SiRNA knockdown of NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase (hNAT5) expression in human Hela cells with specific siRNAs
ABSTRACT: Search for genes differently expressed when we inhibit NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase. We compare gene expression after inhibiting hNAT5 expression in Hela cells with specific siRNAs expressed with adenoviruses. Experiment Overall Design: We analyzed duplicate samples and we used as controls Hela cells and Hela cells that express a siRNA that doesn't inhibit any gene expression. Experiment Overall Design: The N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB, composed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the Nat3p and Mdm20p subunits, is an important factor for yeast growth and resistance to several stress agents. However, the expression and functional role of the mammalian counterpart has not yet been analysed. Here, we report the identification of Nat3p human homologue (hNAT5/hNAT3) and the characterization of its biological function. We found that hNAT5/hNAT3 silencing in HeLa cells results in inhibition of cell proliferation and increased sensitivity to the proapoptotic agent MG132. Moreover, inhibition of hNAT5/hNAT3 expression induces p53 activation and upregulation of the antiproliferative protein p21(WAF1/CIP1). The changes of the cellular transcriptome after hNAT5/hNAT3 knockdown confirmed the involvement of this protein in cell growth and survival processes. Among the genes differentially expressed we observed upregulation of several p53-dependent antiproliferative and proapoptotic genes. In the c-myc transgenic mice which is a model of inducible hepatocarcinoma we found that hNAT5/hNAT3 was upregulated when the tumor was induced. In accordance with this observation we noticed increased hNAT5/hNAT3 protein level in neoplastic versus non-neoplastic tissue in a high proportion of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Consequently, our results suggest that the expression of the protein hNAT5/hNAT3 is required for cellular proliferation and tumor growth.
Project description:Search for genes differently expressed when we inhibit NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase. We compare gene expression after inhibiting hNAT5 expression in Hela cells with specific siRNAs expressed with adenoviruses. Keywords: gene expression comparison Overall design: We analyzed duplicate samples and we used as controls Hela cells and Hela cells that express a siRNA that doesn't inhibit any gene expression. The N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB, composed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the Nat3p and Mdm20p subunits, is an important factor for yeast growth and resistance to several stress agents. However, the expression and functional role of the mammalian counterpart has not yet been analysed. Here, we report the identification of Nat3p human homologue (hNAT5/hNAT3) and the characterization of its biological function. We found that hNAT5/hNAT3 silencing in HeLa cells results in inhibition of cell proliferation and increased sensitivity to the proapoptotic agent MG132. Moreover, inhibition of hNAT5/hNAT3 expression induces p53 activation and upregulation of the antiproliferative protein p21(WAF1/CIP1). The changes of the cellular transcriptome after hNAT5/hNAT3 knockdown confirmed the involvement of this protein in cell growth and survival processes. Among the genes differentially expressed we observed upregulation of several p53-dependent antiproliferative and proapoptotic genes. In the c-myc transgenic mice which is a model of inducible hepatocarcinoma we found that hNAT5/hNAT3 was upregulated when the tumor was induced. In accordance with this observation we noticed increased hNAT5/hNAT3 protein level in neoplastic versus non-neoplastic tissue in a high proportion of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Consequently, our results suggest that the expression of the protein hNAT5/hNAT3 is required for cellular proliferation and tumor growth.
Project description:Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) has been implicated as a key modulator of lymphomagenesis. Whether PRMT5 has overt oncogenic function in the context of leukemia/lymphoma and whether it represents a therapeutic target remains to be established. We demonstrate that inactivation of PRMT5 inhibits colony-forming activity by multiple oncogenic drivers, including cyclin D1, c-MYC, NOTCH1, and MLL-AF9. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PRMT5 overexpression specifically cooperates with cyclin D1 to drive lymphomagenesis in a mouse model, revealing inherent neoplastic activity. Molecular analysis of lymphomas revealed that arginine methylation of p53 selectively suppresses expression of crucial proapoptotic and antiproliferative target genes, thereby sustaining tumor cell self-renewal and proliferation and bypassing the need for the acquisition of inactivating p53 mutations. Critically, analysis of human tumor specimens reveals a strong correlation between cyclin D1 overexpression and p53 methylation, supporting the biomedical relevance of this pathway.We have identified and functionally validated a crucial role for PRMT5 for the inhibition of p53-dependent tumor suppression in response to oncogenic insults. The requisite role for PRMT5 in the context of multiple lymphoma/leukemia oncogenic drivers suggests a molecular rationale for therapeutic development.
