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Omics score: 2
Wind-responsive changes in poplar leaves of different developmental stages
ABSTRACT: A developmental series of wind-treated Populus leaf tissue was subjected to array analyses in order to address the issue of age-dependent responsiveness to environmental changes. The following developmental stages were defined for the experiment: Y – “youngest leaf” including the shoot tip = smallest fully enrolled leaf; E – “expanded leaf” = oldest leaf that had not reached full leaf thickness; M – “mature leaf” = 5th leaf below E = has reached full leaf expansion and full leaf thickness; O – “old leaf” = 5th leaf below E. Keywords: transcription profiling Two-condition experiment, control (K) vs. Wind-treated (W) leaves. Biological replicates: 3 control (1-3), wind-exposed (1-3), independently grown and harvested. One swap replicate per array.
Project description:Drought-treated and corresponding control root tissue of poplar was subjected to array analyses Two-condition experiment, control (K) vs. Drought-stressed (S) leaves. Biological replicates: 3 control (1-3), drought-exposed (1-3), independently grown and harvested. One swap replicate per array.
Project description:A developmental series of wind-treated Populus leaf tissue was subjected to array analyses in order to address the issue of age-dependent responsiveness to environmental changes. The following developmental stages were defined for the experiment: Y – “youngest leaf” including the shoot tip = smallest fully enrolled leaf; E – “expanded leaf” = oldest leaf that had not reached full leaf thickness; M – “mature leaf” = 5th leaf below E = has reached full leaf expansion and full leaf thickness; O – “old leaf” = 5th leaf below E. Keywords: transcription profiling Overall design: Two-condition experiment, control (K) vs. Wind-treated (W) leaves. Biological replicates: 3 control (1-3), wind-exposed (1-3), independently grown and harvested. One swap replicate per array.
Project description:We study differences in gene expression between Populus P35S::BL (BL-oe) lines and control, affecting plant growth and differentiation, and dormancy. We used microarrays to detail the global program of gene expression underlying morphological and developmental changes droved by overexpression of BL gene. We identified an activation tagging mutant with increased leaf size and correspondingly name it BIG LEAF (BL). We positioned the tag, localized a putative candidate gene and verified transcription activation. The activated gene encodes a WD40 putative transcription regulator similar to the Arabidopsis thaliana STERILE APETALA (SAP). We recapitulated the phenotype by overexpression of the gene into the same genotype under strong constitutive promoter (P35S::BL, BL-oe). Transgenic up-regulation of the BL gene caused enhanced leaf size, early bud-break, and suppression of secondary growth. BL transcript abundance in wild type plants is in apical tissues, mostly in shoot meristem, leaf primordia and axillary meristem. Our data indicates that BL plays an important role in the process of tree growth. Poplar apex, secondary stem (30th internode), and leaves (at 30 node) was selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We sought to obtain expression of affected genes in P35S::BL lines and control wild type (WT-717), in order to increase the resolution of expression profiles inducing the developmental changes in P35S::BL. To do that, we selected apex, stem and leaf tissue from greenhouse healthy plants.
Project description:Leaf shape, including leaf size, leaf dissection index (LDI), and venation distribution, strongly impacts leaf physiology and the forces of momentum exerted on leaves or the canopy under windy conditions. Yet, little has been known about how leaf shape affects the morphological response of trees to wind load. We studied eight Quercus species, with different leaf shapes, to determine the morphological response to simulated wind load. Quercus trees with long elliptical leaves, were significantly affected by wind load (P< 0.05), as indicted by smaller specific leaf area (SLA), stem base diameter and stem height under windy conditions when compared to the control. The Quercus trees with leaves characterized by lanceolate or sinuous edges, showed positive morphological responses to wind load, such as bigger leaf thickness, larger stem diameter, allocation to root biomass, and smaller stem height (P< 0.05). These morphological responses to wind can reduce drag and increase the mechanical strength of the tree. Leaf dissection index (LDI), an important index of leaf shape, was correlated with morphological response to wind load (P< 0.05), including differences in SLA, in stem base diameter and in allocation to root biomass. These results suggest that trees with higher LDI, such as those with more and/or deeper lobes, are better adapted to wind load.
Project description:In nature, plants regularly interact with herbivores and with wind. Herbivores can wound and alter the structure of plants, whereas wind can exert aerodynamic forces that cause the plants to flutter or sway. While herbivory has many negative consequences for plants, fluttering in wind can be beneficial for plants by facilitating gas exchange and loss of excess heat. Little is known about how herbivores affect plant motion in wind. We tested how the mass of an herbivore resting on a broad leaf of the tulip tree Liriodendron tulipifera, and the damage caused by herbivores, affected the motion of the leaf in wind. For this, we placed mimics of herbivores on the leaves, varying each herbivore's mass or position, and used high-speed video to measure how the herbivore mimics affected leaf movement and reconfiguration at two wind speeds inside a laboratory wind tunnel. In a similar setup, we tested how naturally occurring herbivore damage on the leaves affected leaf movement and reconfiguration. We found that the mass of an herbivore resting on a leaf can change that leaf's orientation relative to the wind and interfere with the ability of the leaf to reconfigure into a smaller, more streamlined shape. A large herbivore load slowed the leaf's fluttering frequency, while naturally occurring damage from herbivores increased the leaf's fluttering frequency. We conclude that herbivores can alter the physical interactions between wind and plants by two methods: (1) acting as a point mass on the plant while it is feeding and (2) removing tissue from the plant. Altering a plant's interaction with wind can have physical and physiological consequences for the plant. Thus, future studies of plants in nature should consider the effect of herbivory on plant-wind interactions, and vice versa.
