ABSTRACT: To identify mRNAs associated with human PUM1 protein, we used a modified Ribonucleoprotein-ImmunoPrecipitation Microarray (RIP-Chip) approach on HeLa S3 cancer cells that express PUM1. PUM ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes were captured from cell-free extracts with anti PUM1 specific antibody Bethyl Laboratories, #300-201A coupled to protein G (PUM1) sepharose beads, and then eluted with SDS-EDTA. To control for non-specifically enriched RNAs, the same procedure was performed with beads that were not coupled with immunoprecipitating antibody (mock samples). Total RNA was isolated from cell extracts and immunopurified samples with the mirVanaTM PARISTM kit (Ambion). RNA was quantified with a NanoDrop device (Witeg AG). Poly-adenylated RNAs were amplified in the presence of aminoallyl-UTP with Amino Allyl MessageAmp II aRNA kit (Ambion). For this purpose, 500 ng total RNA from extracts and half (50-100 ng) of the immunopurified RNAs were used for amplification. 8 ug of the amplified RNAs (aaRNA) were fluorescently labeled with NHS-monoester Cy3 and Cy5 dyes (GE HealthSciences), except for mock RNA samples, where an aaRNA amount proportional to the yield obtained from corresponding PUM affinity isolates was used. For PUM1 RIPs, we performed three biological replicates with technical (dye swap) replicates (total six arrays).(~40 ug aaRNA from PUM1 RIPs, ~9 ug aaRNA from mock RIPs). The Cy3- and Cy5-labeled aaRNA samples were mixed and hybridized to human cDNA microarrays.Detailed methods for microarray experiments are available at http://cmgm.stanford.edu/pbrown/protocols/index.html. cDNA microarrays were produced by the Stanford Functional Genomic Facility and contained 43,197 human probes representing 26,524 Unigene cluster IDs (12,466 ENSEMBL annotated genes) spotted on Corning Ultra GAPS slides. Spotted cDNAs were cross-linked with 65 mJ of UV irradiation on slides, which were then post-processed for 1 hour at 42°C in pre-hybridization solution (5x SSC, 0.1% SDS, 0.1 mg/ml BSA), washed twice in 400 ml of 0.1x SSC for 5 min, dunked in 400 ml ultrapure water for 30 sec, and dried by centrifugation at 550 rpm for 5 min. Slides were used the same day. Cy3- and Cy5-labeled aaRNA probes were mixed and applied to arrays in hybridization solution (3x SSC, 20 ug poly(A) RNA [Invitrogen], 20 ug yeast tRNA [Invitrogen], 20 ug Human Cot-1 DNA [Invitrogen], 20 mM HEPES [pH 7.0] and 0.3% SDS) for 18 h at 65°C. The arrays were then washed sequentially in 400 ml of 2x SSC with 0.1% SDS, 1x SSC, and 0.2x SSC. The first wash was performed for 5 min at 65°C, the subsequent washes were performed for 5 min at RT. The arrays were dried by centrifugation and immediately scanned with an AxonScanner 4200A (Molecular Devices). Data were collected using GENEPIX 5.1 (Molecular Devices). Arrays were normalized computationally by the Stanford Microarray Database (SMD). The data were filtered for signal over background of greater than 1.5 in the channel measuring aaRNA from extract, and only features that met these criteria in > 50% of the arrays were included for further analysis. Log2 median ratios were retrieved and exported into Microsoft Excel.To identify transcripts that were specifically enriched by association with PUM1, we performed two class Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) on median centered arrays. A replicate experimental design type is where a series of replicates are performed to evaluate reproducibility or as a pilot study to determine the appropriate number of replicates for a subsequent experiments. Antibody used in IP: 20 ug goat anti-PUMILIO 1 Bethyl Laboratories, #300-201A Keywords: replicate_design Computed
Project description:ABSTRACT Background. Acute Kawasaki disease (KD) is difficult to distinguish from other acute rash/fever illnesses, in part because the etiologic agent(s) and pathophysiology remain poorly characterized. As a result, diagnosis and critical therapies may be delayed. Methods. We used DNA microarrays to identify possible diagnostic features of KD. We compared gene expression patterns in the blood of 23 children with acute KD and 18 age-matched febrile children with three illnesses that resemble KD. Results. Genes associated with platelet and neutrophil activation were expressed at higher levels in KD patients than in patients with acute adenovirus infections or systemic adverse drug reactions but not in patients with scarlet fever; genes associated with B cell activation were also expressed at higher levels in KD patients than in controls. A striking absence of interferon-stimulated gene expression in the KD patients was confirmed in an independent cohort of KD subjects. We successfully predicted the diagnosis in 21 of 23 KD patients and 7 of 8 adenovirus patients using a set of 38 gene transcripts. Conclusions. These findings provide insight into the molecular features that distinguish KD from other febrile illnesses, and support the feasibility of developing novel diagnostic reagents for KD based on the host response. A disease state experiment design type is where the state of some disease such as infection, pathology, syndrome, etc is studied. Disease State: One of Kawasaki Disease (KD) or control (C) of Scarlet fever (C-sf), adenovirus infection (C-ai) or drug reaction (C-dr) disease_state_design
Project description:Human scrotum and labia majora samples treated with DHT and/or AZA A compound treatment design type is where the response to administration of a compound or chemical (including biological compounds such as hormones) is assayed. Compound Based Treatment: dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5-aza-deoxy-cytidine (AZA), none or both Cell Line: normal scrotum or labia majora derived from complete androgen insensitivity syndrome due to inactivating mutation of the androgen receptor gene Computed