Project description:Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a yellow-colored polyphenol with antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities to various types of cancer cells. This study explored the mechanism by which curcumin induces p53-null hepatoma cell apoptosis.AKT, FOXO1, and FOXO3 proteins were downregulated after curcumin treatment. Conversely, PTEN was upregulated. Subcellular fractionations revealed that the FOXO4 protein translocated from cytosol into the nucleus after curcumin treatment. Overexpression of FOXO4 increases the sensitivity of Hep3B cells to curcumin. Knockdown of the FOXO4 gene by siRNA inhibits the proapoptotic effects of curcumin on Hep3B cell.This study revealed the AKT/PTEN/FOXO4 pathway as a potential candidate of target for treatment of p53-null liver cancers.
Project description:Scoulerine is an isoquinoline alkaloid, which indicated promising suppression of cancer cells growth. However, the mode of action (MOA) remained unclear. Cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties were determined in this study. Scoulerine reduces the mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity of the evaluated leukemic cells with IC50 values ranging from 2.7 to 6.5?µM. The xCELLigence system revealed that scoulerine exerted potent antiproliferative activity in lung, ovarian and breast carcinoma cell lines. Jurkat and MOLT-4 leukemic cells treated with scoulerine were decreased in proliferation and viability. Scoulerine acted to inhibit proliferation through inducing G2 or M-phase cell cycle arrest, which correlates well with the observed breakdown of the microtubule network, increased Chk1 Ser345, Chk2 Thr68 and mitotic H3 Ser10 phosphorylation. Scoulerine was able to activate apoptosis, as determined by p53 upregulation, increase caspase activity, Annexin V and TUNEL labeling. Results highlight the potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic function of scoulerine in cancer cells caused by its ability to interfere with the microtubule elements of the cytoskeleton, checkpoint kinase signaling and p53 proteins. This is the first study of the mechanism of scoulerine at cellular and molecular level. Scoulerine is a potent antimitotic compound and that it merits further investigation as an anticancer drug.
Project description:Regioselective synthesis of novel ring A-fused arylpyrazoles of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was carried out in two steps under facile reaction conditions. Aldol condensation of DHT with acetaldehyde afforded a 2-ethylidene derivative regio- and stereo-selectively, which was reacted with different arylhydrazines in the presence of iodine via microwave-assisted oxidative cyclization reactions. The 17-keto analogs of steroidal pyrazoles were also synthesized by simple oxidation in order to enlarge the compound library available for pharmacological studies and to obtain structure-activity relationship. The antiproliferative activities of the structurally related heteroaromatic compounds were tested in vitro on human cervical and breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (HeLa, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and on two androgen-independent malignant prostate carcinoma cell lines (PC-3 and DU 145). Based on primary cytotoxicity screens and IC50 assessment, a structure-function relationship was identified, as derivatives carrying a hydroxyl group on C-17 exhibit stronger activity compared to the 17-one counterparts. Cancer cell selectivity of the derivatives was also determined using non-cancerous MRC-5 cells. Furthermore, the proapoptotic effects of some selected derivatives were verified on androgen therapy refractive p53-deficient PC-3 cells. The present study concludes that novel DHT-derived arylpyrazoles exert cancer cell specific antiproliferative activity and activate apoptosis in PC-3 cells.
Project description:Activation of p53 by DNA damage results in either cell-cycle arrest, allowing DNA repair and cell survival, or induction of apoptosis. As these opposite outcomes are both mediated by p53 stabilization, additional mechanisms to determine this decision must exist. Here, we show that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is required for the p53-mediated induction of the proapoptotic BH3 only-protein PUMA, an essential mediator of p53-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK-3 protected from cell death induced by DNA damage and promoted increased long-term cell survival. We demonstrate that GSK-3 phosphorylates serine 86 of the p53-acetyltransferase Tip60. A Tip60(S86A) mutant was less active to induce p53 K120 acetylation, histone 4 acetylation, and expression of PUMA. Our data suggest that GSK-3 mediated Tip60S86 phosphorylation provides a link between PI3K signaling and the choice for or against apoptosis induction by p53.
