Transcription profiling of human large B cell lymphoma treated with chemotherapy plus Rituximab to predict outcomes
ABSTRACT: Gene expression profiling of DLBCL patient samples was performed to investigate, whether molecular gene expression signatures retain their prognostic significance in patients treated with chemotherapy plus Rituximab. The lymphnode, germinal center signature and a new angiogenesis signature were combined to a final multivariate model which defined quartile groups among Rituximab-CHOP-treated patients with distinct 3-year overall survival rates. Experiment Overall Design: The retrospective study included 181 clinical samples from CHOP-treated patients and 233 clinical samples from Rituximab-CHOP-treated patients.
Project description:Gene expression profiling of DLBCL patient samples was performed to investigate, whether molecular gene expression signatures retain their prognostic significance in patients treated with chemotherapy plus Rituximab. The lymphnode, germinal center signature and a new angiogenesis signature were combined to a final multivariate model which defined quartile groups among Rituximab-CHOP-treated patients with distinct 3-year overall survival rates. Keywords: clinical history design Overall design: The retrospective study included 181 clinical samples from CHOP-treated patients and 233 clinical samples from Rituximab-CHOP-treated patients.
Project description:Survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients has improved by inclusion of rituximab. Refractory/recurrent disease caused by treatment resistance is, however, a major problem. Determinants of rituximab sensitivity are not fully understood, but effect of rituximab are enhanced by antagonizing cell surface receptor CXCR4. In a two-step strategy, we tested the hypothesis that prognostic value of CXCR4 in DLBCL relates to rituximab treatment, due to a hampering effect of CXCR4 on the response of DLBCL cells to rituximab. First, by investigating the prognostic impact of CXCR4 mRNA expression separately for CHOP (n=181) and R-CHOP (n=233) cohorts and, second, by assessing the interaction between CXCR4 and rituximab in DLBCL cell lines. High CXCR4 expression level was significantly associated with poor outcome only for R-CHOP-treated patients, independent of IPI score, CD20 expression, ABC/GCB and B-cell-associated gene signature (BAGS) classifications. s. For responsive cell lines, inverse correlation was observed between rituximab sensitivity and CXCR4 surface expression, rituximab induced upregulation of surface-expressed CXCR4, and growth-inhibitory effect of rituximab increased by plerixafor, supporting negative impact of CXCR4 on rituximab function. In conclusion, CXCR4 is a promising independent prognostic marker for R-CHOP-treated DLBCL patients, possibly due to inverse correlation between CXCR4 expression and rituximab sensitivity.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:Real-world data about the treatment outcomes of patients receiving rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy followed by rituximab maintenance are required to understand better the treatment for follicular lymphoma (FL). METHODS:A cross-sectional study analyzed FL patients who were treated with R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone) or R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and rituximab maintenance. RESULTS:Of 139 patients, 85 patients received R-CVP and 54 received R-CHOP. The characteristics did not differ significantly between the groups. Only grade 3 of FL was more common in R-CHOP. The complete response rate did not differ significantly between R-CHOP (50/54, 92.6%) and R-CVP (77/85, 90.6%). The number of disease relapses during rituximab maintenance did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.798). Therefore, the comparison of progression-free survival (PFS) showed no significant difference: the 3-year PFS rates for R-CVP and R-CHOP were 77% and 85%, respectively (p = 0.567). Although five of 56 hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antibody (anti-HBc)-positive patients experienced HBV reactivation, all cases of HBV reactivation were identified during regular monitoring for HBV DNA in blood, and were successfully managed with antiviral treatment. CONCLUSION:The survival outcomes of FL patients on rituximab maintenance after responding to R-CVP or R-CHOP were similar. Rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy followed by rituximab maintenance can be safely used for anti-HBc-positive patients if HBV DNA titer in blood can be regularly monitored.
Project description:Expression of CD44 splice isoforms has been previously reported to correlate with inferior outcomes in DLBCL patients treated with CHOP therapy. However, it is unclear whether this observation remains valid in the R-CHOP era. In this study, we correlated CD44H and CD44v6 status with survival outcomes among DLBCL patients with an emphasis on the comparison between CHOP- and R-CHOP-treated subgroups. Our results suggest that rituximab has significantly decreased the prognostic value of CD44H. We also observed that the therapeutic benefit of rituximab is largely restricted to CD44H-positive cases in this cohort.
