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Smoking-dependent Reprogramming of Alveolar Macrophage Polarization: Implication for Pathogenesis of COPD

ABSTRACT: Background: When exposed to specific stimuli, macrophages exhibit distinct activation programs, M1 and M2 polarization, that define macrophage function as inflammatory/immune effectors or anti-inflammatory/tissue remodeling cells, respectively. Due to their position on the lung epithelial surface, alveolar macrophages (AM) directly interact with environmental stimuli such as cigarette smoke, the major risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Based on the current paradigm that, in response to smoking, AM contribute to both inflammatory and tissue remodeling processes in the lung relevant to the pathogenesis of COPD, we hypothesized that chronic exposure to cigarette smoking activates both the M1 and M2 polarization programs in AM. Methods and Findings: To assess this hypothesis, global transcriptional profiling with TaqMan confirmation and flow cytometry analysis was carried out on AM obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of 24 healthy nonsmokers, 34 healthy smokers and 12 smokers with COPD to assess the expression of 41 M1 genes and 32 M2 genes in each group. Contrary to our expectations, while there was up-regulation of some genes typical for M2-related phenotypes, AM of healthy smokers exhibited substantial suppression of M1-related inflammatory/immune genes. These M1- and M2-related changes progressed with the development of smoking-induced lung disease, with AM of smokers with COPD exhibiting further down-regulation of M1-related genes accompanied with further up-regulation of some M2-related genes. Conclusion: The data demonstrates that the modifications of the AM transcriptome associated with smoking result in a unique phenotype characterized by reprogramming of AM towards M1-deactivated partially M2-polarized macrophages and suggests that, while AM likely contribute to smoking-induced tissue remodeling, the role of AM in the early pathogenesis of smoking-induced COPD in humans is not inflammatory. This concept is a departure from the conventional concept that AM-mediated inflammation participates in the early derangements of the lung induced by smoking, and suggests a novel paradigm for conceptualizing COPD and developing new approaches to prevent the development of smoking-induced lung disease. Comparison of gene expression in alveolar macrophages of normal non-smokers and normal smokers and smokers with COPD



ORGANISM(S): Homo sapiens  

DISEASE(S): Copd,Normal

SUBMITTER: Yael Strulovici-Barel   Jacqueline Salit  Anja Krause  Renat Shaykhiev  Timothy P O‚ÄôConnor  Ronald G Crystal  Ben-Gary Harvey 

PROVIDER: E-GEOD-13896 | ArrayExpress | 2009-08-09



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Smoking-dependent reprogramming of alveolar macrophage polarization: implication for pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Shaykhiev Renat R   Krause Anja A   Salit Jacqueline J   Strulovici-Barel Yael Y   Harvey Ben-Gary BG   O'Connor Timothy P TP   Crystal Ronald G RG  

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 20090727 4

When exposed to a specific microenvironment, macrophages acquire either M1- or M2-polarized phenotypes associated with inflammation and tissue remodeling, respectively. Alveolar macrophages (AM) directly interact with environmental stimuli such as cigarette smoke, the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterized by lung inflammation and remodeling. Transcriptional profiling of AM obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of 24 healthy nonsmokers, 34 health  ...[more]

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