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Omics score: 6
Transcription profiling of mouse adult male wild-type liver (M-WT), adult female wild-type liver (F-WT), adult male liver-specific HNF4alpha knockout liver (M-KO) and adult female liver-specific HNF4alpha knockout liver (F-KO) to investigate sex-dependent and HNF4alpha-dependent gene expression
ABSTRACT: A series of dual-channel gene expression profiles obtained using Rosetta/Agilent Whole Mouse Genome oligonucleotide microarrays, 4 x 44K format, was used to identify sex-dependent and HNF4alpha-dependent differences in gene expression in adult mouse liver. This series is comprised of four sex-genotype combinations: adult male wild-type liver (M-WT), adult female wild-type liver (F-WT), adult male liver-specific HNF4alpha knockout liver (M-KO) and adult female liver-specific HNF4alpha knockout liver (F-KO). Four pools, each comprised of 4 randomly selected individual liver RNAs, were prepared for each sex-genotype combination. The pools were paired randomly to generate 4 separate experimental comparisons: M-WT:F-WT (first array comparison), M-WT:M-KO (second array comparison), F-WT:F-KO (third array comparison), and M-KO:F-KO (fourth array comparison). A total of 4994 HNF4alpha-dependent genes were identified, of which ~1000 fewer genes responded to the loss of HNF4alpha in female liver as compared to male liver. Moreover, 90% of the genes showing sex-specific expression in the liver were shown to lose sex specificity in HNF4alpha-deficient liver. Experiment Overall Design: An Alexa555-labeled cDNA sample is co-hybridized with an Alexa647-labeled cDNA sample. The samples are then dye-swapped and compared again on a second microarray chip. Together, these two mixed cDNA samples are considered a fluorescent reverse pair (dye swap). Similarly, a second fluorescent reverse pair is generated and the two pairs are averaged. The normalized expression ratio for each array is reported along with the two separate intensities. In this way, dye swaps were carried out for each of the four experimental comparisons. Thus, four microarrays, one for each mixed cDNA sample, were hybridized for each of the four fluorescent reverse pairs, giving a total of 16 microarrays.
Project description:A series of dual-channel gene expression profiles obtained using Rosetta/Agilent Whole Mouse Genome oligonucleotide microarrays, 4 x 44K format, was used to identify sex-dependent and HNF4alpha-dependent differences in gene expression in adult mouse liver. This series is comprised of four sex-genotype combinations: adult male wild-type liver (M-WT), adult female wild-type liver (F-WT), adult male liver-specific HNF4alpha knockout liver (M-KO) and adult female liver-specific HNF4alpha knockout liver (F-KO). Four pools, each comprised of 4 randomly selected individual liver RNAs, were prepared for each sex-genotype combination. The pools were paired randomly to generate 4 separate experimental comparisons: M-WT:F-WT (first array comparison), M-WT:M-KO (second array comparison), F-WT:F-KO (third array comparison), and M-KO:F-KO (fourth array comparison). A total of 4994 HNF4alpha-dependent genes were identified, of which ~1000 fewer genes responded to the loss of HNF4alpha in female liver as compared to male liver. Moreover, 90% of the genes showing sex-specific expression in the liver were shown to lose sex specificity in HNF4alpha-deficient liver. Keywords: genetic knockout and sex response Overall design: An Alexa555-labeled cDNA sample is co-hybridized with an Alexa647-labeled cDNA sample. The samples are then dye-swapped and compared again on a second microarray chip. Together, these two mixed cDNA samples are considered a fluorescent reverse pair (dye swap). Similarly, a second fluorescent reverse pair is generated and the two pairs are averaged. The normalized expression ratio for each array is reported along with the two separate intensities. In this way, dye swaps were carried out for each of the four experimental comparisons. Thus, four microarrays, one for each mixed cDNA sample, were hybridized for each of the four fluorescent reverse pairs, giving a total of 16 microarrays.