Project description:Fcγ receptor (FcγR) polymorphisms have been shown to affect rituximab-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Of 512 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated in the RICOVER-60 trial, carriers of FcγRIII 158 valine homozygous receptors (V/V) presented with a slightly decreased incidence of B-symptoms (158 V/V: 26%, V/F: 35%, phenylalanine receptors [F/F]: 42%; P = .037). Survival curves of all FcγR single nucleotide polymorphisms were superimposable after cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP); but after CHOP with rituximab (R-CHOP), event-free survival (EFS) and progression-free survival (PFS), but not overall survival, of FcγRIIIa 158 F/F had a trend to be lower than those of 158 V/F and 158 V/V: 3-year EFS: FcγRIIIa 158 F/F: 64.5%, 158 V/F: 70.2%, 158 V/V: 76.9% (log-rank test: P = .224 F/F vs V/V; P = .285 F/F vs V/F + V/V); 3-year PFS: FcγRIIIa 158 F/F: 68.3%, V/F: 76.1%, V/V: 80.5% (log-rank test: P = .233 for F/F vs V/V; P = .185 for F/F vs V/F + V/V). By multivariate analysis adjusting for International Prognostic Index factors, relative risk of F/F compared with V/F plus V/V was 1.80 (P = .052) for PFS and 1.55 (P = .120) for EFS. The interaction of R-CHOP, but not CHOP with FcγRIIIa polymorphisms, indicates a window of opportunity for CD20 antibodies designed to mediate enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.
Project description:Rituximab-containing chemotherapy regimens constitute standard first-line therapy for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Since June 2013, 190 patients ?18 years of age with MCL in British Columbia have been treated with bendamustine and rituximab (BR). The overall response rate to BR was 88% (54% complete response). Of these, 61 of 89 patients (69%) aged ?65 years received autologous stem cell transplantation and 141 of 190 patients (74%) from the entire cohort received maintenance rituximab. Twenty-three patients (12%) had progressive disease, associated with high risk per the Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI), Ki-67 ?50%, and blastoid/pleomorphic histology. Outcomes were compared with a historical cohort of 248 patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP; January 2003 to May 2013). Treatment with BR was associated with significant improvements in progression-free survival (PFS), but not overall survival (OS), compared with R-CHOP in the whole cohort (3-year PFS, 66% BR vs 51% R-CHOP, P = .003; 3-year OS, 73% BR vs 66% R-CHOP, P = .054) and in those >65 years of age (3-year PFS, 56% BR vs 35% R-CHOP, P = .001; 3-year OS, 64% BR vs 55% R-CHOP, P = .063). Outcomes in transplanted patients were not statistically significantly different compared with R-CHOP (3-year PFS, 85% BR vs 76% R-CHOP, P = .135; 3-year OS, 90% BR vs 88% R-CHOP, P = .305), although in multivariate analyses, treatment with BR was associated with improved PFS (hazard ratio, 0.40 [95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.94]; P = .036) but not OS. BR is an effective first-line option for most patients with MCL, however, outcomes are suboptimal for those with high-risk features and further studies integrating novel agents are warranted.