Project description:Throughout the course of early development, the reliable occurrence of stereotyped events is imperative. This careful orchestration is dependent upon regulation at the level of gene expression. While all cell types derive from a single fertilized cell and share a single genome, individual cell types differentially utilize this genome. Such differential utilization is essential for the acquisition, maintenance, and modulation of cell properties. In order to better understand the molecular basis of early development, we evaluated the mRNA expression programs of both early post-implantation mouse embryos and differentiating embryonic stem cells using a cDNA microarray platform covering 74% of the mouse genome. Mining of these datasets revealed a strong association across RNA processing, modulation of the cell cycle, and chromatin organization. Genes involved in these processes demonstrated sharp regulation during well-defined biological transitions. Dominant patterns of expression with biologically separable properties were identified. The evolutionary conservation of one cluster in particular suggested a molecular basis for the alignment of the murine and fly developmental programs. Moreover, the data suggest putative gene relationships that may also have broader implications for gene networks connecting the cell cycle to the molecular repertoire of the cell. Design: Dataset is a murine embryonic developmental timecourse consisting of morphologically staged samples from E6.25 to E9.0 (at approximately 0.25d intervals). There two replicates of each sample and there are 13 samples in each biological replicate series. A common reference design was employed. A development or differentiation experiment design type assays events associated with development or differentiation or moving through a life cycle. Development applies to organism(s) acquiring a mature state, and differentiation applies to cells acquiring specialized functions. Developmental Stage: morphologically staged samples from E6.25 to E9.0 (at approximately 0.25d intervals) Keywords: development_or_differentiation_design Using regression correlation
Project description:PBMC response to three concentrations of IFNg (0.006, 0.6 and 60 pM) from 0-12h. Abstract: Background Interferons are key modulators of the immune system, and are central to the control of many diseases. The response of immune cells to stimuli in complex populations is the product of direct and indirect effects, homotypic and heterotypic cell interactions. Dissecting the global transcriptional profiles of immune cell populations may provide insights into this regulatory interplay. The host transcriptional response may also be useful in discriminating between disease states, and in understanding pathophysiology. The transcriptional programs of cell populations in health therefore provide a paradigm for deconvoluting disease-associated gene expression profiles. Results: We used human cDNA microarrays to (1) compare the gene expression programs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) elicited by 6 major mediators of the immune response: interferons a, b, w and g, IL12 and TNFa; and (2) characterise the transcriptional responses of purified immune cell populations (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, NK cells and monocytes) to IFNg stimulation. We defined a highly stereotyped response to type I interferons, while responses to IFNg and IL12 were largely restricted to a subset of type I interferon-inducible genes. TNFa stimulation resulted in a distinct pattern of gene expression. Cell type-specific transcriptional programs were identified, highlighting the pronounced response of monocytes to IFNg, and emergent properties associated with IFN-mediated activation of mixed cell populations. Conclusions: This information provides a detailed view of cellular activation by immune mediators, and contributes an interpretive framework for the detection and definition of host immune responses in a variety of disease settings. PBMC extraction and stimulation Human primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were purified from whole blood of healthy donors using Ficoll-Paque PLUS (GE Healthcare) according to manufacturers instructions. PBMCs were incubated at 1.5-2.0 x 106 cells/well for 24 h before stimulation in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated foetal calf serum and 2 mM L-glutamine (Invitrogen) at 37C, 5% CO2. Cells were treated with 0.006 pM, 0.6 pM or 60 pM recombinant IFNg (R&D Systems), and sampled at time intervals from 0.5 h to 12 h after stimulation. Additionally, cells were treated with 0.1 % BSA/PBS alone and used for untreated (mock) control time courses. RNA extraction and amplification Total RNA was extracted in TRIzol LS (Invitrogen) followed by standard chloroform purification and isopropanol precipitation. RNA was resuspended in RNase-free water, quantitated on the NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies) and stored at -80C. 500 ng total RNA was amplified using the MessageAmp modified Eberwine linear amplification procedure (Applied Biosystems). All samples to be compared were extracted and amplified together. Microarray analysis 4 ug amplified RNA was labelled with Cy5-dUTP (GE Healthcare) and combined with 3 ug of Cy3-labelled reference cDNA derived from a pool of RNA derived from a panel of 11 human cell lines (Stratagene Universal Human Reference RNA). The samples were washed and concentrated using MinElute columns (Qiagen) and competitively hybridised to custom printed cDNA microarrays containing 37,632 elements for approximately 18,000 unique human genes. The hybridised slides were scanned using a GenePix 4000A microarray scanner (Axon Instruments). Comparative spot intensities were calculated from the images, and areas of poor quality excluded from further analysis using GenePix Pro 6.0 (Axon Instruments). Data were deposited in the Stanford Microarray Database. Analysis was restricted to cDNA elements with a regression correlation of > 0.6, fluorescence intensities of > 2.5 fold signal/background in Cy3 or Cy5 channels and a minimum signal intensity of > 100 in both channels for at least 80% of the arrays. The expression ratios were normalised for array variation, and the data zero-transformed using a custom-designed Microsoft Excel macro (C. Liu, Stanford). The statistical package SAM (Significance Analysis of Microarrays, version 1.15) was used to identify genes significantly differentially expressed in the normalised data sets by pairwise comparison with a minimum 2 fold cutoff at a false discovery rate of < 1% of the median. The transformed datasets were then hierarchically clustered using Cluster 2.11 and the results displayed using Treeview 1.60. A dose response design type examines the relationship between the size of the administered dose and the extent of the response of the organism(s).
