Foxf1 enchances pulmonary inflammation and mastocytosis
ABSTRACT: The Forkhead Box f1 (Foxf1) transcriptional factor (previously known as HFH-8 or Freac-1) is expressed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the embryonic and adult lung. To assess effects of Foxf1 during lung injury, we used CCl4 injury model. Foxf1+/- mice developed severe airway obstruction and bronchial edema, associated with increased numbers of pulmonary mast cells and increased mast cell degranulation following injury. Pulmonary inflammation in Foxf1+/- mice was associated with diminished expression of Foxf1, increased mast cell tryptase and increased expression of CXCL12, the latter being essential for mast cell migration and chemotaxis. Foxf1 haploinsufficiency caused pulmonary mastocytosis and enhanced pulmonary inflammation following chemically-induced lung injury, indicating an important role for Foxf1 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammatory responses. Keywords: Influence of genetic modification on the pulmonary inflamation Foxf1+/- mice in which the Foxf1 allele was disrupted by an in-frame insertion of a nuclear localizing -galactosidase (-Gal) gene were bred for ten generations into the Black Swiss mouse genetic background. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; Sigma, St Louis, MO) was dissolved in mineral oil at a 1:20 ratio v/v and a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of CCl4 (0.5 l of CCl4/ 1g of body weight) was administered to male Foxf1+/- mice or their wild type (WT) littermates as described.
Project description:The Forkhead Box f1 (Foxf1) transcriptional factor (previously known as HFH-8 or Freac-1) is expressed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the embryonic and adult lung. To assess effects of Foxf1 during lung injury, we used CCl4 injury model. Foxf1+/- mice developed severe airway obstruction and bronchial edema, associated with increased numbers of pulmonary mast cells and increased mast cell degranulation following injury. Pulmonary inflammation in Foxf1+/- mice was associated with diminished expression of Foxf1, increased mast cell tryptase and increased expression of CXCL12, the latter being essential for mast cell migration and chemotaxis. Foxf1 haploinsufficiency caused pulmonary mastocytosis and enhanced pulmonary inflammation following chemically-induced lung injury, indicating an important role for Foxf1 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammatory responses. Keywords: Influence of genetic modification on the pulmonary inflamation Overall design: Foxf1+/- mice in which the Foxf1 allele was disrupted by an in-frame insertion of a nuclear localizing beta-galactosidase (B-Gal) gene were bred for ten generations into the Black Swiss mouse genetic background. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; Sigma, St Louis, MO) was dissolved in mineral oil at a 1:20 ratio v/v and a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of CCl4 (0.5 microliter of CCl4/ 1g of body weight) was administered to male Foxf1+/- mice or their wild type (WT) littermates as described.
Project description:Multiple signaling pathways, structural proteins and transcription factors are involved in regulation of endothelial barrier function. The Forkhead protein FOXF1 is a key transcriptional regulator of lung embryonic development, and we use a conditional knockout approach to examine the role of FOXF1 in adult lung homeostasis and lung injury and repair. Tamoxifen-regulated deletion of both Foxf1 alleles in endothelial cells of adult mice (Pdgfb-iCreER/Foxf1 caused lung inflammation and edema, leading to respiratory insuffency and uniform mortality. Deletion of a single foxf1 allele was sufficient to increase susceptibility of heterozygous mice to acute lung injury. FOXF1 abundance was decreased in pulmonary endothelial cells of human patients with acute lung injury. Gene expression analysis of pulmonary endothelial cells of FOXF1 deletion indicated reduced expression for genes critical for maintance and regulation of adherens junctions. FOXF1 knockdown in vitro and in vivo disrupted adherens junctions, increased lung endothelial permeability, and the abundance of mRNA and protein for sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1), a key regulator of endothelial barrier function. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that FOXF1 directly bound to and induced the tanscriptional activity of the S1pr1 promoter. Pharmacological administratiion of S1P to injured pdgfb-iCreER/Foxf1 mice restored endothelial barrier function, decreased lung edema and improved survival. Thus, FOXF1 promotes normal lung homeostasis and lung repair, at least in part, by enhancing endothelial barrier function through transcriptional activation of the S1P/S1PR1/ signaling pathway. Overall design: RNA was isolated and pooled from the lungs of multiple mice with either the Foxf1 floxed alleles alone or Pdgfb-iCreER Foxf1 floxed mice.