Project description:The transcriptional modulator Cited2 is induced by various biological stimuli including hypoxia, cytokines, growth factors, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flow shear. In this study, we report that Cited2 is required for mouse fetal liver development. Cited2(-/-) fetal liver displays hypoplasia with higher incidence of cell apoptosis, and exhibits disrupted cell-cell contact, disorganized sinusoidal architecture, as well as impaired lipid metabolism and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrated the physical and functional interaction of Cited2 with liver-enriched transcription factor HNF4alpha. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays further confirmed the recruitment of Cited2 onto the HNF4alpha-responsive promoters and the reduced HNF4alpha binding to its target gene promoters in the absence of Cited2. Taken together, this study suggests that fetal liver defects in mice lacking Cited2 result, at least in part, from its defective coactivation function for HNF4alpha.
Project description:Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha is a liver-enriched transcription factor that regulates numerous liver-expressed genes including several sex-specific cytochrome P450 genes. Presently, a liver-specific HNF4alpha-deficient mouse model was used to characterize the impact of liver HNF4alpha deficiency on a global scale using 41,174 feature microarrays. A total of 4994 HNF4alpha-dependent genes were identified, of which about 1000 fewer genes responded to the loss of HNF4alpha in female liver as compared with male liver. Sex differences in the impact of liver HNF4alpha deficiency were even more dramatic when genes showing sex-specific expression were examined. Thus, 372 of the 646 sex-specific genes characterized by a dependence on HNF4alpha responded to the loss of HNF4alpha in males only, as compared with only 61 genes that responded in females only. Moreover, in male liver, 78% of 508 male-specific genes were down-regulated and 42% of 356 female-specific genes were up-regulated in response to the loss of HNF4alpha, with sex specificity lost for 90% of sex-specific genes. This response to HNF4alpha deficiency is similar to the response of male mice deficient in the GH-activated transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b), where 90% of male-specific genes were down-regulated and 61% of female-specific genes were up-regulated, suggesting these two factors cooperatively regulate liver sex specificity by mechanisms that are primarily active in males. Finally, 203 of 648 genes previously shown to bind HNF4alpha near the transcription start site in mouse hepatocytes were affected by HNF4alpha deficiency in mouse liver, with the HNF4alpha-bound gene set showing a 5-fold enrichment for genes positively regulated by HNF4alpha. Thus, a substantial fraction of the HNF4alpha-dependent genes reported here are likely to be direct targets of HNF4alpha.
Project description:Mutations in the coding region of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha), and its upstream promoter (P2) that drives expression in the pancreas, are known to lead to maturity-onset diabetes of the young 1 (MODY1). HNF4alpha also controls gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism in the liver, where the proximal promoter (P1) predominates. However, very little is known about the role of hepatic HNF4alpha in diabetes. Here, we examine the expression of hepatic HNF4alpha in two diabetic mouse models, db/db mice (type 2, insulin resistant) and streptozotocin-treated mice (type 1, insulin deficient). We found that the level of HNF4alpha protein and mRNA was decreased in the liver of db/db mice but increased in streptozotocin-treated mice. Because insulin increases the activity of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP)-1c and -2, we also examined the effect of SREBPs on hepatic HNF4alpha gene expression and found that, like insulin, ectopic expression of SREBPs decreases the level of hepatic HNF4alpha protein and mRNA both in vitro in primary hepatocytes and in vivo in the liver of C57BL/6 mice. Finally, we use gel shift, chromatin immunoprecipitation, small interfering RNA, and reporter gene analysis to show that SREBP2 binds the human HNF4alpha P1 promoter and negatively regulates its expression. These data indicate that hyperinsulinemia down-regulates HNF4alpha in the liver through the up-regulation of SREBPs, thereby establishing a link between these two critical transcription factor pathways that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver. These findings also provide new insights into diabetes-associated complications such as fatty liver disease.