Project description:5 arrays per condition (covering 3 biological replicate experiments) were performed on Human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFFs) at 44 hours post infection. The four experimental conditions include uninfected "standard", uninfected "stress", tachyzoite-infected "standard+TZ", and bradyzoite-infected "stress+BZ". Bradyzoite conversion is induced at 4 hours post infection with replacement of standard DMEM+10% FCS with RPMI+1%FCS buffered with 50mM Hepes to pH 8.15. Approximately 20% of cells are infected and bradyzoite conversion is >90% in these experiments. These data are normalized using 2-D loess (span factor .4). The calculations in the manuscript are based on are log2 ratios of normalized channel 2/channel 1 medians. A development or differentiation experiment design type assays events associated with development or differentiation or moving through a life cycle. Development applies to organism(s) acquiring a mature state, and differentiation applies to cells acquiring specialized functions. Developmental Stage: Uninfected (standard or stress medium), or Tachyzoite-infected (standard medium) or Bradyzoite-infected (stress medium) Complex
Project description:Blood samples were taken at 1:00 pm +/- 1 h (Potassium-EDTA-monovettes, Sarstedt, Numbrecht, Germany) to control for circadian influences on gene expression. Blood was taken from normal male controls, normal female controls as well as different patients with disorders of sex development leading to a dissection of sex chromosomes and external genital phenotype. All samples were analyzed by a blood cell counter (Beckmann-Coulter, Krefeld, Germany) and white blood cell counts did not differ between the normal males and the normal females (by t-test). PBMCs were isolated from whole blood using PBS (pH 7.2) and Ficoll (Biochrom, Berlin, Germany) gradient centrifugation. A reference experiement design type is where all samples are compared to a common reference. Disease State: diagnosis Genotype: sex genotype Age: age at blood sample collection (yrs;mo) Phenotype: external genitalia (Prader classification) Keywords: reference_design Computed
Project description:With the goal of identifying changes in gene expression in CD4(+) T cells during the development of diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, we used DNA microarrays to analyze gene expression in CD4(+) T cells from the pancreatic draining lymph nodes of NOD/BDC 2.5 T cell receptor transgenic and WT NOD mice at different ages. At 4 and 6 weeks of age, we found up-regulation of a number of genes that are known to be induced by IFN-alpha. IFN-alpha levels and IFN-alpha-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells were increased in the PLNs of 3- to 4-week-old NOD mice. Moreover, blockade of IFN-alpha receptor 1 in NOD mice by a neutralizing antibody at 2-3 weeks of age significantly delayed the onset and decreased the incidence of type 1 diabetes, increased the relative number of immature dendritic cells in the PLNs, and enhanced the ability of spleen CD4(+) T cells to produce IL-4 and IL-10. These findings demonstrate that IFN-alpha in the PLNs is an essential initiator in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. An all pairs experiment design type is where all labeled extracts are compared to every other labeled extract.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE13206: Human shSIRT6 TNF-alpha timecourse GSE13207: Mouse Sirt6-/- TNF-alpha timecourse GSE13208: Mouse Sirt6-/- tissues GSE13209: Mouse Sirt6-/- RelA+/- tissues Refer to individual Series
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE12166: TJ411(fer-15(b26)II; age-1(hx542)II) vs. BA713(fer-15(b26)II) GSE12167: TJ1081)fer-15(b26)II; daf-16(m26)I) vs. BA713(fer-15(b26)II) GSE12168: Aging Time course Refer to individual Series
Project description:Description: The pluripotency of an embryonic stem cell makes it an attractive target for differentiation strategies aimed at producing tissues for therapeutic purposes. Yet, even though we know that ES cells have tremendous capacity for differentiation, we do not fully understand the molecular paths taken by these cells as they differentiate. Moreover, it is unclear how the path of ES cell differentiation relates to the molecular decisions made by tissues undergoing normal development. The motivation behind this work is to increase our understanding of this relationship and its potential limitations. Overall Design: Dataset is a murine embryonic stem cell differentiation timecourse consisting of 14 timepoints spanning 17 days of differentiation. Samples were harvested at 24 hour intervals on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 17. There two replicates of each sample. A common reference design was employed. Groups of assays that are related as part of a time series. Elapsed Time: amples were harvested on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 17 Keywords: time_series_design Using regression correlation