Lar-Transcriptomic analysis of the localized acquired resistance (LAR) phenomenon in Arabidopsis thaliana
ABSTRACT: tri38-lar - lar - Analyse the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana plants developing localized acquired resistance (LAR) and a hypersensitive response (HR). The goal is to identify genes inducing LAR and/or HR. Plants were treated either with PstDC3000 (avrRpm1)or MgCl2 (control plants). The samples were studied at 3 points of the infection kinetics of the LAR phenomenon: 6h, 24h and 48h. Keywords: normal vs disease comparison 3 dye-swaps - CATMA arrays 12 biological repetitions were pooled for this experiment.
Project description:tri38-lar - hr - Analyse the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana plants developing localized acquired resistance (LAR) and a hypersensitive response (HR). The goal is to identify genes inducing LAR and/or HR. Here, we want to analyse the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana developing HR. To achieve this, we used Col0 leaf tissues developing an HR reaction after inoculation of the avirulent strain of PstDC3000 carrying the gene avrRpm1. Keywords: normal vs disease comparison 1 dye-swap - CATMA arrays
Project description:In the absence of adaptive immunity displayed by animals, plants respond locally to biotic challenge via inducible basal defense networks activated through recognition and response toconserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In addition, immunity can be induced in tissues remote from infection sites via systemic acquired resistance (SAR), initiated following gene-for-gene recognition between plant resistance proteins and microbial effectors.The nature of the mobile signal and remotely activated networks responsible for establishing SAR remain unclear. Here we show that despite the absence of PAMP contact, systemically responding leaves rapidly activate a SAR transcriptional signature with strong similarity to local basal defense. Jasmonates have previously been implicated in systemic signalling in response to wounding and plant herbivory but not SAR. We present several lines of evidence that suggest jasmonates may also be central to SAR. Jasmonic acid (JA) rapidly accumulates in phloem exudates of leaves challenged with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae. In systemically responding leaves transcripts associated with jasmonate biosynthesis are upregulated and JA increases transiently. SAR can be mimicked by foliar JA application and is abrogated in mutants impaired in jasmonate synthesis or response. We conclude that, jasmonate signalling appears to mediate long-distance information transmission. Moreover, the systemic transcriptional response shares extraordinary overlap with local herbivory and wounding responses, indicating that jasmonates may be central to an evolutionarily conserved signalling network, which decodes multiple abiotic and biotic stress signals. Experimenter name: William Truman; Experimenter phone: +44 (0)1392 263789; Experimenter fax: +44 (0)1392 263434; Experimenter address: School of Biosciences; Experimenter address: Geoffrey Pope Building; Experimenter address: Stocker Road; Experimenter address: Exeter; Experimenter address: Devon; Experimenter zip/postal_code: EX4 4QD; Experimenter country: UK Experiment Overall Design: 9 samples were used in this experiment
Project description:Plant defenses against pathogens and insects are regulated differentially by cross-communicating signaling pathways in which salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) play key roles. To understand how plants integrate pathogen- and insect-induced signals into specific defense responses, we monitored the dynamics of SA, JA, and ET signaling in Arabidopsis after attack by a set of microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects with different modes of attack. Arabidopsis plants were exposed to a pathogenic leaf bacterium (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato), a pathogenic leaf fungus (Alternaria brassicicola), tissue-chewing caterpillars (Pieris rapae), cell-content-feeding thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), or phloem-feeding aphids (Myzus persicae). Monitoring the signal signature in each plant-attacker combination showed that the kinetics of SA, JA, and ET production varies greatly in both quantity and timing. Analysis of global gene expression profiles demonstrated that the signal signature characteristic of each Arabidopsis-attacker combination is orchestrated into a surprisingly complex set of transcriptional alterations in which, in all cases, stress-related genes are overrepresented. Comparison of the transcript profiles revealed that consistent changes induced by pathogens and insects with very different modes of attack can show considerable overlap. Of all consistent changes induced by A. brassicicola, P. rapae, and F. occidentalis, more than 50% were also induced consistently by P. syringae. Notably, although these four attackers all stimulated JA biosynthesis, the majority of the changes in JA-responsive gene expression were attacker-specific. All together our study shows that SA, JA, and ET play a primary role in the orchestration of the plant's defense response, but other regulatory mechanisms, such as pathway cross-talk or additional attacker-induced signals, eventually shape the highly complex attacker-specific defense response. In the experimental set up we intended to select for genes that showed a more than 2-fold change in the same direction(up or down)at two time points after pathogen or insect attack. The results are described in the following paper:; De Vos, M., Van Oosten, V.R., Van Poecke, R.M.P., Van Pelt, J.A., Pozo, M.J., Mueller, M.J., Buchala, A.J., Metraux, J.