Project description:FOXF1, a member of the forkhead box family of transcription factors, has been previously shown to be critical for lung development, homeostasis, and injury responses. However, the role of FOXF1 in lung regeneration is unknown. Herein, we performed partial pneumonectomy, a model of lung regeneration, in mice lacking one Foxf1 allele in endothelial cells (PDGFb-iCre/Foxf1fl/+ mice). Endothelial cell proliferation was significantly reduced in regenerating lungs from mice deficient for endothelial Foxf1. Decreased endothelial proliferation was associated with delayed lung regeneration as shown by reduced respiratory volume in Foxf1-deficient lungs. FACS-sorted endothelial cells isolated from regenerating PDGFb-iCre/Foxf1fl/+ and control lungs were used for RNAseq analysis to identify FOXF1 target genes. Foxf1 deficiency altered expression of numerous genes including those regulating extracellular matrix remodeling (Timp3, Adamts9) and cell cycle progression (Cdkn1a, Cdkn2b, Cenpj, Tubb4a), which are critical for lung regeneration. Deletion of Foxf1 increased Timp3 mRNA and protein, decreasing MMP14 activity in regenerating lungs. ChIPseq analysis for FOXF1 and histone methylation marks identified DNA regulatory regions with the Cd44, Cdkn1a, and Cdkn2b genes, indicating they are direct FOXF1 targets. Thus FOXF1 stimulates lung regeneration following partial pneumonectomy via direct transcriptional regulation of genes critical for extracellular matrix remodeling and cell cycle progression. Overall design: ChIPseq on quiescent MFLM-91U cells; RNAseq on FACS-sorted endothelial cells (CD45-CD31+CD326-) from Foxf1fl/+ and PDGFb-iCre Foxf1fl/+ lungs 4 days after partial pneumonectomy surgery.
Project description:Aberrant expression of master phenotype regulators by lung fibroblasts may play a central role in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Interrogating IPF fibroblast transcriptome datasets, we identified Forkhead Box F1 (FOXF1), a DNA-binding protein required for lung development, as a candidate actor in IPF. Thus, we determined FOXF1 expression levels in fibroblasts cultured from normal or IPF lungs in vitro, and explored FOXF1 functions in these cells using transient and stable loss-of-function and gain-of-function models. FOXF1 mRNA and protein were expressed at higher levels in IPF compared with controls. In normal lung fibroblasts, FOXF1 repressed key fibroblast functions such as proliferation, survival, and expression of collagen-1 (COL1) and actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2 (ARPC2). ARPC2 knockdown mimicked FOXF1 overexpression with regard to proliferation and COL1 expression. FOXF1 expression was induced by the antifibrotic mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Ex vivo, FOXF1 knockdown conferred CCL-210 lung fibroblasts the ability to implant and survive in uninjured mouse lungs. In IPF lung fibroblasts, FOXF1 regulated COL1 but not ARPC2 expression. In conclusion, FOXF1 functions and regulation were consistent with an antifibrotic role in lung fibroblasts. Higher FOXF1 levels in IPF fibroblasts may thus participate in a compensatory response to fibrogenesis. Lung fibroblasts derived from 4 different IPF patients (P313, P355, P375 and P426) were transiently transfected with pcfoxf1 or control pcDNA3.1-constructs. Total RNAs were extracted 24 h after transfection and hybridized on microarrays. One color experiment with 2 experimental conditions: pcfoxf1 and pcDNA3.1