Project description:The nucleobase 2-amino-6-chloropurine-modified polyamidoamine (AP-PAMAM) was used as a carrier for p53 gene delivery to achieve the antitumor effects.The condensation of p53 plasmid was studied through gel retardation assay, and the transfection efficiency was evaluated through the transfection assay of pEGFP-N3 and pGL-3 plasmids. Using human cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa as a model, the inhibition of cell proliferation and migration was studied through flow cytometry, wound healing and Transwell migration assays, respectively. The p53 expression level was detected through quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses.The carrier could condense p53 plasmid into stable nanoparticles at N/P ratios of 2.0, and higher transfection efficiency than polyamidoamine (PAMAM) could be obtained at all the N/P ratios studied. AP-PAMAM-mediated p53 delivery could achieve stronger antiproliferative effect than PAMAM/p53. The antiproliferative effect was identified to be triggered by the induction of cell apoptosis (apoptotic ratio of 26.17%) and cell cycle arrest at S phase. Additionally, AP-PAMAM/p53 transfection has been found to suppress the cell migration and invasion of cancer cells. Finally, the enhanced p53 expression level could be detected after p53 transfection at mRNA and protein levels.The PAMAM derivative-mediated p53 delivery could be a promising strategy for achieving tumor gene therapy.
Project description:In mammals, MYST family histone acetyltransferase MOF plays important roles in transcription activation by acetylating histone H4 on K16, a prevalent mark associated with chromatin decondensation, and transcription factor p53 on K120, which is important for activation of proapoptotic genes. However, little is known about MOF regulation in higher eukaryotes. Here, we report that the acetyltransferase activity of MOF is tightly regulated in two different but evolutionarily conserved complexes, MSL and MOF-MSL1v1. Importantly, we demonstrate that while the two MOF complexes have indistinguishable activity on histone H4 K16, they differ dramatically in acetylating nonhistone substrate p53. We further demonstrate that MOF-MSL1v1 is specifically required for optimal transcription activation of p53 target genes both in vitro and in vivo. Our results support a model that these two MOF complexes regulate distinct stages of transcription activation in cooperation with other histone modifying activities.
Project description:Mutations in p53 are a common cause of resistance of cancers to standard chemotherapy and, thus, treatment failure. Reports have shown that Tax, a human T-cell leukemia virus type I encoded protein that has been associated with genomic instability and perturbation of transcription and cell cycle, sensitizes HeLa cells to UV treatment. The extent to which Tax can sensitize cells and the mechanism by which it exerts its effect are unknown. In this study, we show that Tax sensitizes p53-mutant cells to a broad range of DNA-damaging agents, including mitomycin C, a bifunctional alkylator, etoposide, a topoisomerase II drug, and UV light, but not ionizing radiation, a double-strand break agent, or vinblastine, a tubulin poison. Tax caused hypersensitivity in all p53-deleted cell lines and several, but not all, mutant-expressed p53-containing cell lines, while unexpectedly being protective in p53 wild-type (wt) cells. The effect observed in p53-deleted lines could be reversed for this by transfection of wt p53. We also show that Tax activates a p53-independent proapoptotic program through decreased expression of the retinoblastoma protein and subsequent increased E2F1 expression. The expression of several proapoptotic proteins was also induced by Tax, including Puma and Noxa, culminating in a substantial increase in Bax dimerization. Our results show that Tax can sensitize p53-mutant cells to DNA damage while protecting p53 wt cells, a side benefit that might result in reduced toxicity in normal cells. Such studies hold the promise of a novel adjunctive therapy that could make cancer chemotherapy more effective.
Project description:Infections with certain human papillomaviruses (HPV), such as type 16 (HPV16), 18, or 31, are a necessary risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. Transcript analyses of several HPV revealed that the viral E2 gene encodes both the E2 regulator protein and the E8?E2C protein, which differ in their amino termini. Up to now, functional studies have focused on HPV31 E8?E2C and demonstrated that it is a potent repressor of viral transcription and replication. However, recent analyses of HPV16 genomes have suggested that E8?E2C proteins may differ in their activities. Therefore, we performed a comparative analysis of E8?E2C proteins of HPV16, -18, and -31. All E8?E2C proteins potently inhibited HPV E6/E7 oncogene promoters, and also displayed long-distance transcriptional-repression activities. Furthermore, the expression of all E8?E2C proteins inhibited the growth of HeLa cells. Expression of E8?E2C proteins rapidly increased the protein levels of the E6 and E7 targets p53 and p21, consistent with the repression of the endogenous HPV18 E6/E7 promoter. All E8?E2C proteins induced G(1) arrest more efficiently than E2 proteins and activated senescence markers. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the 31E8 domain can be functionally replaced by the KRAB repression domain derived from KOX1. The KRAB-E2C fusion protein possesses long-distance transcriptional-repression activity and inhibits the growth of HeLa cells comparably to E8?E2C. Taken together, our results suggest that the E8?E2C proteins of HPV16, -18, and -31 are highly conserved transcriptional repressors that inhibit the growth of HeLa cells by repression of E6/E7 transcription but do not have proapoptotic activities.