-P., Van Loon, L.C., Dicke, M. and Pieterse, C.M.J. (2005). Signal signature and transcriptome changes in Arabidopsis upon pathogen and insect attack. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. Experimenter name = Corne Pieterse; Experimenter phone = +31 30 253 3013; Experimenter fax = +31 30 251 8366; Experimenter department = Section Phytopathology; Experimenter institute = Utrecht University; Experimenter address = Department of Biology; Experimenter address = Utrecht University; Experimenter address = Sorbonnelaan 16; Experimenter address = Utrecht; Experimenter zip/postal_code = 3584CA; Experimenter country = The Netherlands Experiment Overall Design: 14 samples were used in this experiment
Project description:Salicylic acid (SA)-induced defense responses are important factors during effector triggered immunity and microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-induced immunity in plants. This article presents evidence that a member of the Arabidopsis CBP60 gene family, CBP60g, contributes to MAMP-triggered SA accumulation. CBP60g is inducible by both pathogen and MAMP treatments. Pseudomonas syringae growth is enhanced in cbp60g mutants. Expression profiles of a cbp60g mutant after MAMP treatment are similar to those of sid2 and pad4, suggesting a defect in SA signaling. Accordingly, cbp60g mutants accumulate less SA when treated with the MAMP flg22 or a P. syringae hrcC strain that activates MAMP signaling. MAMP-induced production of reactive oxygen species and callose deposition are unaffected in cbp60g mutants. CBP60g is a calmodulin-binding protein with a calmodulin-binding domain located near the N-terminus. Calmodulin binding is dependent on Ca2+. Mutations in CBP60g that abolish calmodulin binding prevent complementation of the SA production and bacterial growth defects of cbp60g mutants, indicating that calmodulin binding is essential for the function of CBP60g in defense signaling. These studies show that CBP60g constitutes a calmodulin-dependent link between MAMP recognition and SA accumulation that is important for resistance to P. syringae. This experiment consists of three biological replicates. For each genotype, two leaves per plant were pooled from three pots to prepare total RNA.
Project description:Expression profiles of 22 reference Arabidopsis immunity mutants were collected using the Arabidopsis Pathoarray 464_001 (GPL3638) in order to build a network model predicting the Arabidopsis immune signaling network. Biological signaling processes may be mediated by complex networks in which network components and network sectors interact with each other in complex ways. Studies of complex networks benefit from approaches in which the roles of individual components are considered in the context of the network. The plant immune signaling network, which controls inducible responses to pathogen attack, is such a complex network. Here, we demonstrate that use of mRNA profiling to collect and analyze detailed descriptions of changes in the network state resulting from specific network perturbations is a powerful and economical strategy to elucidate regulatory relationships among the components of a complex signaling network. Specifically, we studied the Arabidopsis immune signaling network upon challenge with a strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae expressing the effector protein AvrRpt2 (Pto DC3000 AvrRpt2). This bacterial strain feeds multiple inputs into the signaling network, allowing many parts of the network to be activated at once. mRNA profiles of 22 Arabidopsis immunity mutants and wild type were collected 6 hours after inoculation with the Pto DC3000 AvrRpt2 and used as detailed descriptions of the network states resulting from specific genetic perturbations. Regulatory relationships among the genes corresponding to the mutations were inferred by recursively applying a non-linear dimensionality reduction procedure to the mRNA profile data. The resulting network model accurately predicted 22 of 23 regulatory relationships reported in the literature, suggesting that predictions of novel regulatory relationships are also accurate. The network model revealed two striking features: (i) the components of the network are highly interconnected; (ii) negative regulatory relationships are common between signaling sectors. One case of a novel negative regulatory relationship, between the early microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-activated sector and the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated sector, was further validated. We propose that prevalent negative regulatory relationships among the signaling sectors make the plant immune signaling network a "sector-switching" network, which effectively balances two apparently conflicting demands, robustness against pathogenic perturbations and moderation of negative impacts of immune responses on plant fitness. Keywords: Responses of reference Arabidopsis immunity mutants to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 carrying avrRpt2 This experiment consists of two (group00) or three (group01-04) biological replicates of each genotype (total 25 genotypes [3 are multiple mutants, which were removed for the network modeling, but were used for normalization]). For each genotype, two leaves per plant were pooled from three pots to prepare total RNA.