Project description:IGF1R (Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor) is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor with multiple functions including inflammation. IGF activity maintains human lung homeostasis, being involved in relevant pulmonary diseases with an inflammatory component, such as lung cancer, COPD, asthma and pulmonary fibrosis. Here we examined the role of IGF1R in lung inflammation using mice with a postnatal deficiency of Igf1r and a model of bleomycin(BLM)-induced lung injury. Lung transcriptome analysis of Igf1r-deficient mice showed a general inhibition of transcription of genes related to epigenetics, inflammation/immune response and oxidative stress activity with potential pulmonary protective roles. Early upon intratracheal BLM treatment, mutant mice showed improved survival and milder pulmonary injury and inflammation. Their lungs presented down-regulation of macrophage (Marco/Adgre1), neutrophil-related (Cxcl1/Ly6g), pro-inflammatory (Tnf/Il1b/Il6), endothelial adhesion (Icam1/Pecam1) and alveolar damage (Aqp5/Sftpc) markers and up-regulation of resolution phase markers (Csf1/Il13/Cd209a). Changes in mRNA of IGF system genes were also found, in parallel to a hindered response to hypoxia (Hif1a) and increased expression of the anti-oxidative stress marker Gpx8. These findings identify Igf1r as an important player in oxidative stress and inflammation and suggest that targeting Igf1r may block the inflammatory response in lung diseases with this component. Overall design: Lung mRNA profiles of 2 months-old Igf1rfl/fl normal/control transgenic mice and UBC-CreERT2; Igf1rfl/fl Igf1r-deficient mice were generated by deep sequencing using Illumina GAIIx.
Project description:Regeneration of lung epithelium is vital for maintaining airway function and integrity. An imbalance between epithelial damage and repair is at the basis of numerous chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factors) signaling has been associated with most of these respiratory pathologies, although their mechanisms of action in this tissue remain poorly understood. Expression profiles analyses of IGF system genes performed in mouse lung support their functional implication in pulmonary ontogeny. Immuno-localization revealed high expression levels of Igf1r (Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor) in lung epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages and smooth muscle. To further understand the role of Igf1r in pulmonary homeostasis, two distinct lung epithelial-specific Igf1r mutant mice were generated and studied. The lack of Igf1r disturbed airway epithelial differentiation in adult mice revealed enhanced proliferation and altered morphology in distal airway club cells. During recovery after naphthalene-induced club cell injury, the kinetics of terminal bronchiolar epithelium regeneration was hindered in Igf1r mutants, revealing increased proliferation and delayed differentiation of club and ciliated cells. Amid airway restoration, lungs of Igf1r deficient mice showed increased levels of Igf1, Insr, Igfbp3 and epithelial precursor markers, reduced amounts of Scgb1a1 protein, and alterations in IGF signaling mediators. These results support the role of Igf1r in controlling the kinetics of cell proliferation and differentiation during pulmonary airway epithelial regeneration after injury. Overall design: Lung mRNA profiles of 3 months-old Igf1rfl/fl normal/control transgenic mice were generated by deep sequencing using Illumina GAIIx. ------------------------------------------- Submitter states "we use data on the absolute transcription levels (FPKM) of same IGF system genes on the adult "normal" mouse lung to compare them with those reported in the human adult lung (expressed in both as FPKM) (http://www.proteinatlas.org/)".