Project description:DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenital critical region on X chromosome, gene 1) is an atypical member of the nuclear receptor family and acts as a corepressor of a number of nuclear receptors. HNF4alpha (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha) is a liver-enriched transcription factor that controls the expression of a variety of genes involved in cholesterol, fatty acid, and glucose metabolism. Here we show that DAX-1 inhibits transcriptional activity of HNF4alpha and modulates hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression. Hepatic DAX-1 expression is increased by insulin and SIK1 (salt-inducible kinase 1), whereas it is decreased in high fat diet-fed and diabetic mice. Coimmunoprecipitation assay from mouse liver samples depicts that endogenous DAX-1 interacts with HNF4alpha in vivo. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assay affirms that the recruitment of DAX-1 on the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene promoter is inversely correlated with the recruitment of PGC-1alpha and HNF4alpha under fasting and refeeding, showing that DAX-1 could compete with the coactivator PGC-1alpha for binding to HNF4alpha. Adenovirus-mediated expression of DAX-1 decreased both HNF4alpha- and forskolin-mediated gluconeogenic gene expressions. In addition, knockdown of DAX-1 partially reverses the insulin-mediated inhibition of gluconeogenic gene expression in primary hepatocytes. Finally, DAX-1 inhibits PEPCK and glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression and significantly lowers fasting blood glucose level in high fat diet-fed mice, suggesting that DAX-1 can modulate hepatic gluconeogenesis in vivo. Overall, this study demonstrates that DAX-1 acts as a corepressor of HNF4alpha to negatively regulate hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression in liver.
Project description:BACKGROUND: To analyze gene function in mammalian cells tetracycline inducible expression of a gene-of-interest at a specific genomic location (Flp-In T-REx) is most attractive. However, leakiness of basal transgene expression and artificially high expression level upon tetracycline addition may be disadvantageous. FINDINGS: To solve these problems, we developed two different approaches to improve our pancreatic beta-cell line INS-1 Flp-In T-REx expressing the tissue restricted transcription factor HNF4alpha under control of tetracycline. On the one hand we replaced the strong full length CMV promoter (CMV-Wt) with a weaker 5'-deleted CMV promoter fragment of 138 nucleotides in length (CMV-138). On the other hand we extended our INS-1 Flp-In T-REx cell lines with a Shield-1 dependent conditional control system of protein stability. Therefore, we fused HNF4alpha to the destabilization domain (DD) deduced from human FKBP12 protein. As a result in both approaches basal transgene expression level was markedly reduced, but HNF4alpha induction could still be maintained. Additionally, we could show that a low increase in HNF4alpha induces caspase activity indicating an apoptotic effect of HNF4alpha in these cells. CONCLUSION: In the present study we considerably improved our INS-1 Flp-In T-REx cell lines conditionally expressing HNF4alpha to reduce leakiness and to optimize exogenous HNF4alpha protein expression to a physiological level. As an important result we could extend our previous results that HNF4alpha induces apoptosis in the pancreatic beta-cell line INS-1 with the new aspect that an expression level of the HNF4alpha transgene marginally exceeding the endogenous level is sufficient to trigger apoptosis.
Project description:Plasma GH profiles regulate the sexually dimorphic expression of cytochromes P450 and many other genes in rat and mouse liver; however, the proximal transcriptional regulators of these genes are unknown. Presently, we characterize three liver transcription factors that are expressed in adult female rat and mouse liver at levels up to 16-fold [thymus high-mobility group box protein (Tox)], 73-fold [tripartite motif-containing 24 (Trim24)/transcription initiation factor-1alpha (TIF1alpha)], and 125-fold [cut-like 2 (Cutl2)/cut homeobox 2 (Cux2)] higher than in adult males, depending on the strain and species, with Tox expression only detected in mice. In rats, these sex differences first emerged at puberty, when the high prepubertal expression of Cutl2 and Trim24 was extinguished in males but was further increased in females. Rat hepatic expression of Cutl2 and Trim24 was abolished by hypophysectomy and, in the case of Cutl2, was restored to near-female levels by continuous GH replacement. Cutl2 and Trim24 were increased to female-like levels in livers of intact male rats and mice treated with GH continuously (female GH pattern), whereas Tox expression reached only about 40% of adult female levels. Expression of all three genes was also elevated to normal female levels or higher in male mice whose plasma GH profile was feminized secondary to somatostatin gene disruption. Cutl2 and Trim24 both responded to GH infusion in mice within 10-24 h and Tox within 4 d, as compared with at least 4-7 d required for the induced expression of several continuous GH-regulated cytochromes P450 and other female-specific hepatic genes. Cutl2, Trim24, and Tox were substantially up-regulated in livers of male mice deficient in either of two transcription factors implicated in GH regulation of liver sex specificity, namely, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha), with sex-specific expression being substantially reduced or lost in mice deficient in either nuclear factor. Cutl2 and Trim24 both display transcriptional repressor activity and could thus contribute to the loss of GH-regulated, male-specific liver gene expression seen in male mice deficient in STAT5b or HNF4alpha. Binding sites for Cutl1, whose DNA-binding specificity is close to that of Cutl2, were statistically overrepresented in STAT5b-dependent male-specific mouse genes, lending support to this hypothesis.
