeutic purposes.
Project description:These experiments were undertaken with the goal of identifying genes whose expression is enriched in or restricted to the sensory rays of the C. elegans male tail. We constructed two mutant strains in which ray development is either compromised (EM672) or enhanced (EM673), and harvested mRNA from adult males. Labeled cDNAs were compared on seven arrays (representing three different sets of mRNA preps). In all experiments, Channel 1 (green) represents the EM672 expression profile and Channel 2 (Red) corresponds to EM673. Ray-enriched genes would therefore generally be expected to have higher intensities in Channel 2 than in Channel 1. Experimental details and results from these studies are available in D.S. Portman and S.W. Emmons (2004) Identification of C. elegans sensory ray genes using whole-genome expression profiling. Groups of assays that are related as part of a time series. Computed
Project description:Solid-state radiation detectors, using crystalline semiconductors to convert radiation photons to electrical charges, outperform other technologies with high detectivity and sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate a thin-film x-ray detector comprised with highly crystalline two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper phase layered perovskites fabricated in a fully depleted p-i-n architecture. It shows high diode resistivity of 1012 ohm·cm in reverse-bias regime leading to a high x-ray detecting sensitivity up to 0.276 C Gyair -1 cm-3. Such high signal is collected by the built-in potential underpinning operation of primary photocurrent device with robust operation. The detectors generate substantial x-ray photon-induced open-circuit voltages that offer an alternative detecting mechanism. Our findings suggest a new generation of x-ray detectors based on low-cost layered perovskite thin films for future x-ray imaging technologies.
Project description:Common inbred mouse strains, such as the C57BL/6 (C57) and the SWV, display differences in sensitivity to environmental teratogens during gestation. For example, the C57 is more sensitive than the SWV to cadmium (Cd) exposure during neurulation, inducing a higher incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). Here, we report, using Cd as a model teratogen, the first large scale toxicogenomic study to compare teratogen-induced gene expression alterations in C57 and SWV embryos undergoing neurulation, identifying toxicogenomic responses that associate with developmental toxicity and differential sensitivity. Using a systems-based toxicogenomic approach, comparing Cd-exposed and control C57 and SWV embryos (12- and 24-h postinjection [p.i.] [gestational day 8.0, ip]), we examined differentially expressed genes at multiple levels (biological process, pathway, gene) using Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, pathway mapping and cross-scatter plots. In both C57 and SWV embryos, we observed several gene expression alterations linked with cell cycle-related classifications, however, only in the C57 we observed upregulation of p53-dependent mediators Ccng1 and Pmaip1, previously associated with cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and NTD formation. In addition, we also identified a greater reduction in expression of nervous system development-related genes (e.g., Zic1, En2, Neurog1, Elavl4, Metrn, Nr2f1, Nr2f2) in the C57 compared to the SWV (12-h p.i.). In summary, our results indicate that differences in Cd-induced gene expression profiles between NTD resistant and sensitive strains within enriched biological processes (including developmental and cell cycle-related categories) associate with increased sensitivity to developmental toxicity as determined by observations of increased NTD formation, mortality (resorptions) and reduced fetal growth. Such observations may provide more detailed and useful mechanistic clues for identification of differences in life-stage specific teratogenic response.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>C. elegans TGF-beta-like Sma/Mab signaling pathway regulates both body size and sensory ray patterning. Most of the components in this pathway were initially identified by genetic screens based on the small body phenotype, and many of these mutants display sensory ray patterning defect. At the cellular level, little is known about how and where these components work although ray structural cell has been implicated as one of the targets. Based on the specific ray patterning abnormality, we aim to identify by RNAi approach additional components that function specifically in the ray lineage to elucidate the regulatory role of TGF-beta signaling in ray differentiation.<h4>Result</h4>We report here the characterization of a new member of the Sma/Mab pathway, mab-31, recovered from a genome-wide RNAi screen. mab-31 mutants showed ray cell cluster patterning defect and mis-specification of the ray identity. mab-31 encodes a nuclear protein expressed in descendants of ray precursor cells impacting on the ray cell's clustering properties, orientation of cell division plane, and fusion of structural cells. Genetic experiments also establish its relationship with other Sma/Mab pathway components and transcription factors acting upstream and downstream of the signaling event.<h4>Conclusion</h4>mab-31 function is indispensable in Sma/Mab signal recipient cells during sensory rays specification. Both mab-31 and sma-6 are required in ray lineage at the late larval stages. They act upstream of C. elegans Pax-6 homolog and repress its function. These findings suggested mab-31 is a key factor that can integrate TFG-beta signals in male sensory ray lineage to define organ identity.