Project description:PURPOSE:We have previously shown the prognostic significance of BCL2 expression in the activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) patients treated with cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like therapy. However, after the inclusion of rituximab (R) in the CHOP regimen, several conflicting observations about the prognostic value of BCL2 expression have been reported. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We evaluated the R-CHOP cohort of 221 DLBCL cases with gene expression profiling data. BCL2 protein (n = 169), mRNA (n = 221) expression, and t(14;18) (n = 144) were correlated with clinical outcome. The CHOP cohort (n = 181) was used for comparative analysis. RESULTS:BCL2 protein expression has significant impact on overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) in DLBCL (OS, P = 0.009; EFS, P = 0.001) and GCB-DLBCL (OS, P = 0.03; EFS, P = 0.002) but not in ABC-DLBCL in the R-CHOP cohort. The survival differences for EFS in GCB-DLBCL were still observed in multivariate analysis. At the mRNA level, this correlation was observed in EFS in DLBCL (P = 0.006), but only a trend was observed in GCB-DLBCL (P = 0.09). The t(14;18) was detected in 34% of GCB-DLBCL but was not associated with significant differences in survival. Gene enrichment analysis identified significant enrichment of the DLBCL "stromal-1" signatures and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1-?) signature in BCL2(-)GCB-DLBCL, whereas T(FH) cell signatures were enriched in BCL2(+)GCB-DLBCL. CONCLUSION:The prognostic significance of BCL2 has changed after inclusion of rituximab in the treatment protocol and is observed in the GCB-DLBCL rather than the ABC-DLBCL. Although rituximab has benefited patients in both DLBCL subgroups, the BCL2(+)GCB-DLBCL seems to receive less benefit from this treatment and may require other novel therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Treatment with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) has greatly improved clinical outcomes in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) compared with CHOP. The mechanism of rituximab-induced cell death is poorly understood. We found that rituximab does not enhance the directly killing efficacy of CHOP, as tested on a panel of DLBCL cell lines. Rituximab induced a rapid release of HMGB1 (High mobility group protein B 1). This release is independent of cell death but significantly correlated with an inhibition on STAT3 activity. In the resting state, HMGB1 co-localizes and interacts with STAT3 in the nucleus of DLBCL cells. Treatment with rituximab breaks this binding and triggers HMGB1 release. Treatment with R-CHOP but not CHOP significantly increased plasma HMGB1 and decreased IL-10 concentrations in DLBCL patients compared with controls. The conditioned medium from rituximab-treated DLBCL cells is able to trigger dendritic cell maturation, phagocytosis, and IFN-? secretion by cytotoxic T cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that rituximab induces an inhibition on STAT3 activity, leading to increased HMGB1 release and decreased IL-10 secretion, which elicits immune responses, suggesting that indirect effects on the immune system rather than direct killing contribute to elimination of DLBCL.
Project description:De novo CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are a distinct subgroup of DLBCL with poor prognosis. However the role of rituximab-containing therapy and salvage stem cell transplantation in this patients' population remain to be defined. We retrospectively reviewed clinical features and outcomes of 102 patients with de novo CD5+ DLBCL treated with rituximab-containing therapy at nine different institutions. By Hans' criteria, 64 patients had activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, 24 germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype, and 14 were not evaluated. No patients had a myc translocation. Eighty-three patients were treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (R-CHOP), 7 with rituximab, etoposide, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (R-EPOCH), and 6 with R-CHOP with methotrexate, 3 g/m(2) . The overall response rate to front-line therapy was 85%. The 3-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 40 and 65%, respectively. The 3-year PFS for ABC- and GCB-subtypes was 34 and 45%, respectively. The 3-year OS for ABC- and GCB-subtypes was 62 and 67%, respectively. The median time to second treatment failure was 3 months and 1 month for ABC- and GCB-subtypes, respectively. Twenty of 28 (71%) transplanted patients with autologous, allogeneic, or both, relapsed. This study confirms the poor prognosis of de novo CD5+ DLBCL in a large multi-center cohort despite initial rituximab-containing chemotherapy and suggests that stem cell transplantation fails to salvage the majority of these patients. Approaches to prevent recurrence and/or novel therapies for relapsed disease are needed for this subgroup of DLBCL patients.
Project description:Gene expression profiles have been associated with clinical outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Using Affymetrix HU133A microarrays, we analyzed the lymphoma transcriptional profile of 30 patients treated with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) and 23 patients treated with rituximab (R)-CHOP in the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte clinical centers. We used this data set to select transcripts showing an association with progression-free survival in all patients or showing a differential effect in the two treatment groups. We performed real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in the 23 R-CHOP samples of the screening set and an additional 44 R-CHOP samples set to evaluate the prognostic significance of these transcripts. In these 67 patients, the level of expression of 16 genes and the cell-of-origin classification were significantly associated with overall survival, independently of the International Prognostic Index. A multivariate model comprising four genes of the cell-of-origin signature (LMO2, MME, LPP and FOXP1) and two genes related to immune response, identified for their differential effects in R-CHOP patients (APOBEC3G and RAB33A), demonstrated a high predictive efficiency in this set of patients, suggesting that both features affect outcome in DLBCL patients receiving immunochemotherapy.