Project description:The transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha) is a tissue specific transcription factor mainly expressed in the liver, kidney, intestine and the endocrine pancreas, but is also an essential regulator for early embryonic events. Based on its protein structure HNF4alpha is classified as an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Comparing HNF4alpha transcription factors in the differentiated and dedifferentiated murine hepatocyte cell line MHSV-12 we identified in dedifferentiated cells the novel splice variant HNF4alpha7. This variant is characterized by an alternative first exon and has a lower transactivation potential in transient transfection assays using HNF4 dependent reporter genes. HNF4alpha7 mRNA and the corresponding protein are expressed in the undifferentiated pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cell line F9, whereas HNF4alpha1 only appears after differentiation of F9 cells to visceral endoderm. HNF4alpha7 mRNA is also found in totipotent embryonic stem cells. However, the function of HNF4alpha7 seems not to be restricted to embryonic cells as the HNF4alpha7 mRNA is also present in adult tissues, most notably the stomach. All these features suggest that the presence of distinct splice variants of HNF4alpha modulates the activity of HNF4alphain a cell type specific way.
Project description:The role of HNF4alpha has been extensively studied in hepatocytes and pancreatic beta-cells, and HNF4alpha is also regarded as a key regulator of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. The aim of the present work is to identify novel HNF4alpha target genes in the human intestinal epithelial cells in order to elucidate the role of HNF4alpha in the intestinal differentiation progress.We have performed a ChIP-chip analysis of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 in order to make a genome-wide identification of HNF4alpha binding to promoter regions. The HNF4alpha ChIP-chip data was matched with gene expression and histone H3 acetylation status of the promoters in order to identify HNF4alpha binding to actively transcribed genes with an open chromatin structure.1,541 genes were identified as potential HNF4alpha targets, many of which have not previously been described as being regulated by HNF4alpha. The 1,541 genes contributed significantly to gene ontology (GO) pathways categorized by lipid and amino acid transport and metabolism. An analysis of the homeodomain transcription factor Cdx-2 (CDX2), the disaccharidase trehalase (TREH), and the tight junction protein cingulin (CGN) promoters verified that these genes are bound by HNF4alpha in Caco2 cells. For the Cdx-2 and trehalase promoters the HNF4alpha binding was verified in mouse small intestine epithelium.The HNF4alpha regulation of the Cdx-2 promoter unravels a transcription factor network also including HNF1alpha, all of which are transcription factors involved in intestinal development and gene expression.
Project description:The liver is exposed to a wide variety of toxic agents, many of which damage DNA and result in increased levels of the tumour suppressor protein p53. We have previously shown that p53 inhibits the transactivation function of HNF (hepatocyte nuclear factor) 4alpha1, a nuclear receptor known to be critical for early development and liver differentiation. In the present study we demonstrate that p53 also down-regulates expression of the human HNF4alpha gene via the proximal P1 promoter. Overexpression of wild-type p53 down-regulated endogenous levels of both HNF4alpha protein and mRNA in Hep3B cells. This decrease was also observed when HepG2 cells were exposed to UV irradiation or doxorubicin, both of which increased endogenous p53 protein levels. Ectopically expressed p53, but not a mutant p53 defective in DNA binding (R249S), down-regulated HNF4alpha P1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation also showed that endogenous p53 bound the HNF4alpha P1 promoter in vivo after doxorubicin treatment. The mechanism by which p53 down-regulates the P1 promoter appears to be multifaceted. The down-regulation was partially recovered by inhibition of HDAC activity and appears to involve the positive regulator HNF6alpha. p53 bound HNF6alpha in vivo and in vitro and prevented HNF6alpha from binding DNA in vitro. p53 also repressed stimulation of the P1 promoter by HNF6alpha in vivo. However, since the R249S p53 mutant also bound HNF6alpha, binding HNF6alpha is apparently not sufficient for the repression. Implications of the p53-mediated repression of HNF4alpha expression in response to cellular stress are discussed.