Project description:We have implemented an integrated Systems Biology approach to analyze overall transcriptomic reprogramming and systems level defense responses in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana during an insect (Brevicoryne brassicae) and a bacterial (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000) attack. The main aim of this study was to identify the attacker-specific and general defense response signatures in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana while attacked by phloem feeding aphids or pathogenic bacteria. Defense responses and networks, unique and specific for aphid or Pseudomonas stresses were identified. Our analysis revealed a probable link between biotic stress and microRNAs in Arabidopsis and thus opened up a new direction to conduct large-scale targeted experiments to explore detailed regulatory links among them. The presented results provide a first comprehensive understanding of Arabidopsis - B. brassicae and Arabidopsis - P. syringae interactions at a systems biology level. Arabidopsis thaliana (ecotype Colombia-0) seeds were sown into 6-cm-diameter pots filled with a sterile soil mix (1.0 part soil and 0.5 part horticultural perlite). Plants were kept in growth chambers Vötsch VB 1514 (Vötch Industrietechnik GmbH, Germany) with a 16/8 h (light/dark) photoperiod at 22/18 °C, 40/70% relative humidity, and 70/0 mmol m-2 s-1 light intensity. The Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 culture was grown overnight in 10 ml of Kings B solution supplemented with antibiotics rifampicin (50 μg ml−1) and kanamycin (25 μg ml−1). Overnight culture was washed once in 10 mM MgCl2 and final cell densities were adjusted to approximately 0.20 at 600 nm (approximately 1.5 × 108 cfu ml−1) in 10 mM MgCl2. Plants were mock-challenged with 10 mM MgCl2 or inoculated with DC3000 strain, 3-4 leaves were infiltrated on the abaxial surface with a needleless 1-ml syringe.Whole rosettes were cut at the hypocotyls and harvested from Pseudomonas infested and mock-infected plants after 72 hours treatment. 4 biological replicates were prepared from each treatment, each containing rosettes from 15 individual plants. Differences in transcriptional responses were measured by comparing genes expression of Pseudomonas infected plants against mock-infected control plants.
Project description:Plants and pathogens are entangled in a continual arms race. The plants are evolved to have a dynamic defense and immune mechanisms to resist the infection and enhance the immunity for the second wave attacks from the same or different type of pathogenic species. Not only in the evolutionally or physiologically, the plant-pathogen interaction is also highly dynamic in the molecular level. Recently, the emerging quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach, data-independent acquisition (DIA), was developed for the analysis of proteome in a high throughput fashion. In this study, the DIA approach was applied to quantitatively trace the change of the plant proteome from the early to late stage of pathogenesis progression. This study revealed that the early stage of the pathogenesis response, the proteins directly related to the chaperon for the defense proteins. In the later stage, not only the defense proteins but also a set of the pathogen associate molecular pattern triggered immunity (PTI), effector triggered immunity (ETI) related proteins were highly induced. Our finding showed the dynamics of the regulation in protein level and demonstrated that the potential of using DIA approach for tracing the dynamics of the plant proteome during pathogenesis responses.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (WT) comparing Mg chloride infiltration (C) and Pseu infection (Pseu). The differences in the biochemical responses to bacterial infection seen when compared to the control sample prompted us to search for less obvious differences between the treatments using gene expression profiling. Two-condition experiment, MgCl2 vs. Pseu Arabidopsis leaves of WT plants. Biological replicates: 4 biological replicates.
Project description:Pathogens target phytohormone signalling pathways to promote disease. Plants deploy salicylic acid (SA) mediated defences against biotrophs. Pathogens antagonise SA immunity by activating jasmonate signalling, e.g. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces coronatine (COR), a jasmonate (JA) mimic. This study found unexpected dynamics between SA, JA and COR and co-operation between JAZ jasmonate repressor proteins during DC3000 infection. JA did not accumulate until late in the infection process and was higher in leaves challenged with coronatine deficient P. syringae or in the more resistant JA receptor mutant coi1. JAZ regulation was complex and coronatine alone was insufficient to sustainably induce JAZs. RNA was extracted from leaves of wild type Col-0 or the jaz5/10 mutant plants from leaves 6, 8, 12 or 16 hours after challenged with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.