Project description:The wind-induced motion of the foliage in a tree is an important phenomenon both for biological issues (photosynthesis, pathogens development or herbivory) and for more subtle effects such as on wi-fi transmission or animal communication. Such foliage motion results from a combination of the motion of the branches that support the leaves, and of the motion of the leaves relative to the branches. Individual leaf dynamics relative to the branch, and branch dynamics have usually been studied separately. Here, in an experimental study on a whole tree in a large-scale wind tunnel, we present the first empirical evidence that foliage motion is actually dominated by individual leaf flutter at low wind velocities, and by branch turbulence buffeting responses at higher velocities. The transition between the two regimes is related to a weak dependence of leaf flutter on wind velocity, while branch turbulent buffeting is strongly dependent on it. Quantitative comparisons with existing engineering-based models of leaf and branch motion confirm the prevalence of these two mechanisms. Simultaneous measurements of the wind-induced drag on the tree and of the light interception by the foliage show the role of an additional mechanism, reconfiguration, whereby leaves bend and overlap, limiting individual leaf flutter. We then discuss the consequences of these findings on the role of wind-mediated phenomena.
Project description:Previous research has shown that glutamine and sucrose treatment of excised poplar stems induces bark storage protein (BSP) gene expression. The objectivel of this research is to identify changes in gene expression associated with metabolic regulation of nitrogen storage and cycling and use this information to identify potential regulatory genes. Significant, differentially expressed genes were identified in excised poplar stems incubated in solutions of glutamine or glutamine+glucose compared to incubation with water alone Poplar shoots with approximately 10 nodes were excised from greenhouse stock plants that were grown in LD photoperiods. The basal leaves were removed to leave only the 5 apical leaves. The basal end of the 5-leaved shoots were preincubated by placing in water for 24 h in a growth chamber (20 ◦C, 16-light/8-h dark). After 24 h pre-incubation, the trimed stems were then transfered to 25 mM aqueous solutions of glutamine, glucose, or glutamine+glucose as well as a water control and incubated for either 48 or 72 h. After 48 h and 72 h of incubation in the respective solutions, bark tissue was collected from each treatement and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. For each treatment, 3 biological replicates were collected with 5 excised stems per biological replicate. Bark from 2 control with 3 biological replicates were also collected. Control 1 was collected immediately after excising from the stock plant and control 2 was collected after the 24 h preincubation period.
Project description:Drought is one of the most important environmental fluctuations affecting tree growth and survival. Therefore, understanding of physiological and transcriptomic responses of trees to this stress factor will make important contributions to forest health and productivity. Here, we report comparative physiological and microarray based transcriptome analysis between drought resistant (N.62.191) and drought-sensitive (N.03.368.A) black poplar genotypes under well-watered (WWP), moderate drought (MD), severe drought (SD) and post drought re-watering (PDR) conditions. In the study, sensitive genotype exhibited a drought escape strategy with lower leaf water potential, higher reactive oxygen production, complete leaf abscission and subsequent terminal shoot necrosis under drought stress. On the other hand, resistant genotype had a dehydration tolerance indicating highly delayed leaf abscission under drought and fast growing capacity during re-watering conditions. Gene ontology enrichment analysis attributed drought susceptibility of black poplar to significant up-regulation of genes functional in transcription regulation (AP2/ERF, NAC and WRKY), cell wall modification (Expansins), fatty acid metabolism (enoyl-ACP reductase, lipid transport protein particle), protein degradation (endopeptidases), ethylene synthesis (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) and riboflavin synthesis (GTP cyclohydrolase II) under drought stress. Transcriptomic comparison indicated significant down-regulation of photosynthesis, electron transport and carbohydrate metabolism related genes under drought stress in sensitive genotype. Although, similar reduction in carbohydrate metabolism was also recorded for resistant genotype, genes related with photosynthesis and electron transport systems were not down regulated even under SD for this genotype. Resistant genotype specific up-regulation of small heat shock proteins (sHSP) and bark storage proteins revealed importance of protein protection and nitrogen remobilization under drought stress, respectively. This is the first study associating BSP production to delayed leaf abscission and drought tolerance in trees. For Microarray experiment total RNA was isolated from the leaves randomly selected from two balck poplar seedlings (two biological replicates) for resistant and sensitive genotypes at well watered period (WWP), moderate drought (MD), severe drought (SD) and post drought rewatering (PDR) periods. For each water availability regime total isolated RNA was loaded onto two Affymetrix poplar Gene Chips for each genotype. Totally 16 Affymetrix poplar GeneChips (2 genotypes × 4 water availability regimes × 2 biological replicates) were used for transcriptional analysis.
Project description:We sequenced mRNA of adult Plodia interpunctella males and females at 1 day after eclosion for the tissues/composite structures head, thorax, and gonads, as well as sexed 5th instar larvae heads. The purpose of the study was to compare overall gene expression patterns of the Z chromosome and the autosomes between males and females in order to assess the status of dosage compensation.
Project description:This experiment contains microarray measurements for 135 Arabidopsis thaliana rosette leaf samples covering three genotypes under six different environmental conditions. The three genotypes comprise the Col-0 wildtype and two loss-of-function mutants of aquaporins, a pip2;1 pip2;2 double mutant and a pip2;1 pip2;2 pip2;4 triple mutant (respective AGI locus identifiers: AT3G53420, AT2G37170, AT5G60660). The six conditions include control condition (well-watered, 22°C, 70% relative air humidity), drought stress (one week without watering), heat stress without changing the absolute humidity of the ambient air (6 hours at 33°C, 37% relative air humidity), heat stress with supplemented air humidity to maintain a constant vapor pressure deficit before and during the heat episode (6 hours at 33°C, 84% relative air humidity), and the combinations of drought pretreatment with each of the two heat stress variants (one week of drought followed by 6 hours of heat stress). Samples from all conditions were harvested at the same time (within 15 min starting at 5 p.m.).