Project description:Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory process of the lungs characterized by increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane with subsequent interstitial/alveolar edema and diffuse alveolar damage. ALI/ARDS can be the results of either direct or indirect lung injury, with pneumonia being the most common direct pulmonary insult and sepsis the most common extra-pulmonary cause. In this study, we employed the murine lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced direct and indirect lung injury model to explore the pathogenic mechanisms of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary ARDS, using an unbiased, discovery and quantitative proteomic approach. A total of 1,017 proteins were both identified and quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from control, intratracheal LPS (I.T. LPS, 0.1 mg/kg) and intraperitoneal LPS (I.P. LPS, 5 mg/kg) treated mice. The two LPS groups shared 13 up-regulated and 22 down-regulated proteins compared to the control group. Among them, molecules related to bronchial and type II alveolar epithelial cell functions including cell adhesion molecule 1 and surfactant protein B were reduced, whereas lactotransferrin and resistin like alpha involved in lung innate immunity were upregulated in both LPS groups. Proteomic profiling also identified significant differences in BALF proteins between I.T. and I.P. LPS groups. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that acute-phase response signaling was activated by both I.T. and I.P. LPS, however, the magnitude of activation is much greater in I.T. LPS group compared to I.P. LPS group. Intriguingly, two canonical signaling pathways, liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor activation and the production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in macrophages, were activated by I.T. LPS but suppressed by I.P. LPS. In addition, CXCL15 (also known as lungkine) was also up-regulated by I.T LPS but down-regulated by I.P. LPS. In conclusion, our quantitative discovery-based proteomic approach identified commonalities as well as significant differences in BALF protein expression profiles in LPS-induced direct and indirect lung injury, and importantly, LPS-induced indirect lung injury results in suppression of select components of lung innate immunity, which could contribute to the so-called “immunoparalysis” in sepsis patients.
Project description:Non-coding copy number changes in 16q24.1 upstream of FOXF1 were identified in two patients with ACD. An unanticipated and tremendous amount of the non-coding sequences of the human genome are transcribed. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides and their functions remain enigmatic. We demonstrate that deletions of lncRNA genes cause a lethal lung developmental disorder, Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia with Misalignment of Pulmonary Veins (ACD/MPV), with parent of origin effects. We identify non-coding overlapping deletions 250 kb upstream to FOXF1 in nine patients with ACD/MPV that arose de novo specifically on the maternally inherited chromosome and delete a fetal lung-specific EST, part of an lncRNA. These deletions define distant cis-regulatory region that harbors a differentially methylated CpG island, binds GLI2 depending on the methylation status of this CpG island, and physically interacts with and up-regulates the FOXF1 promoter, consistent with the absence of the fetal lung-transcribed lncRNA perturbing FOXF1 regulation. LncRNA-mediated chromatin interactions may be responsible for position effect phenomenon and potentially cause many disorders of human development. Overall design: CNVs were identified by array CGH using 4.2M whole genome tiling arrays from Nimblegen in 3 ACD patients
Project description:Background and aims: We aimed to study the pathogenesis of AH in an animal model of acute-on-chronic alcoholic liver disease which combines chronic hepatic fibrosis with intragastric alcohol administration. Methods: Adult male C57BL6/J mice were treated with CCl4 (0.2 ml/kg, 2×weekly by intraperitoneal injections for 6 weeks) to induce chronic liver fibrosis. Then, ethyl alcohol (EtOH) (up to 25 g/kg/day, for 3 weeks) was administered continuously to mice via a gastric feeding tube, with or without one-half dose of CCl4. Liver and serum markers were evaluated to characterize acute-on-chronic-alcoholic liver disease in our model. Results: CCl4 or EtOH treatment alone induced liver fibrosis or steatohepatitis, respectively, findings that were consistent with expected pathology. Combined treatment with CCl4 and EtOH resulted in a marked exacerbation of liver injury, as evident by the development of hepatic inflammation, marked steatosis, and pericellular fibrosis, and by increased serum transaminase levels, compared to mice treated with either treatment alone. Liver transcriptomic changes specific to combined treatment group demonstrated close concordance with pathways perturbed in human severe cases of AH. In addition to gene expression changes, E. coli and Candida species were also significantly more abundant in livers of mice co-treated with CCl4 and EtOH. Conclusions: Mice treated with CCl4 and EtOH displayed several key characteristics of human AH, including pericellular fibrosis, increased hepatic bacterial load, and dysregulation of the same molecular pathways. This model may be useful for developing therapeutics for AH. Overall design: Animal model of acute-on-chronic alcoholic liver injury