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Gene expression in C57BL/6 mouse lungs after exposure to aerosolized NTHi lysate

ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is a serious problem worldwide. We recently demonstrated that innate defense mechanisms of the lung are highly inducible against pneumococcal pneumonia. To determine the breadth of protection conferred by stimulation of lung mucosal innate immunity, and to identify cells and signaling pathways activated by this treatment, mice were treated with an aerosolized bacterial lysate, then challenged with lethal doses of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Mice were highly protected against a broad array of Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and Class A bioterror bacterial pathogens, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Protection was associated with rapid pathogen killing within the lungs, and this effect was recapitulated in vitro using a respiratory epithelial cell line. Gene expression analysis of lung tissue showed marked activation of NF-kappaB, Type I and II interferon, and antifungal Card9-Bcl10-Malt1 pathways. Cytokines were the most strongly induced genes, but the inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 were not required for protection. Lung-expressed antimicrobial peptides were also highly upregulated. Taken together, stimulated innate resistance (StIR) appears to occur through the activation of multiple host defense signaling pathways in lung epithelial cells, inducing rapid pathogen killing, and conferring broad protection against virulent bacterial and fungal pathogens. Augmentation of innate antimicrobial defenses of the lungs might have therapeutic value for protection of patients with neutropenia or impaired adaptive immunity against opportunistic pneumonia, and for defense of immunocompetent subjects against a bioterror threat or epidemic respiratory infection. Keywords: differential gene expression; time course; innate immunity; pneumonia; immunocompromised host; lung epithelium Gene expression patterns in mouse lung homogenates were analyzed 2h after exposure to aerosolized PBS (Sham treatment), 2h after exposure to aerosolized NTHi lysate or 4h after exposure to aerosolized NTHi lysate. Each group consisted of six mice.

ORGANISM(S): Mus musculus  

SUBMITTER: Scott Evans   Scott E Evans 

PROVIDER: E-GEOD-13740 | ArrayExpress | 2010-06-24



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Augmented lung inflammation protects against influenza A pneumonia.

Tuvim Michael J MJ   Evans Scott E SE   Clement Cecilia G CG   Dickey Burton F BF   Gilbert Brian E BE  

PloS one 20090112 1

<h4>Background</h4>Influenza pneumonia causes high mortality every year, and pandemic episodes kill millions of people. Influenza-related mortality has been variously ascribed to an ineffective host response that fails to limit viral replication, an excessive host inflammatory response that results in lung injury and impairment of gas exchange, or to bacterial superinfection. We sought to determine whether lung inflammation promoted or impaired host survival in influenza pneumonia.<h4>Methods an  ...[more]

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